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INTERMEDIATE AND
LATERAL PLATE
MESODERM
INTERMEDIATE
AND LATERAL
PLATE MESODERM
•Kidneys and ureter
•Testes, epididymis, vas deferens
•Ovaries and fallopian tubes
The intermediate mesoderm will form the urogenital system
•Heart
•Blood vessels
•Blood cells
The Lateral Plate Mesoderm
KIDNEY
• The main functional of the kidney is the nephron
• Kidney development in mammals goes through three stages:
• Pronephric duct- anterior cells of this duct induce mesenchyme around it to form
the pronephros (tubules of the kidney).
• Most of this structure degenerates in mammals (except for the caudal portion is the
Wolffian duct)
• As the pronephric ducts degenerate in the middle portion of the duct, they induce
adjacent mesenchymal cells to make the mesonephros.
• The mesonephros does not persist in humans
KIDNEY
(CONTINUED)
• The part of the kidney that
remains in humans is the
metanephros.
• In the posterior parts of
the intermediate
mesoderm, Metanephric
mesenchyme forms a
branch off the nephric
ducts called the ureteric
buds
• The ureteric buds induce
nephron development in
the surrounding
mesenchyme
SPECIFICATION OF THE INTERMEDIATE
MESODERM
The intermediate mesoderm
interacts with the paraxial
mesoderm such that the paraxial
mesoderm is needed to form
the kidneys.
The interaction probably induces
Pax2, Pax8, and Lim1
transcription factors which will
cause the intermediate
mesoderm to form the kidney
RECIPROCAL INTERACTIONS OF
DEVELOPING KIDNEY TISSUES
• Two types of cell populations come from the intermediate mesenchyme in the
intermediate mesoderm:
• The ureteric bud
• The metanephric mesenchyme
• The ureteric bud gives rise to the nephron
• Both of these cell types interact and induce each other to form the kidney:
• The metanephric mesenchyme induces to ureteric bud to branch
• The branch tips induce the mesenchyme to form the renal tubules and glomerulus.
Part of the mesenchymal cells become the nephron
MECHANISMS OF RECIPROCAL
INDUCTION
• Step 1: Formation of metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud- these
are both similar tissues in their formation. They both come about using
Wnt and FGF signaling.
• The ureteric bud is exposed to Wnt for a short period of time.
• It is also exposed to FGF and Retinoic acid (RA) for a longer time
• The opposite is the case for metanephric mesenchyme
• Step 2: Metanephric mesenchyme induces outgrowth of the ureteric
bud. Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GNDF) is secreted from the
metanephric mesenchyme. This causes the outgrowth.
CONTINUED
• Step 3: The ureteric bud prevents mesenchymal apoptosis- The ureteric bud
secretes FGF2, FGF9, and BMP7. These transcription factors prevent the
metanephric mesenchyme from undergoing apoptosis (cell suicide)
• Step 4: The metanephric mesenchyme induces branching of the ureteric
bud: GDNF and Wnt from the mesenchyme probably direct the branching
of the ureteric bud.
• Step 5: Wnt signals convert the aggregated mesenchyme cells into a
nephron
• Step 6: Inserting the ureter into the bladder: The ureteric bud grows towards
the bladder through an ephrin-mediated pathway
LATERAL PLATE MESODERM
• The lateral plate mesoderm splits into two layers:
• The dorsal layer, which is closer to the ectoderm is referred to as the somatic
(parietal) mesoderm
• The ventral layer is referred to as the splanchnic (visceral) mesoderm
• The space between these two layers is the coelom, which will become
the body cavity
• The left and right coeloms fuse and will become the pleural, paracardial,
and peritoneal cavities (lungs, heart, abdomen)
HEART
DEVELOPMENT
• The heart arises from both the left
and right splanchnic mesoderm
• Early on, progenitor cells are on
each side of the epiblast
• These cells will migrate through the
primitive streak and these groups of
cells will end up on the lateral plate
mesoderm (they make tubes).
• As the lateral plate mesoderm come
together these two regions will
merge to become the heart tube
CONTINUED
• The heart tube will give
rise to the left and right
ventricles.
• However, the right
ventricle will still need
some contribution from
the second heart field
• There are progenitors in a
second heart field that
will contribute to the right
ventricle and both atria.
SPECIFICATION OF
CARDIOGENIC MESODERM
• BMP promotes heart and blood development
• However, where the heart forms matters
• There are regions of the embryo producing
Noggin, which will block BMP
• Noggin is blocked in the region where the heart
will grow
• BMP is for both heart and blood development
• How do we know which one BMP will contribute
to?
• It depends on Wnt concentrations
• When Wnt is blocked (in the anterior portion),
those cells will form cardiogenic mesoderm
• When Wnt is not blocked, it will form
hemangiogenic mesoderm (blood)
LOOPING OF
THE HEART
• In the four-week-old embryo,
the heart is just a two
chambered tube (1 atrium, 1
ventricle)
• The heart will fold up on itself
in a right-ward direction.
• While its still a two-chambered
heart, it starts to resemble an
adult heart.
• After this, a septum will form in
both the atria and ventricles.

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BIO420 Chapter 18

  • 2. INTERMEDIATE AND LATERAL PLATE MESODERM •Kidneys and ureter •Testes, epididymis, vas deferens •Ovaries and fallopian tubes The intermediate mesoderm will form the urogenital system •Heart •Blood vessels •Blood cells The Lateral Plate Mesoderm
  • 3.
  • 4. KIDNEY • The main functional of the kidney is the nephron • Kidney development in mammals goes through three stages: • Pronephric duct- anterior cells of this duct induce mesenchyme around it to form the pronephros (tubules of the kidney). • Most of this structure degenerates in mammals (except for the caudal portion is the Wolffian duct) • As the pronephric ducts degenerate in the middle portion of the duct, they induce adjacent mesenchymal cells to make the mesonephros. • The mesonephros does not persist in humans
  • 5.
  • 6. KIDNEY (CONTINUED) • The part of the kidney that remains in humans is the metanephros. • In the posterior parts of the intermediate mesoderm, Metanephric mesenchyme forms a branch off the nephric ducts called the ureteric buds • The ureteric buds induce nephron development in the surrounding mesenchyme
  • 7. SPECIFICATION OF THE INTERMEDIATE MESODERM The intermediate mesoderm interacts with the paraxial mesoderm such that the paraxial mesoderm is needed to form the kidneys. The interaction probably induces Pax2, Pax8, and Lim1 transcription factors which will cause the intermediate mesoderm to form the kidney
  • 8. RECIPROCAL INTERACTIONS OF DEVELOPING KIDNEY TISSUES • Two types of cell populations come from the intermediate mesenchyme in the intermediate mesoderm: • The ureteric bud • The metanephric mesenchyme • The ureteric bud gives rise to the nephron • Both of these cell types interact and induce each other to form the kidney: • The metanephric mesenchyme induces to ureteric bud to branch • The branch tips induce the mesenchyme to form the renal tubules and glomerulus. Part of the mesenchymal cells become the nephron
  • 9. MECHANISMS OF RECIPROCAL INDUCTION • Step 1: Formation of metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud- these are both similar tissues in their formation. They both come about using Wnt and FGF signaling. • The ureteric bud is exposed to Wnt for a short period of time. • It is also exposed to FGF and Retinoic acid (RA) for a longer time • The opposite is the case for metanephric mesenchyme • Step 2: Metanephric mesenchyme induces outgrowth of the ureteric bud. Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GNDF) is secreted from the metanephric mesenchyme. This causes the outgrowth.
  • 10. CONTINUED • Step 3: The ureteric bud prevents mesenchymal apoptosis- The ureteric bud secretes FGF2, FGF9, and BMP7. These transcription factors prevent the metanephric mesenchyme from undergoing apoptosis (cell suicide) • Step 4: The metanephric mesenchyme induces branching of the ureteric bud: GDNF and Wnt from the mesenchyme probably direct the branching of the ureteric bud. • Step 5: Wnt signals convert the aggregated mesenchyme cells into a nephron • Step 6: Inserting the ureter into the bladder: The ureteric bud grows towards the bladder through an ephrin-mediated pathway
  • 11. LATERAL PLATE MESODERM • The lateral plate mesoderm splits into two layers: • The dorsal layer, which is closer to the ectoderm is referred to as the somatic (parietal) mesoderm • The ventral layer is referred to as the splanchnic (visceral) mesoderm • The space between these two layers is the coelom, which will become the body cavity • The left and right coeloms fuse and will become the pleural, paracardial, and peritoneal cavities (lungs, heart, abdomen)
  • 12. HEART DEVELOPMENT • The heart arises from both the left and right splanchnic mesoderm • Early on, progenitor cells are on each side of the epiblast • These cells will migrate through the primitive streak and these groups of cells will end up on the lateral plate mesoderm (they make tubes). • As the lateral plate mesoderm come together these two regions will merge to become the heart tube
  • 13. CONTINUED • The heart tube will give rise to the left and right ventricles. • However, the right ventricle will still need some contribution from the second heart field • There are progenitors in a second heart field that will contribute to the right ventricle and both atria.
  • 14. SPECIFICATION OF CARDIOGENIC MESODERM • BMP promotes heart and blood development • However, where the heart forms matters • There are regions of the embryo producing Noggin, which will block BMP • Noggin is blocked in the region where the heart will grow • BMP is for both heart and blood development • How do we know which one BMP will contribute to? • It depends on Wnt concentrations • When Wnt is blocked (in the anterior portion), those cells will form cardiogenic mesoderm • When Wnt is not blocked, it will form hemangiogenic mesoderm (blood)
  • 15. LOOPING OF THE HEART • In the four-week-old embryo, the heart is just a two chambered tube (1 atrium, 1 ventricle) • The heart will fold up on itself in a right-ward direction. • While its still a two-chambered heart, it starts to resemble an adult heart. • After this, a septum will form in both the atria and ventricles.