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  1. 1. The Eyes Behind the Curtain Jakub Canda Alexandra Nguyen Catherine Pourdavoud Jennifer To
  2. 2. The Genocidal State “Every arm of the country's sophistcated bureaucracy was involved in the killing process. Parish churches and the Interior Ministry supplied birth records showing who was Jewish; the Post Ofce delivered the deportaton and denaturalizaton orders; the Finance Ministry confscated Jewish property; German frms fred Jewish workers and disenfranchised Jewish stockholders; the universites refused to admit Jews, denied degrees to those already studying, and fred Jewish academics; government transport ofces arranged the trains for deportaton to the camps; German pharmaceutcal companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; companies bid for the contracts to build the crematoria; detailed lists of victms were drawn up using the Dehomag (IBM Germany) company's punch card machines, producing metculous records of the killings. As prisoners entered the death camps, they were made to surrender all personal property, which was carefully catalogued and tagged before being sent to Germany to be reused or recycled. Berenbaum writes that the Final Soluton of the Jewish queston was "in the eyes of the perpetrators … Germany's greatest achievement." Michael Berenbaum
  3. 3. "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly insttuton or professional associaton in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews." Saul Friedlander
  4. 4. BEGINNING?
  5. 5. 1933
  6. 6. 1935
  8. 8. 1938
  10. 10. Collaborators ing The Beginn Vienna, 1938 Ant-Sem itsm st is our greate 19 35, “ The Jew w!” are of the Je enemy; bew
  11. 11. Collaborators The Local Police “The Lithuanian army is spread out in the street; soldiers push, people drag along, everyone is electrifed, irritated, exhausted… and weeping.” –Herman Kruk, The ly Last Days of the Jerusalem of to actve the choice Lithuania: Chronicles from the M aking oppress Vilna Gheto and the Camps, 1939-1944 “That was when I began to hate them, and my hatred remains our only link today. They were our frst oppressors. They were the frst faces of hell and death.”- Elie Wiesel, Night
  12. 12. Collaborators Not merely “watching” on the sidelines Laughing, Spitng, Throwing Rocks de, No v. 1939 Germany Para Holocaust Survivor Account: Esther Meisler arch 1938 Vienna, M
  13. 13. Collaborators Even the children! st, Schindler’s Li Polish girl in eto f Jews to Gh Evacuaton o Inbred ant-Semitsm, fear, and hate 149 Maus, pg.
  14. 14. Collaborators Bribery Maus, pg. 89 How much is a human life worth? Dana Schwartz, Holocaust Survivor Story
  15. 15. Collaborators The line becomes “fuzzy” Architecture of Mobile Gas Van concentraton camps Producton and gas chambers The questonable: To blame or not? Zyklon B Manufacture (Degesch, Degussa, IG Farbin, Testa)
  16. 16. They were neither collaborators nor resistors
  17. 17. Reasons to what led them to be who they are Dana Schwartz
  18. 18. “They simply didn’t care” “Behind The Curtains” “Looking the other way”
  19. 19. Helping the Jews • Share informaton • Provide resources (food, shelter, etc…) • Smuggle Jews out of the ghetos • Hide Jews • Help Jewish partsans
  20. 20. ..But the Risks! • Confscaton of all possessions • Sent to concentraton camps • Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe: Death Penalty
  21. 21. So Why Help? • Bribery • Ant-Nazi • Moral reasons • Protectng citzens • Connectons/relatonships
  22. 22. Everyday Heroes • The “Righteous Gentles”
  23. 23. Works Cited Bar-On, Dan. The Bystander in Relaton to the Victm an the Perpetrator: Today and During the Holocaust. Rep. Vol. 14. Social Justce Research, 2001. Print. Hondius, Dienke. Bystander Memories Explored: Dutch Gentle Eyewitness Narratves on the Deportaton of the Jews. Rep. no. 1571-5493. Vol. 6. New York: Springer, 2007. Print. Kruk, Herman. "The Last Days of the Jerusalem O Lithuania: Chronicles from the Vilna Gheto." German 59: The Holocauast in Film and Literature. 59-135. Print. Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Orion, 1958. Print. Sachs, Nelly. "You Onlookers." German 59: The Holocaust in Film and Literature. 53-53. Print. Schindler's List. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Amblin Entertainment, 1993. DVD. Schwartz, Dana. "Holocaust Survivor." Holocaust Survivor Day. UCLA, Los Angeles. 25 Feb. 2010. Speech. Shoah. Dir. Claude Lanzmann. 1985. DVD. Simaite, Ona. "Leters from a LIbrarian: Lost and Found in Vilna." German 59: The Holocaust In Film and Literature. 137-52. Print. Spiegelman, Art. "Maus." Comic Strip. Apex Noveltes and Pantheon, 1973. 1-156. Print. "Testmony Excerpts - Bystander and Two Survivors." Interview. Youtube. Yale University, 9 Oct. 2009. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. <htp://>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. <htp://>. Wiesel, Elie. Night. Argentna: Mark Turkov, 1955. Print.