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Ehgamberdiev 07082017

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Ehgamberdiev

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Ehgamberdiev 07082017

  1. 1. High energy astrophysical objects study at Maidanak observatory in Uzbekistan Sh. Ehgamberdiev Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences
  2. 2. The Historical Background
  3. 3. At the beginning of 11th century center of Islamic science moved to Khorezm (Uzbekistan), where such a world known encyclopaedists as al-Biruni and Ibn Sina (Avicena) worked.
  4. 4. «In 998 AD, two young men living nearly 200 miles apart, in present-day Uzbekistan, entered into a correspondence. With verbal jousting that would not sound out of place in a 21st-century laboratory, they debated 18 questions, several of which resonate strongly even today». «Are there other solar systems out among the stars, they asked, or are we alone in the Universe? In Europe, this question was to remain open for another 500 years, but to these two men it seemed clear that we are not alone». Rediscovering Central Asia, 2009. S. Frederick Starr. Chairman of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute at Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies
  5. 5. Supernova SN1006
  6. 6. SN 1006 This is a composite image of the SN 1006 supernova remnant, which is located about 7000 light years from Earth. Shown here are X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue), optical data from the University of Michigan's 0.9 meter Curtis Schmidt telescope at the NSF's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO; yellow) and the Digitized Sky Survey (orange and light blue), plus radio data from the NRAO's Very Large Array and Green Bank Telescope (VLA/GBT; red).
  7. 7. The Maidanak observatory: astroclimate and geographic location
  8. 8. Monthly fraction of clear nights Ehgamberdiev et al, 2000 Astron.Astrophys.Suppl.Ser., v. 145. p.293.
  9. 9. Bad seeing Acceptable
  10. 10. Seeing conditions at Mt. Maidanak Ehgamberdiev et al, 2000 Astron.Astrophys.Suppl.Ser., v. 145. p.293.
  11. 11. Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  12. 12. The Maidanak observatory: facilities Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  13. 13.  6 telescopes: 1.5m, 1m, 4x60cm  5 CCDs: SI 600 Series 4K, SITe 2000x800, 2x FLI IMG 1K, SBIG ST9-XE 0.5K Direct imaging and photometry (in optic) only, no IR, no Sp. Maidanak: telescopes and instruments
  14. 14. 1.5m instruments SI600 Series 4Kx4K Read noise = 4.67 e- Gain = 1.45 e-/ADU Dark Curr. = 0.001 e-/pix/sec Pixel size =15 mkm Scale = 0.266 (f/7.74) 0.119 (f/17.34) FOV = 18x18 arcmin CryoTiger cooled = -108’ C SITe 2000x800 Read noise = 5.3 e- Gain = 1.16 e-/ADU Dark Current = 1 e-/pix/hr Pixel size = 15 mkm Scale = 0.266 (f/7.74) 0.119 (f/17.34) FOV = 8.5x3.5 arcmin LN2 cooled = -100’ С
  15. 15. Upgrading of the Maidanak’s 1-m telescope
  16. 16. Maidanak: 4 x 0.5-0.6m telescopes
  17. 17. TaiwanAutomated Telescope
  18. 18. Main fields of scientific research at UBAI • Gravitationally lensed systems • AGNs and BL Lac type objects • Gamma-ray burst afterglows • Supper Nova • Open clusters • Various types of variable stars • Asteroseismology • Asteroids: MBA, NEA, young family • Astroclimate • Northern Deep Sky Survey • Astronomical Education • Relativistic Astrophysics of Gravitational Compact Objects (BH & NS)
  19. 19. Timetable for July 2017
  20. 20. Gravitational Lensing Systems The GLS project aimed at precise time delay between GLS components estimation using international collaborative program on photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry of selected gravitational lensing systems. Up to now more or less reasonable Hubble parameter values had been derived just for 24 GLS (about 10% of all the known perspective systems). It is important to mention that 7 of them were observed at Maidanak observatory.
  21. 21. Deconvolution of gravitationaly lensed quasars Animation of MCS deconvolution HE0435-1223 observed at Maidanak observatory Results of Maidanak’s images deconvolution
  22. 22. GLS UM 673
  23. 23. R-band light curves of the A and B images of UM673 from August 2001 to November 2010. For better representation, the light curve of image B is shifted by -1.87 mag. The light curves of reference stars 2 and 3 are shown at the bottom. Time delay between images A and B (image A is leading) and its error appears to be 95 ± 11 days.
  24. 24. GLS H1413+117 (Clover Leaf) R-band CCD frame of the GLS H1413+117 obtained with the Maidanak 1.5-m telescope, on 2003 February 10. The quasar and the reference stars R1, R2 and R3 are labelled. The field angular size is 2.2’x2.2’.
  25. 25. GLS H1413+117(Clover Leaf) In case of GLS when components are very close to each other (dense field) a standard point spread function (PSF) method can not be applied. For such cases a highly performing photometric method called the adaptive PSF fitting was developed by Akhunov et al. (MNRAS 465, 3607–3621, 2017). This method was applied to GLS H1413+117(Clover Leaf), observed at Maidanak observatory during observing seasons between 2001 and 2008.
  26. 26. Zoomed R-band images of the central parts of H1413+117. Left: long-focus mode (pixel size is 0.135”). The seeing is ∼ 0.73” and the image size is 13.5”x13.5”. Right: short-focus mode (pixel size is 0.265”). The seeing is ∼0.66” and the image size is 26.5”x26.5”.
  27. 27. Time delay determinations for GLS H1413+117
  28. 28. Combined light curve of H1413+117. These plots are made from the B, C, D (top) and B, C (bottom) light curves shifted in time and magnitude with respect to the A component.
  29. 29. Hubble Constant from various lens systems Oguri M. Gravitational lens time delays: a statistical assessment of lens model dependences and implications for the global Hubble constant, 2007,ApJ, 660, 1-15 N Lens Name h (1 σ range) 1 B0218+357 0.21 (…) 2 HE 0435-1223 1.02 (0.70–1.39) 3 PXJ 0911+0551 0.96 (0.75–1.21) 4 SBS 0909+532 0.84 (0.47–) 5 FBQ 0951+2635 0.67 (0.56–0.81) 6 Q 0957+561 0.99 (0.82–1.17) 7 HE 1104-1805 1.04 (0.92–1.22) 8 PG 1115+080 0.66 (0.49–0.84) 9 RXJ 1131-1231 0.79 (0.59–1.03) 10 B 1422+231 0.16 (–0.36) 11 SBS 1520+530 0.53 (0.46–0.61) 12 B 1600+434 0.65 (0.54–0.77) 13 B 1608+656 0.89 (0.77–1.20) 14 SDSS J1650+4251 0.53 (0.44–0.63) 15 PKS 1830-211 0.88 (0.58–) 16 HE 2149-2745 0.69 (0.57–0.82) Average 0.70 (0.68–0.73)
  30. 30. Object (reference for data) Wave bands Time delay Reported value (days) 1 Q0142−100 (Koptelova et al. 2012) R ∆t AB 89 ± 11 3 HE 0435−1223 (Courbin et al. 2011; Blackburne et al. 2014) R ∆t AB ∆t AC ∆t AD ∆t BC ∆t BD ∆t CD 8.4 ± 2.1 0.6 ± 2.3 14.9 ± 2.1 −7.8 ± 0.8 6.5 ± 0.7 14.3 ± 0.8 8 SDSS J1001+5027 (Rathna Kumar et al. 2013) R ∆t AB 119.3 ± 3.3 12 PG 1115+080 (Tsvetkova et al. 2010) R ∆t (A1+A2)B ∆t (A1+A2)C ∆t BC 4.4±3.2 −12±2.5 −16.4±3.5 14 SDSS J1206+4332 (Eulaers et al. 2013) R ∆t AB 111.3 ± 3 20 SDSS J1650+4251 (Vuissoz et al. 2007) R ∆t AB 49.5 ± 1.9 24 HS 2209+1914 (Eulaers et al. 2013) R ∆t AB −20.0 ± 5 S. Rathna Kumar, C. S. Stalin, and T. P. Prabhu H0 from ten well-measured time delay lenses (A&A 580, A38, 2015) H0 = 68,1 +-5,9 Km/s Mpc
  31. 31. B L A Z A R S Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  32. 32. According to current vision Blazars are thought to be active galactic nuclei, with relativistic jets oriented close to the line of sight with the Earth. They associated with a supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy. The special jet orientation explains the general peculiar characteristics: high observed luminosity, very rapid variation, high polarization (when compared with non-blazar quasars), and the apparent supperluminal motions detected along the first few parsecs of the jets in most Blazars. Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan What is Blazar ?
  33. 33. For detailed study of observational properties of Blazars it is necessary to assemble optical, near- infrared, millimetre and radio light curves and investigate their features and correlations. In the optical band, the spectroscopic and polarimetric observations can be added. A comparison the low-energy emission behavior with that at high energies can also provide very useful information. Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  34. 34. Whole Earth Blazar Telescope The Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) is an international collaboration of astronomers organized in 1997 for monitoring blazars in the optical, near-infrared, and radio bands. The WEBT network includes about 40 optical telescopes, 3 NIR, 8 radio and the Sub- millimeter Array.
  35. 35. Whole Earth Blazar Telescope UBAI was involved to WEBT collaboration in 2000 and since that they were observed more than 50 Blazars and identified the fast optical brightness of 4 Blazars.
  36. 36. List of Blazars observed at Maidanak in 2017 № Name of objects RA DEC Total observation nights Bands Exposure (sec) Total images 1. BL Lac 22:02:43.3 +42:16:40 134 VRI 90+60 1598 2. CTA102 22:32:36.4 11:43:51.3 122 VRI 180 1470 3. 4C38.41 16:35:15.5 +38 08 04 84 VRI 180 1008 4. 3C 371 18:06:50.7 +69 49 28 61 VRI 180 633 5. 3С454.3 22:53:57.7 +16:08:54 101 VRI 180-120 930 6. MRK 501 16:53:52.2 +39:45:37 52 VRI 180 498 7. 3С 66А 02:22:39.6 +43:02:08 85 VRI 120 765 8. 3C 345 16:42:58.8 +39 48 37 45 VRI 180 385 9. 1ES2344 23:47:04.8 +51:42:18 74 VRI 120-180 666 10. PKS1510 15:12:50.5 -09:06:00 35 VRI 180 315 11. PG 026+129 00:29:13.7 +13:16:04 14 VRI 120 140 12. S5 0716 07:21:53.4 +71 20 36 54 VRI 120 486 13. PKS0420 04:23:15.8 −01:20:33 53 VRI 240 477 14. OJ287 08:54:48.9 +20:06:31 15 VRI 180 152
  37. 37. The 4C 38.41 (1633+382) blazar variability study After years of modest optical activity, the quasar-type blazar 4C 38.41 (1633+382) experienced a big outburst in 2011, which was detected throughout the entire electromagnetic spectrum, renewing the interest in this source (A&A, 2012, V545, 1).
  38. 38. Optical outburst of CTA 102 Blazar in 2016 Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  39. 39. The period of relatively low activity has recently been interrupted by a sudden rise of the source brightness in late 2016, with a jump of 6–7 magnitudes with respect to the minima in the optical and near-infrared bands. The peak of the outburst was observed on December 28, with an R-band magnitude of 10.82 ± 0.04. This event represents the most luminous optical blazar state ever detected. Optical outburst of CTA 102 Blazar in 2016 Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  40. 40. Conclusion (CTA 102) The recent unprecedented optical outburst of CTA 102 blazar supports the picture of an inhomogeneous snaking jet, where photons of different frequencies come from different regions with different and variable viewing angles. This is likely caused by MHD instabilities developing inside the jet, but can also be due to other phenomena, such as jet precession or orbital motion in a binary black hole system (Nature, 2017, in press). Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  41. 41. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) afterglow Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  42. 42. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the Universe. After an initial flash of gamma-rays, a longer-lived "afterglow" is usually emitted at longer wavelengths (X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, microwave and radio). Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  43. 43. GRB follow up collaboration 2001 2003 2005 2006 2005 VT-40/500 (ISON)Shajn, 2.6m Zeiss-2000 AZT-22, 1.5m AZT-33IK, 1.6m
  44. 44. Statistics of observations 2003 - 2017 (red – number of bursts; blue – total net exposure; yellow – number of papers)
  45. 45. Statistics of Maidanak GRB observations 2003-2017 GRB/gamma-ray transients observed – 143 Afterglow/host detected – 73 Publications: In refereed journals – 26 In preparation – 4 Gamma-ray Burst Coordinated Network circulars (GCN) – 101 Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  46. 46. Statistics of Maidanak GRB observations 2003-2017 • Net total exposure per year ~ 22 hours • GRB per year ~ 9 •Mean delay since GRB trigger ~ 6 hours Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  47. 47. GRB 130702A afterglow Monitoring of GRB 130702A afterglow was started with 1.5-m AZT-22 telescope of the Maidanak observatory on July 3, 2013, i.e. one and a half days after the Fermi trigger. Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  48. 48. Modelling of the multicolour light curve of SN 2013dx / GRB 130702A The light curve of GRB 130702A / SN 2013dx consists of ~320 photometric points, 25 of them are obtained by AZT-22 telescope of MAO in filters B and R. Our data together with other published data allowed us to build one of the best-sampled light curves of the SN associated with GRB and to model it numerically with MHD STELLA code (Volnova et al. MNRAS, 2016)
  49. 49. In our model we obtained the pre-supernova star mass M = 25 M⊙ and the mass of the resulting compact remnant MCR = 6 M⊙. Hence, the total mass of the ejecta was Mej = 19 M⊙. The large ejecta mass and the possible presence of clumps of matter around the progenitor (bump in red filters) are consistent with the explosion of a rather massive star and suggest that the progenitor of SN 2013dx was a massive Wolf-Rayet star. The ejecta of a GRB exposes a white dwarf companion and initiates Type Ia supernova explosion.
  50. 50. Intense Monitoring of Nearby, Bright Galaxies A primary aim of this project is the study of the early-time light curve (< 1 day) of supernovae, since such data of SN can teach us a great deal about the structure of the progenitor star.
  51. 51. SN 2017ein detected on May 25 in NGC 3938 Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  52. 52. Ursa Major It covers 1280 sq. degrees of sky, ranking third in size.
  53. 53. Light curve of SN 2017ein in R-band for period May 25 till July 24 2017
  54. 54. Preliminary results NGC 3938 is an unbarred spiral galaxy in the Ursa Major constellation. It was discovered in 1788 by William Herschel. Four supernova have been identified within NGC 3938: SN 1961U, SN 1964L, SN 2005ay and SN 2017ein. SN 2017ein is a type Ic supernova that was discovered on 25 May 2017 and peaked at magnitude 14.9. The identification of a progenitor candidate in archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on 2007 December 11 UT shows that it therefore would be intrinsically relatively blue and luminous, and could be even bluer and more luminous with additional reddening internal to the host galaxy (ATel #10485). Further observations of the SN and analysis of the progenitor candidate are underway.
  55. 55. Future collaborations In March 2014 an Agreement between UBAI and National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) on upgrading the MAO’s Zeiss-1000 telescope and to provide during 2017-2022 a large scale sky survey was signed.
  56. 56. The Stellar Abundance and Galaxy Evolution survey The SAGE survey adopts a new photometric system (u_s/v_s/g/r/i/ Hαn/Hαw /DDO51 bands), which is extremely powerful and sensitive to the atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, gravity and metallicity) of FGK types stars. The accuracy of the stellar parameters could be higher than that from the traditional broad-band photometric system or low-resolution spectra. It is also useful for determination of extinction, stellar distance, radius, and stellar evolutionary phases.
  57. 57. SAGE Network Maidanak 1m Hαn/Hαw/DDO51 Xinjiang 1m griKitt Peak 2.3m u/v
  58. 58. The completeness of SAGE survey The limiting magnitude could reach 19 mag in V-band detecting ~0.5 billion stars. Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  59. 59. Astronomical Education Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan
  60. 60. Uzbekistan Educational Observatories Layout
  61. 61. 48-sm Grubb Parsons Telescope
  62. 62. GSC 02007-00761 is previously known as a variable star of the Delta Scuti type. However, the analysis of this light curve showed that this star is in fact a close binary system.
  63. 63. Andijan University observatory
  64. 64. Parkent (1100m) Solar furnace
  65. 65. Thanks for your attention! Exploring the Energetic Universe 2017, 7-12 August 2017, Nazarbayev university, Astana, Kazakhstan

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