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Prof Osamu Tajima


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Prof Osamu Tajima

  1. 1. ,HFKE . ) R .)I D (FIDA .E C AFE 7N P E 4 O IE A NEO 424 /P PNO -OD ,
  3. 3. CMB is remnant of Big Bang’s thermal radiation ! 10-36 sec Begin of the Universe CMBfirst star Today Big Bang ó High-r & High-T Dark age 13.8 billion years 380,000 years First star Structure formation CMB 3 Age of the Universe
  4. 4. CMB today – Still super hot ?? Expansion of the universe also expands CMB wavelength Thermal radiation = Electromagnetic waves 10-36 secAge of the UniverseToday Big Bang 4 CMB today is ultra cold radiations of 2.7 K ó Faint mm wave. Therefore, we need superconducting detectors
  5. 5. See sky in millimeter wave range ! 5 Credit: M. Hasegawa
  6. 6. Temperature anisotropy, i.e., unpolarized fluctuation WMAP Planck SPT and ACT (Big ground telescope) Energy Budget in the Universe 6 0.001% level of average intensity (2.7 K) Frontier in the last two decades Fourier space
  7. 7. Now, CMB frontiers are polarization patterns ! E-modes Even-parity patterns B-modes Odd-parity patterns >2˚ patterns are evidence for cosmic inflation ! 7
  8. 8. Dark age First star Inflation – Frontier of Cosmology Inflation Begin of the universe CMBToday Big Bang (high-r, high-T) Recombination Accelerated expansion of space-time metric, ds2 = dt2 – a(t)dx2 Pilot spark 10-36 sec Age of Universe 13.8 billion years 380,000 years Dark age Structure formation anytime, anywhere in the Universe Primordial gravitational waves have been presented 8 Origin of Big Bang ?! CMB, remnant of Big Bang radiation
  9. 9. Inflation Recombination Begin of the Universe Reionization CMBFirst starToday Observation of B-modes Dark age Big-Bang 11 >2˚ Lensing B-modes Benefits of ``LOOK’’ degreedegree Characterization in Fourier space Proof of PGW, ``Anytime’’ & ``Anywhere’’ ! Primordial B-modes >20˚
  10. 10. 12 Gravitational lens makes rotation of polarization-axis I don’t cover this topic, today.
  11. 11. 13 Gravitational lens makes another B-modes in O(0.1˚) scale I don’t cover this topic, today. E-modes Lensing B-modes at sub-deg. scale Recombination era, 380,000 years Observation, today
  12. 12. I HL AFE F DF I AI AE GHF?H II BICEP1,2,3 & Keck Array at South pole SPTpol/3G at South pole POLARBEAR at Chile ACTpol at Chile )
  13. 13. DF I F N Credit: Yuji Chinone (UCB) Significant progress in last 4 years ! Detection of lensing-B Stringent constraint for primordial-B 2˚ 0.2˚20˚Angular scale
  14. 14. , ADI F F KDGI F GHADFH A C DF I 2˚ 0.2˚20˚Angular scale Majority of ground-based Future satellites GB ,
  15. 15. L HLA M F , CMB (FOV ~ 20 , θ ~ 0.6 ) Cross-dragon Mirror at 4K Elevation: 60 deg. 1.4m Rotation stage (through He gas) 250mK Focal plane Super high-speed scan modulation, 20 RPM (ó120˚/s), to mitigate effects of atmospheric fluctuation See J. Low Temp. Phys. 176, 691 (2014), and Proc. SPIE 8452, 84521M (2012). 19
  16. 16. GB makes satellite’s scan However, super high-speed ! Earth rotation fsky ≈ 0.5/telescope Observation range Troidal coverage w/ single rotation 20 > Current ground-based x10
  17. 17. All-sky survey from the Ground Observation at Northern hemisphere (2018 – ) Teide observatory at Tenerife, 28˚N Observation at Southern hemisphere (future option) Atacama, Chile is the target place, 23˚S Our ambition is 21
  18. 18. “Mecca” of astronomical observation Fine weather above clouds at 2,400 m altitude Canary island 22
  19. 19. EF H B N KH F , AI .)I HH N )
  20. 20. Principle of KID Kinetic Inductance Detector 25 Equiv. f0 f0 δθ δf Amplitude [dB] 2π 0 L Antenna C Phase [rad] Super- concucting Resonator We monitor very sharp resonance because the resonator material is superconductor. - Length of resonator determines resonant frequency, e.g., L = 4 mm ó f0 = 5 GHz. - CMB signal via the antenna breaks cooper- pairs in the resonator. It varies the kinetic inductance of resonator, i.e. it results in variation of resonant condition. P. K. Day et al., Nature, 425, 6960, pp. 817–821 (2003)
  21. 21. 26 Natural frequency domain multiplex (MUX) readout, i.e., read many number of signal by using single line ! Good scalability ! w/ changing the length of resonators Amplitude [dB] Feed frequency (GHz)
  22. 22. N .)I FH , (Relatively) Fast time response is well matched with GB’s high-speed scan Requirements for sampling rate ó 1/time-response [scan-speed] / [angular resolution] = 120˚ / 0.6˚ = 200 Hz << Sampling rate, 1 kSpS ,
  23. 23. 28 C-FRP pipes Base plate of 4 K shell (Copper) Base plate of 50 K shell (Aluminum)G-FRP (G-10) pipes KIDs on focal plane (0.25 K) Cold mirrors He sorption fridge CMB (FEI HK AFE F (FC G A I Pulse tube cooler
  24. 24. GI F AE ?H AFE . Base plate of 4 K shell (Copper) Base plate of 50 K shell (Aluminum)
  25. 25. GI F AE ?H AFE ( Integration of mirrors, focal plane
  26. 26. GI F AE ?H AFE 4 K shell ( Integration of mirrors, focal plane
  27. 27. GI F AE ?H AFE 50 K shell & top plate at 300K ( 4 K shell
  28. 28. GI F AE ?H AFE (( Multi Layer Insulation covers shells 50 layers
  29. 29. ()
  30. 30. F C GC E IKGGFH I HK KH ( CMB Temperature of mirrors ~ 4 K (3.7 K is achieved) Focal plane should be 0.25 K Thermal isolation & mechanical strength are required
  31. 31. ( 4-K aluminum frame 350-mK stage for filters 250-mK stage for MKIDs Kevlar string spring F C GC E IKGGFH I HK KH
  32. 32. I I FH D EA C I H E? x 3 (, Kevlar string spring
  33. 33. < 0.01 mm / 7.9 kg (target requirement <0.1 mm) Iron block (- I I FH D EA C I H E?
  34. 34. Cooling with liquid nitrogen (77 K) Difference is less than 0.01 mm (target requirement 0.1 mm) (. I I FH HD C I H II
  35. 35. .EI CC AFE F F C GC E I HK KH )
  36. 36. .EI CC AFE F F C GC E I HK KH ) 230 mK is achieved
  37. 37. 43 Focal plane Prototype focal plane for single wafer test
  38. 38. -FHE FKGC .)I HH N 220GHz 112 pixels : 220 GHz 330 pixels : 145 GHz 145GHz 145GHz 145GHz 145GHz 145GHz 145GHz 200mm 1 1 Light Corrugated Horn Probe Antenna 44
  39. 39. Corrugated Horn: Design 45 A-A(5:1) 345 A A B 20 1.6 2.47 0.8 0.5 18° 84 Simulation result with HFSS Beam width: 24.4 Cross Pol.: - 40 dB
  40. 40. Direct Machining by three-steps 46 1st step 2nd step 3rd step normal drill taper drill order-made drill Shape of order- made drill
  41. 41. Made by Direct Machining 47 Developed by Satoru Mima an Advanced Manufacturing Support Team in RIKEN Under optimizing parameters towards mass production (photo was taken by Kenji Kiuchi)
  42. 42. Detector design 48
  43. 43. 49 • 55 pixels, i.e. 110 KIDs Feed line Feed line 66 mm Design of 145 GHz KIDs array
  44. 44. 50 180˚ Hybrid selects mode, take TE11 (signal), discard TM01 (cross-talk) Superconducting resonator Feed-line Horn coupled dual-pol. KIDs Cross-over Probe antenna (planner OMT) 1 mm
  45. 45. 180˚-Hybrid (rejection of TM-mode) Planer OMT CPW à MSL Cross-over Simulation for single pixel 51 HFSS/CST Sonnet Sonnet Sonnet S-parameters are linked with ADS Resonator aluminum hybrid Feed-line
  46. 46. S-paras for Horn–OMT coupling by CST 52TE11 (0˚) TE11 (90˚) TM01 Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4 Port 5 Crosstalk mode Pol. signal mode Pol. signal modes J. Choi (IBS, Korea) and S. Oguri (KEK)
  47. 47. Design from R. Knochel and B. Mayer, IEEE MTT-S International, Dallas, TX, 1990, pp. 471-474 vol.1. (90˚) From OMT TE11 & TM01 S-paras for 180˚-Hybrid by Sonnet 53 From OMT TE11 & TM01 To be dumped TM01 To KID TE11 Hybrid discards crosstalk mode, i.e., TM01. (0˚) Good transmittance Low reflection J. Choi (IBS, Korea) and S. Oguri (KEK)
  48. 48. End-to-End simulation results Wideband transmittance for each polarization TE11(0˚) & TE11(90˚) Tiny Crosstalk TE11(0˚) ó TE11(90˚) Tiny crosstalk TM01 à TE11 GB’s band Simulated specification in design stage ( 145 GHz band ) ✔ Band-width > 30% ✔ Cross-talk < 0.01% 54 J. Choi (IBS, Korea) and S. Oguri (KEK)
  49. 49. “Hybrid” fabrication approach 0 marker OMT1 OMT2 3.insulation 4 Wire 2 Al hybrid 5 absorber 6 Cross insulaton 7 Cross Wire 8 Bridge INSULATION 9 Bridge wire 10.menblen MASK BLANK Single feed-line , i.e., full-array KID resonators coupled with this feed-line Stepper @ NAOJ Fine photorisography (small area) for millimeter-wave circuits Aligner @ RIKEN Full-array photorisography for resonator & feed-line Common alignment markers link them 57 Stepper fabrication Aligner fabrication S. Mima, K. Kiuchi, S. Oguri (RIKEN), R. Koyano (Saitama U)
  50. 50. Good electronics is necessary for large KIDs array 58 Requirement: Read 110 detectors by single cable
  51. 51. GB’s front-end electronics DA/AD interface board ``RHEA’’ - On-board 200 MHz clock - DAC: dual-ch. 14-bit, 200MSpS - ADC: dual-ch. 14-bit, 200MSpS Digital board KCU105 FPGA (Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale) - Logic for Mod./Demod. - Data transfer - Various setting, e.g., fcomb 61 Direct Down Conversion scheme in 200 MHz range w/ dual-ch. No hardware effort to upgrade FPGA families. H. Ishitsuka, et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., (proc. LTD16) Dead-time less readout at 1 kSpS 120 MUX in 200 MHz bandwidth Options - SpS can be set up to 200 MHz - Trigger function
  52. 52. ) DFEI H AFE F FC F S D IKH D E I Cut off caused by finite lifetime of quasiparticle −50 −60 −70 −80 −90 −100 PSD [dBc/Hz] 100 101 102 103 104 105 Frequency [Hz] 62 amplitude Phase Measured by using Al KID at 100 mK J. Suzuki, et. al, proc. LTD17 (in prep.)
  53. 53. for ation y ed A” and information (e.g. roll-off signature around 1kHz) to device. The frequency of the PSD extends up to 5 directly reflects the high-speed sampling of our sy dynamic range of the analog board supports mea from digitization noise. Trigger High sampling measurements small time con cosmic muon h storage and m required for a searching for r ) DFEI H AFE F HA?? H KE AFE 63 Cosmic ray Cosmic ray Not to use for CMB observation. However, it’s useful for other purposes Measured by using Nb/Al KID at 300 mK J. Suzuki, et. al, proc. LTD17 (in prep.)
  54. 54. End-to-end tests prototype detectors, electronics, and cryogenic telescope 64 Online viewer shows detector responses as a function of time in phase and amplitude Telescope aperture Open/Close of aperture is On/Off of inputs J. Suzuki and S. Oguri (KEK)
  55. 55. First pol. light in the lab ! 65 Frequency multiplier Half-wave plate Signal at 150GHz Polarization Half-wave plate X-antennaY-antenna cos2q responses w/ opposite phase !! J. Suzuki and S. Oguri (KEK)
  56. 56. A C I ? AEI , FD ?E A A C I H ADGFH E 66 H. Kutsuma, et. al, proc. LTD17 (in prep.)
  57. 57. Impact of magnetic shield – demonstration with small system 67 w/ shield w/o shield Rotation cycle Geomagnetic fields were picked up Response of KIDs at 250 mK
  58. 58. ( B H CA ACA N F IADKC AFE coilcoil KIDs in cryostat) are superconducting energy hν > 2Δ (Δ : gap a), and changes surface , broader bandwidth (c) (b) Fig6. The result of magnetic field experiment. GroundBIRD rotates at 20 rpm, resulting in 1.5-s period variat aims to detect the CMB B-modes polarization imprinted by the gravitational waves. We employ ectors. We designed magnetic shield for the telescope from experiments and simulations. Case1 Case2 Phase shifts of MKIDs VS mag field Requirement of >40 dB shielding is reasonable Magnetic field [mG] w/ shield w/o shield 68 H. Kutsuma, et. al, proc. LTD17 (in prep.)
  59. 59. ) IA?E F D ?E A I A C I magnetism if 9 sheets of MS-FR are set on d vs ell. Fig10. Maxwell simulation. Over 45 dB suppression is achieved near the focal plane. MKID 0dB 10dB 20dB 30dB 40dB 50dB Fig1. Detection principle of MKIDs. KIDs are very sensitive to magnetic fields. For rotating cryostat, change of netic field direction causes shift of the center frequency of MKIDs. To solve e problems, we designed a shield to reduce the magnetic field at the focal e. ne of the key features of the GroundBIRD scope is the rotational scanning in muth direction at 20 rpm to suppress the eline drift of the detector response caused 1/f atmospheric fluctuation. GroundBIRD Fig2. GroundBIRD and I. Fig4.Magnetic field effect by rotation. Experiment We measured the magnetic field ・Simulation We used high perm very thin ~ 70000). In orde evaluated Fig7. Magnetic field simulation. Fig8. Magnetic shield estimated to be less than 0.01 kHz, power 𝑃3 < 1✕103 eV/s. From 𝑃3 < 𝑃GB, we conclude that a for GroundBIRD. 4 K 40 K 300 frequency g3.Magnetic field effect of MKIDs. Without shield With shield an attenuation of 45 dB for magnetic field MKID > 45dB Attenuation of magnetic field aperture Installed 9 layers thin magnetic shield at each shells at 300 K, 50 K, and 4 K. 69 H. Kutsuma, et. al, proc. LTD17 (in prep.)
  60. 60. N KE Cryostat team, be cool J ) DFEI H AFE F KCC AE ?H INI D . ( 70
  61. 61. • GroundBIRD is CMB telescope. The Cosmic Inflation is main target. • To measure faint B-mode’s signal, KIDs is chosen for high-sensitivity, high-scalability, and super high-speed scan modulation. • Integration & end-to-end tests are on-going. • Shipping to Canary Islands is planed early 2018. Plan to start CMB observation there. 75 KDD HN
  62. 62. GroundBIRD collaborators RIKEN Kenji Kiuchi, Satoru Mima, Shugo Oguri, Chiko Otani Kyoto University Osamu Tajima, KEK Masashi Hazumi, Hikaru Ishituka, Taketo Nagasaki, Junya Suzuki, Tomohisa Uchida, Mitsuhiro Yoshida NAOJ Makoto Nagai, Yutaro Sekimoto Tohoku university Makoto Hattori, Kanno Fumiyasu, Hiroki Kutsuma, Tomoka Okada University of Tokyo Makoto Minowa, Nozomu Tomita Saitama University Ryo Koyano, Masato Naruse, Toru Taino Korea University Kyungmin Lee, Eunil Won IBS Jihoon Choi TU Delft Kenichi Karatstu IAC Rafael Rebolo, José Alberto Rubiño-Martín, Ricardo Tanausú Génova-Santos 76