Integration, Inclusion, and    Support of Positive Outcomes                                           Chapter 2This multim...
Topics• Integration into the larger society• Normalization and deinstitutionalization• Self-determination, universal desig...
Integration Into the  Larger Society• Philosophical and Historical Roots   Normalization       •   Positives and negative...
Inclusion In Schools• Full Inclusion     All students with disabilities attend general      education classrooms in their...
Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)•   Arguments for Inclusion       Labeling people may be harmful       Special education pu...
Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Arguments Against Inclusion     Educators and parents are largely satisfied with      the ...
Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Differentiated Instruction• Prereferral Teams (PRTs)   Groups of professionals who work wi...
Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Models of Collaboration   Collaborative consultation   Cooperative teaching and other tea...
Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Models of Collaboration (cont’d)   Accommodations and adaptations      •   Modifications  ...
Assessments of Progress• Progress Monitoring• Outcome Measures• Testing Accommodations• The Context of NCLB             Co...
Early Intervention•       Arguments For Early Intervention         The sooner intervention begins, the further a         ...
Early Intervention (cont’d)• Child-directed vs. Adult-directed Programs• Inclusive Education    Most preschoolers with di...
Reasons for Increase in    Disabilities• Children living in poverty, poor nutrition• Babies born to teenage mothers• Babie...
Transition to Adulthood and Employment• Transition services include:    Outcome-oriented activities that promote     move...
Suggested Curriculum for Career              Development at Various Grade LevelsFig. 2.1Source: Brolin, D. E.,& Loyd, R. J...
Transition to Adulthood and  Employment (cont’d)• Making Transition Fit Level of Need     Low-incidence disabilities    ...
Transition in Relation to Standards,             Opportunities, and Multiple DomainsFig. 2.2Source: Greene, G., &Kochhar-B...
Discipline of Students with  Disabilities• Controversy over “zero tolerance”• Supports for desired behavior      Manifest...
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    1. 1. Integration, Inclusion, and Support of Positive Outcomes Chapter 2This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: •any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; •preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; •any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    2. 2. Topics• Integration into the larger society• Normalization and deinstitutionalization• Self-determination, universal design, and new technologies• Integration into schools• Arguments for and against full inclusion• Collaboration and response to intervention• Participation in assessments• Early intervention and transition• Discipline of students with disabilities• Concluding thoughts on trends and issues Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    3. 3. Integration Into the Larger Society• Philosophical and Historical Roots  Normalization • Positives and negatives • How far should it be taken?  Deinstitutionalization • Community-based services • Problems solved by deinstitutionalization  Self-determination  Universal design and UDL  Use of new technologies Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    4. 4. Inclusion In Schools• Full Inclusion  All students with disabilities attend general education classrooms in their neighborhood schools for the entire day and general education teachers have the primary responsibility for all students with disabilities  Least restrictive environment  Continuum of alternative placements (CAP) Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    5. 5. Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Arguments for Inclusion  Labeling people may be harmful  Special education pull-out programs have been ineffective  People with disabilities should be viewed as a minority group • Disability rights movement • Handicapism  Ethics are more important than empirical evidence Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    6. 6. Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Arguments Against Inclusion  Educators and parents are largely satisfied with the continuum of placements  General educators are unable or unwilling to teach students with disabilities  Unwillingness to consider empirical evidence is professionally irresponsible  Available empirical evidence does not support full inclusion  In the absence of data supporting full inclusion, the continuum should be preserved Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    7. 7. Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Differentiated Instruction• Prereferral Teams (PRTs)  Groups of professionals who work with general education teachers to help identify alternative strategies for students before a referral for special education evaluation is made• Response to Intervention (RTI)  Usually provides for three standardized levels of intervention for students having problems, with closely monitored progress before a referral is made Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    8. 8. Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Models of Collaboration  Collaborative consultation  Cooperative teaching and other team arrangements  Curricula and instructional strategies • Cooperative learning • Peer-mediated instruction • Peer tutoring • Peer confederates • Partial participation Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    9. 9. Inclusion In Schools (cont’d)• Models of Collaboration (cont’d)  Accommodations and adaptations • Modifications • Accommodations • Adaptations • Tiered assignments  Training general education teachers to accommodate diversity Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    10. 10. Assessments of Progress• Progress Monitoring• Outcome Measures• Testing Accommodations• The Context of NCLB Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    11. 11. Early Intervention• Arguments For Early Intervention  The sooner intervention begins, the further a child is likely to progress  Early support may prevent or reduce development of further disabilities  Early intervention can help families cope and get needed services• Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)• Home-based Programs Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    12. 12. Early Intervention (cont’d)• Child-directed vs. Adult-directed Programs• Inclusive Education  Most preschoolers with disabilities receive their education in programs designed to serve diverse groups of learners Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    13. 13. Reasons for Increase in Disabilities• Children living in poverty, poor nutrition• Babies born to teenage mothers• Babies born to mothers with poor prenatal care, nutrition• Babies born with low birth weight• Environmental hazards• Children subjected to abuse• Cuts in social programs and services Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    14. 14. Transition to Adulthood and Employment• Transition services include:  Outcome-oriented activities that promote movement from school to postsecondary education  Vocational training  Integrated employment  Continuing adult education  Adult services  Independent living  Community participation Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    15. 15. Suggested Curriculum for Career Development at Various Grade LevelsFig. 2.1Source: Brolin, D. E.,& Loyd, R. J. (2004).Career developmentand transitionservices: A functionallife-skills approach(4th ed., p. 430).Upper Saddle River,NJ: Prentice Hall.Reprinted withpermission. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    16. 16. Transition to Adulthood and Employment (cont’d)• Making Transition Fit Level of Need  Low-incidence disabilities  High-incidence disabilities Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    17. 17. Transition in Relation to Standards, Opportunities, and Multiple DomainsFig. 2.2Source: Greene, G., &Kochhar-Bryant, C. A.(2003). Pathways tosuccessful transition foryouth with disabilities (p.447). Upper SaddleRiver, NJ: Prentice Hall.Reprinted withpermission. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
    18. 18. Discipline of Students with Disabilities• Controversy over “zero tolerance”• Supports for desired behavior  Manifestation determination  Positive behavioral intervention plans  Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)  Positive behavioral supports (PBS)  Positive behavioral intervention and support (PBIS)  Interim alternative educational setting (IAES) Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

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