Leadership & its   Theories By: Hassan Mehmood
Definitions• Leadership- the process of influencing others• Leaders inspire thru personal  trustworthiness & self-confiden...
What are the 3 primary tasks of a            leader?• Set direction: mission, goals, vision• Build commitment: motivate & ...
Leadership• All people have untapped leadership  potential …it is there in you.• The attempt defines leadership…it does no...
Differences b/w leadership &             management• Leadership              • Management• based on influence      • based...
Comparison of Authoritarian,            Democratic, & Laissez-Faire                        Authoritar Democrat.   Laissez-...
What are the key differences in   the 3 leadership styles?• Democratic leader moves the group toward  its goals• Autocrati...
Behaviors of an Effective Leader•   Think critically•   Solve problems•   Respect people•   Communicate skillfully•   Set ...
Theories•   Trait Approach         • Leader Member•   Skills Approach          Exchange•   Style Approach         • Transf...
Contingency Theory• This is a leader match theory because it tries to  match leaders to appropriate situations• A leader’s...
Contingency Theory• Leadership styles are either task motivated or  relationship motivated• Situations have three factors:...
LPC Scale• Used to measure a person’s leadership style• For example, it measures your style by having  you describe a cowo...
Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)                     ScalePleasant        8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1   UnpleasantFriendly...
Scoring• Your final score is the total of the numbers you  circled on the 18 scales57 or less = Low LPC (task motivated)58...
Contingency Theory• How it worksBy measuring a leader’s LPC score and three   situational variables, one can predict wheth...
Contingency TheoryPros• Empirical research supports this theory• Includes the impact of situations on leaders• This theory...
Contingency TheoryCons• Fails to fully explain why people with certain  leadership styles are more effective in situations...
Path –Goal Theory
Path-Goal Theory• Path Goal theory is about how leaders motivate  subordinates to accomplish designated goals• The stated ...
Path-Goal Theory
Path-Goal TheoryLeadership Behaviors• Directive leadership – leader gives instructions,  expectations, time lines, and per...
Path-Goal TheorySubordinate Characteristics• Need for affiliation- prefer supportive  leadership• Preferences for structur...
Path-Goal TheoryPros• Helps understand how leader behavior  effects subordinates satisfaction and work  performance• Deals...
Path-Goal TheoryCons• This is a very complex theory that incorporates  many aspects of leadership• Research only partially...
ReferencesNorthouse, P.G. (2007) Leadership Theory and Practice. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA.
Contingency pathgoaltheories
Contingency pathgoaltheories
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Contingency pathgoaltheories

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Leadership & its Theories by Hassan Mahmood

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Contingency pathgoaltheories

  1. 1. Leadership & its Theories By: Hassan Mehmood
  2. 2. Definitions• Leadership- the process of influencing others• Leaders inspire thru personal trustworthiness & self-confidence• Leaders communicate a vision that turns self-interest into commitment to the job
  3. 3. What are the 3 primary tasks of a leader?• Set direction: mission, goals, vision• Build commitment: motivate & inspire• Confront challenges: innovation, deal with change, turbulence, take risks
  4. 4. Leadership• All people have untapped leadership potential …it is there in you.• The attempt defines leadership…it does not have to be successful• To be a leader you must make a decision to act
  5. 5. Differences b/w leadership & management• Leadership • Management• based on influence • based on authority• an informal • a formally designated designation position• an achieved position • an assigned position• part of every nurse’s • improved by use of role effective leadership• independent of skills management
  6. 6. Comparison of Authoritarian, Democratic, & Laissez-Faire Authoritar Democrat. Laissez-FDegree offreedom Little Moderate MuchDegree of control High Moderate NoneDecsision making By leader Leader& Group or group no oneLeader activity level High High MinimalAssumption ofResponsibility Leader Shared AbdicatedOutput of group High& High & Variable- good qual. creative Poor?
  7. 7. What are the key differences in the 3 leadership styles?• Democratic leader moves the group toward its goals• Autocratic leader moves the group toward the leader’s goals• Laissez-faire leader makes no attempt to move the group
  8. 8. Behaviors of an Effective Leader• Think critically• Solve problems• Respect people• Communicate skillfully• Set goals, share a vision• Develop self & others
  9. 9. Theories• Trait Approach • Leader Member• Skills Approach Exchange• Style Approach • Transformational• Situational Approach • Transactional• Contingency Theory • Team Leadership• Path-Goal Theory
  10. 10. Contingency Theory• This is a leader match theory because it tries to match leaders to appropriate situations• A leader’s effectiveness depends on how well the leader’s style fits the context• The theory was developed by studying the styles of leaders in situations and whether they were effective (primarily in military organizations)• Concerned with styles and situations
  11. 11. Contingency Theory• Leadership styles are either task motivated or relationship motivated• Situations have three factors: leader-member relations, task structure and position power
  12. 12. LPC Scale• Used to measure a person’s leadership style• For example, it measures your style by having you describe a coworker with whom you had difficulty completing a job. (not necessarily someone you dislike, but someone with whom you least like to work with)• After you choose this person, the LPC instrument asks you to describe your coworker on 18 sets of adjectives
  13. 13. Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) ScalePleasant 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 UnpleasantFriendly 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 UnfriendlyRejecting 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 AcceptingTense 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 RelaxedCold 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 WarmSupportive 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 HostileBoring 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 InterestingQuarrelsome 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 HarmoniousGloomy 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CheerfulOpen 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ClosedBackbiting 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 LoyalUntrustworthy 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TrustworthyConsiderate 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 InconsiderateNasty 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 NiceAgreeable 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 DisagreeableInsincere 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 SincereKind 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Unkind
  14. 14. Scoring• Your final score is the total of the numbers you circled on the 18 scales57 or less = Low LPC (task motivated)58-63 = Middle LPC (socio-independent leaders, self directed and not overly concerned with the task or with how others view them)64 or above = High LPC (motivated by relationships)
  15. 15. Contingency Theory• How it worksBy measuring a leader’s LPC score and three situational variables, one can predict whether the leader is going to be successful in a particular setting.It is important to note that contingency theory stresses that leaders are NOT successful in all situations.
  16. 16. Contingency TheoryPros• Empirical research supports this theory• Includes the impact of situations on leaders• This theory is predictive and therefore provides useful information about the type of leadership that is most likely to be successful in a specific context• Does not require people to be successful in all situations (perfection is not required)• Data from this theory could be useful to organizations in developing leadership profiles
  17. 17. Contingency TheoryCons• Fails to fully explain why people with certain leadership styles are more effective in situations than others• Questions regarding the LPC scale have been made because it does not correlate well with other standard leadership measures.• LPC instructions are not clear – leaders are unsure how to choose a least preferred coworker• Also fails to explain what to do when there is a mismatch between the leader and the situation in the workplace
  18. 18. Path –Goal Theory
  19. 19. Path-Goal Theory• Path Goal theory is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals• The stated goal of leadership is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation• Emphasizes the relationship between the leader’s style and characteristics of the subordinates and the work setting• The leader must use a style that best meets the subordinates motivational needs
  20. 20. Path-Goal Theory
  21. 21. Path-Goal TheoryLeadership Behaviors• Directive leadership – leader gives instructions, expectations, time lines, and performance standards• Supportive Leadership- leader is friendly and approachable, attends to the well being of subordinates, and treats everyone as equals• Participative Leadership- leader invites subordinates to give ideas, share opinions and integrates their suggestions into the decision making process• Achievement-Oriented Leadership- leader challenges subordinates to perform at the highest level possible. Leader has high standards of excellence and seeks continuous improvement.
  22. 22. Path-Goal TheorySubordinate Characteristics• Need for affiliation- prefer supportive leadership• Preferences for structure – prefer directive leadership• Desires of control- prefer participative leadership• Self-perceived level of task ability- prefer achievement orientated leadership
  23. 23. Path-Goal TheoryPros• Helps understand how leader behavior effects subordinates satisfaction and work performance• Deals directly with motivation – one of the only theories to address this• Provides a very practical model – make a clear path and follow it
  24. 24. Path-Goal TheoryCons• This is a very complex theory that incorporates many aspects of leadership• Research only partially supports the theory• Fails to explain adequately the relationship between leader behavior and subordinate motivation• Treats leadership as a one way street, places a majority of the responsibility on the leader
  25. 25. ReferencesNorthouse, P.G. (2007) Leadership Theory and Practice. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA.

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