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Basim Refat
Topic of presentation
 Effect of forage particle size on silage quality
 Effect of forage particle size on dairy cow
per...
Topic of presentation
 Effect of forage particle size on silage quality
 Effect of forage particle size on dairy cow
per...
Chop length for silage
Roughage value and rumen function Compaction and fermentation
Density
DM concentration
permeability
Aerobic Deterioration
Factor Correlation Coefficient Correlation Coefficient
Initial layer thickness -0.279*
Average packing tractor weight 0.26...
a
b
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
DM content % pH value lactic/acetic
acid
NH3-N /total N Dm-lossess
%DM
aerobic stability
days...
24.8
67.8
45
4.9
27.7 28.5
49.8
33.7
4.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
DM CP (%DM) NDF(%DM) ADF (%DM) WSC (%DM) nh3(Total N) P...
2.4
ab
b
ab
2.2
b
a
b
3.4
ab
ab
a
2.2
a
ab
ab
2
b
a
ab
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Mean Particle size cm DM density ...
OA, Open-air storage condition;
SC, semi-closed storage condition;
CS, Closed storage condition
Toruk and Gonulol, 2011
163
204
0
50
100
150
200
250
UC UC UC UC C C C C
trail 1(1st
cut DM35)
trail 1 cut
DM50)
trail 2 (first
cut)
trail
3(secon...
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
pH Lactic acid, % of DM Acetic acid, % of DM Ammonia, % of DM
Fermentation
Long Medium Short...
The recommended theoretical length of cut (TLC)
 3 ⁄ 8 to 3 ⁄ 4 inch for corn silage
▪ 3 ⁄ 8 for processed corn
▪ 3 ⁄ 8 f...
 Conclusion first part
Topic of presentation
 Effect of forage particle size on silage quality
 Effect of forage particle size on dairy cow
per...
feed high energy diets In large amounts
While maintaining the cow in a normal
physiological state?
 Forage amount in the ration
 The amount and type of grains
 Physical form
 The addition of additives
Measuring the Effectiveness
of NDF
 Is the fraction of fiber that stimulates chewing
and contributes to the floating mat of large
particles in the rumen = %...
dietary
particle
length
chemical
NDF
content
peNDF
(Mertens 1997)
Pore diameter of sieve (mm)
Poppi et al. 1980
Why 1.18?
This size below which
particles have potential to
escape from rume...
DM
retained
1.18-mm
sieve
NDF
content peNDF
Proposed by Mertens 1997
Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS)
Lammers et al. (1996)
DM retained by
the 19- and 8-
mm sieves of
the PSPS
NDF
content...
Type
Corn Silage Haylage TMR
Sieve Size % of DM retained
>19.0 mm 5 ± 3 15 ± 5 5 ± 3
19.0 – 8.0 mm 55 ± 10 60 ± 15 40 ± 10...
+ 1.18-mm sieve to the PSPS
DM retained
by 19-, 8-, and
1.18-mm
sieves
NDF
content peNDFps-3s
Kononoff et al. 2003
1- The Penn State Particle Separator
 pefps-2s = physical effectiveness factor
determined as the proportion of particles
...
Particle length Effects
Long Medium Short Linear Quadratic
PSPS
% DM retained on sieves
19 mm 10.2 8.3 2.7 0.01 0.02
8 mm ...
2- dry sieving
vertical oscillating sieve shaker equipped
with a stack of sieves arranged in
descending mesh size;
Dietary peNDF effect
Long Medium Short Linear Quadratic
Dry sieving
% DM retained on sieves
9.5 mm 9.9 5.8 4.1 0.02 NS
6.7...
Finely chopped
alfalfa Silage (FS)
Cracked shelled corn
(DC; low RFC)
Ground high-
moisture corn
(HMC; high RFC)
Coarse al...
Mean (mm) SD (mm)
Dry cracked shelled corn 1.55
High-moisture shelled corn 1.60
Coarse alfalfa silage 13.6
Fine alfalfa si...
Treatments
Forage
significanceHMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS
Time/DMI per d,
min/kg
24.9 30.6 21.7 30.9 ***
Total chewing time incr...
Effects of level of ruminally fermentable
carbohydrates and forage particle size
on intake
Dig, %
Treatments significance
...
Treatments
P- value
HMC FS HMC CS DC FS DC CS RFC × Forage
Milk, kg/d 45.6 43.6 42.9 43.7 0.06
SCM, kg/d 41.0 41.1 39.6 40...
Treatments
P-VALUE
Forage PS
HMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS
VFA, mM
Total 161.5 148.4 151.1 144.9 NS
Acetate (A) 78.9 77.4 82.8 82....
Treatments (P-value)
HMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS RFC Forage RFC × Forage
Mean ruminal pH 5.72 5.98 5.9 6.07 * *** NS
Time below
...
Effect of forage particle size on rumen pH pattern post-feeding
CS ♦ = Coarse silage FS ■ = Fine silage
Krause et al. (200...
49.3 46.3 47.8
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
DM, % OM, % of DM NDF, % of DM ADF, % of DM Starch, % of DM CP, % of DM
Corn Silage
T...
Dietary peNDF
High Medium Low P-Value
Min/kg of DM 38.2 36.4 32.5 NS
Effects of reducing dietary physically
effective fibe...
Dietary peNDF
Sig
Long Medium Short
Mean pH 6.08 6.06 5.99 NS
pH <5.8, h/d 3 4.1 4.8 NS
pH <5.5, h/d 0.8 1 2 0.13
Effects ...
Dietary peNDF
High Medium Low P- VALUE
Total, mM 128.3 138.7 128.7 NS
Acetate (A), % 53.3 52.4 53.3 NS
Propionate (P), % 2...
CL7 CL22
FI (kg DM/day) 21.6 20.5
MilkYield (Kg/d) 36.1 35.5
Milk Fat (Kg/d) 1.5 1.51
Milk Protein (Kg/d) 1.16 1.16
Effect...
Unchopped
Chopped SED P-value
Intake of WCBS
Dry matter, kg day
− 1
3.42 4.20 0.147 0.001
Dry matter, g kg
−1
live
weight
...
 PSPS with 2 sieves provided a better description of the variation
in dietary physical effectiveness and the potential of...
 THANKYOU
http://images.vancepublishing.com/pdfs/dairy
herd/NDF_DairyRations.pdf
 unclear which measure of peNDF and what peNDF
contents provide the most accurate estimation of
chewing activity and rumi...
Feed particles retained on a 1.18-mm sieve had a high resistance
to passage from the rumen of sheep.
 Important to fracti...
what is the critical particle size for
passage from the rumen?
which fraction of particles remains
in the rumen to stimula...
 Although the peNDF system has become
firmly established using the 1.18-mm sieve
to measure pef,
 Critical size for catt...
Larger critical size may be more appropriate for cattle
 Ruminal outflow rate of particles: 1.18 mm averaged 5.57%/h a
3....
Unchopped
WCBS
Chopped
WCBS
Dry matter, g kg− 1 fresh weight 334 319
Crude protein 83.0 83.4
Sugar 27.7 24.3
Starch 173 15...
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State
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Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State

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Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State

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Importance of cut length on silage quality and animal performance – evaluating particle size – Penn State

  1. 1. Basim Refat
  2. 2. Topic of presentation  Effect of forage particle size on silage quality  Effect of forage particle size on dairy cow performance
  3. 3. Topic of presentation  Effect of forage particle size on silage quality  Effect of forage particle size on dairy cow performance
  4. 4. Chop length for silage Roughage value and rumen function Compaction and fermentation
  5. 5. Density DM concentration permeability Aerobic Deterioration
  6. 6. Factor Correlation Coefficient Correlation Coefficient Initial layer thickness -0.279* Average packing tractor weight 0.262* Average wheel load 0.224* Dry matter content 0.29* Total weight of packing tractor(s) 0.20* Average particle size 0.194* Packing time (min/t as-fed) 0.162* Speed of packing (1 ≥ 8 km/h; 4 ≤ 1.6 km/h) 0.147 Number of packing tractors 0.146 Wheels per packing tractor 0.126 Tire pressure 0.098 Crop (1 = corn; 2 = alfalfa) 0.086 Packing time (min/t DM) 0.078 * Significant correlations (P < 0.05). Muck 2000
  7. 7. a b 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 DM content % pH value lactic/acetic acid NH3-N /total N Dm-lossess %DM aerobic stability days stability lossess %DM yeast (log cfu/g FM) moulds (log cfu/g FM) CL7 CL 22 Mahlkow and Thaysen 2005
  8. 8. 24.8 67.8 45 4.9 27.7 28.5 49.8 33.7 4.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 DM CP (%DM) NDF(%DM) ADF (%DM) WSC (%DM) nh3(Total N) Ph T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Moisture PS additives T1 F L no T2 F S no T3 W L no T4 F L (ground pearl Millet grain) T5 F S microbial additives Paziani et al 2005
  9. 9. 2.4 ab b ab 2.2 b a b 3.4 ab ab a 2.2 a ab ab 2 b a ab 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Mean Particle size cm DM density porosity spoilage lossess Physical parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Moisture PS additives T1 F L no T2 F S no T3 W L no T4 F L (ground pearl Millet grain) T5 F S microbial additives
  10. 10. OA, Open-air storage condition; SC, semi-closed storage condition; CS, Closed storage condition Toruk and Gonulol, 2011
  11. 11. 163 204 0 50 100 150 200 250 UC UC UC UC C C C C trail 1(1st cut DM35) trail 1 cut DM50) trail 2 (first cut) trail 3(second cut) trail 1(1st cut DM35) trail 1 cut DM50) trail 2 (first cut) trail 3(second cut) Density Borreani and Tabacco (2006)
  12. 12. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 pH Lactic acid, % of DM Acetic acid, % of DM Ammonia, % of DM Fermentation Long Medium Short Yang and Beauchemin 2006 Effects of reducing dietary particle size on silage fermentation Theoretical cut length (TCL) Long: 28.6mm Medium:15.9mm Short: 4.8mm
  13. 13. The recommended theoretical length of cut (TLC)  3 ⁄ 8 to 3 ⁄ 4 inch for corn silage ▪ 3 ⁄ 8 for processed corn ▪ 3 ⁄ 8 for not processed corn  3 ⁄ 8 to 1 ⁄ 2 inch for alfalfa silage. Chopping too long makes compaction difficult  trapping air in the forage mass and resulting in silage that heats and spoils.
  14. 14.  Conclusion first part
  15. 15. Topic of presentation  Effect of forage particle size on silage quality  Effect of forage particle size on dairy cow performance
  16. 16. feed high energy diets In large amounts While maintaining the cow in a normal physiological state?
  17. 17.  Forage amount in the ration  The amount and type of grains  Physical form  The addition of additives
  18. 18. Measuring the Effectiveness of NDF
  19. 19.  Is the fraction of fiber that stimulates chewing and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen = % remaining on 1.18 mm screen after dry sieving  The concept of peNDF incorporates the chemical NDF content of the diet in a manner that predicts the physical effectiveness of the diet (Mertins 1997)
  20. 20. dietary particle length chemical NDF content peNDF (Mertens 1997)
  21. 21. Pore diameter of sieve (mm) Poppi et al. 1980 Why 1.18? This size below which particles have potential to escape from rumen-
  22. 22. DM retained 1.18-mm sieve NDF content peNDF Proposed by Mertens 1997
  23. 23. Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) Lammers et al. (1996) DM retained by the 19- and 8- mm sieves of the PSPS NDF content peNDFps-2s
  24. 24. Type Corn Silage Haylage TMR Sieve Size % of DM retained >19.0 mm 5 ± 3 15 ± 5 5 ± 3 19.0 – 8.0 mm 55 ± 10 60 ± 15 40 ± 10 8.0 – 1.18 mm 40 ± 10 30 ± 10 40 ± 10 <1.18 mm <5 < 5 < 20 Forage and TMR particle size recommendations based on two experiments that fed either alfalfa haylage or corn silage, with or without cottonseed hulls, to cows in early lactation. (Heirichs and Kononoff, 2002)
  25. 25. + 1.18-mm sieve to the PSPS DM retained by 19-, 8-, and 1.18-mm sieves NDF content peNDFps-3s Kononoff et al. 2003
  26. 26. 1- The Penn State Particle Separator  pefps-2s = physical effectiveness factor determined as the proportion of particles retained on 2 sieves (Lammers et al., 1996)  pefps-3s = physical effectiveness factor determined as the proportion of particles retained on 3 sieves (Kononoff et al., 2003) (Yang and Beauchemin 2006)
  27. 27. Particle length Effects Long Medium Short Linear Quadratic PSPS % DM retained on sieves 19 mm 10.2 8.3 2.7 0.01 0.02 8 mm 61.3 59.8 38.7 0.01 0.01 1.18 mm 24.0 27.6 51.5 0.01 0.01 Pan 4.5 4.3 7.2 0.01 0.01 peNDFps-2s, % of DM 35.2 31.5 17.4 0.01 0.01 peNDFps-3s, % of DM 47.0 44.3 44.4 0.07 NS (Yang and Beauchemin 2006)
  28. 28. 2- dry sieving vertical oscillating sieve shaker equipped with a stack of sieves arranged in descending mesh size;
  29. 29. Dietary peNDF effect Long Medium Short Linear Quadratic Dry sieving % DM retained on sieves 9.5 mm 9.9 5.8 4.1 0.02 NS 6.7 mm 11.1 14.4 9.1 NS NS 3.35 mm 24.6 26.3 22.5 NS NS 1.18 mm 33.0 34.4 40.3 0.03 NS 0.6 mm 11.6 10.3 14.5 0.12 0.10 0.15 mm 6.2 5.6 7.3 NS NS <0.15 mm 3.6 3.2 2.1 0.03 NS peNDF1.18 % 24.9 24.7 23.7 NS NS (Yang and Beauchemin 2006)
  30. 30. Finely chopped alfalfa Silage (FS) Cracked shelled corn (DC; low RFC) Ground high- moisture corn (HMC; high RFC) Coarse alfalfa Silage (CS) Cracked shelled corn (DC; low RFC) Ground high- moisture corn (HMC; high RFC) Krause et al. (2002a,b) HMCFS DCCS HMCCSDCFS Effects of, and interactions between, level of dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate (RFC) and forage particle size on milk production,
  31. 31. Mean (mm) SD (mm) Dry cracked shelled corn 1.55 High-moisture shelled corn 1.60 Coarse alfalfa silage 13.6 Fine alfalfa silage 3.7 HMC FS 3.0 HMC CS 6.0 DC FS 2.8 DC CS 6.3 Mean geometric particle size of corn grain, forage, and TMR 14% NDF, % of DM reduce rumination time and cause milk fat depression when dairy cows are fed chopped alfalfa hay as forage (Woodford et al. 1986) 6.4 mm
  32. 32. Treatments Forage significanceHMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS Time/DMI per d, min/kg 24.9 30.6 21.7 30.9 *** Total chewing time increased 7.5 min/kg of DM consumed. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time/DMI per d, min/kg HMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS Krause et al. (2002a,b)
  33. 33. Effects of level of ruminally fermentable carbohydrates and forage particle size on intake Dig, % Treatments significance HMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS RFC Forage RFC × Forage DM 75.5 74.5 72.8 69.9 * NS NS OM 76.6 75.5 73.9 70.8 ** NS NS NDF 54.3 47.6 46.2 47.7 NS NS NS ADF 58.9 52.9 51.8 54.2 NS NS T Starch 97.7 97.1 94.5 91.6 ** * NS Krause et al. (2002a,b)
  34. 34. Treatments P- value HMC FS HMC CS DC FS DC CS RFC × Forage Milk, kg/d 45.6 43.6 42.9 43.7 0.06 SCM, kg/d 41.0 41.1 39.6 40.0 NS SCM/DMI 1.76 1.68 1.59 1.59 NS Fat, % 3.42 3.60 3.48 3.62 NS Fat yield, kg/d 1.55 1.59 1.49 1.57 NS Protein, % 3.05 3.12 3.15 3.10 NS Protein yield, kg/d 1.38 1.37 1.35 1.33 NS Effects of level of ruminally fermentable carbohydrates and forage particle size on milk yield and milk composition Krause et al. (2002a,b)
  35. 35. Treatments P-VALUE Forage PS HMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS VFA, mM Total 161.5 148.4 151.1 144.9 NS Acetate (A) 78.9 77.4 82.8 82.5 NS Propionate (P) 52.4 43.7 39.8 35.2 NS Butyrate 19.6 19.6 20.8 22.5 NS A:P ratio 1.60 1.90 2.23 2.45 NS Effects of level of ruminally fermentable carbohydrates and forage particle size on ruminal fermentation and pH Krause et al. (2002a,b)
  36. 36. Treatments (P-value) HMCFS HMCCS DCFS DCCS RFC Forage RFC × Forage Mean ruminal pH 5.72 5.98 5.9 6.07 * *** NS Time below pH 5.8, h/d 14.3 7.2 9.3 5.5 ** *** NS Effects of level of ruminally fermentable carbohydrates and forage particle size on ruminal pH. Decreasing forage particle size decreased pH from 6.02 to 5.81, whereas replacing DC with HMC decreased pH from 5.99 to 5.85. Krause et al. (2002)
  37. 37. Effect of forage particle size on rumen pH pattern post-feeding CS ♦ = Coarse silage FS ■ = Fine silage Krause et al. (2002) Hours post-feeding RuminalpH
  38. 38. 49.3 46.3 47.8 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 DM, % OM, % of DM NDF, % of DM ADF, % of DM Starch, % of DM CP, % of DM Corn Silage Theoretical cut length (TCL) Long: 28.6mm Medium:15.9mm Short: 4.8mm (Yang and Beauchemin 2006)
  39. 39. Dietary peNDF High Medium Low P-Value Min/kg of DM 38.2 36.4 32.5 NS Effects of reducing dietary physically effective fiber (peNDF) on chewing activity of dairy cows (Yang and Beauchemin 2006)
  40. 40. Dietary peNDF Sig Long Medium Short Mean pH 6.08 6.06 5.99 NS pH <5.8, h/d 3 4.1 4.8 NS pH <5.5, h/d 0.8 1 2 0.13 Effects of reducing dietary physically effective fiber (peNDF) on ruminal pH and fermentation of lactating dairy cows (Yang and Beauchemin 2006)
  41. 41. Dietary peNDF High Medium Low P- VALUE Total, mM 128.3 138.7 128.7 NS Acetate (A), % 53.3 52.4 53.3 NS Propionate (P), % 26.9 23.1 25.8 NS Butyrate, % 14.6 18.3 15.7 NS A:P 2.1 2.5 2.2 NS NH3 N, mM 8.5 11.0 8.8 * Mean pH 6.08 6.06 5.99 NS (Yang and Beauchemin 2006) Effects of reducing dietary physically effective fiber (peNDF) on ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics of dairy cows
  42. 42. CL7 CL22 FI (kg DM/day) 21.6 20.5 MilkYield (Kg/d) 36.1 35.5 Milk Fat (Kg/d) 1.5 1.51 Milk Protein (Kg/d) 1.16 1.16 Effect of two different chopping lengths of maize silage on dairy cow performance ; cut length 7-mm or 22 mm Mahlkow and Thaysen 2005
  43. 43. Unchopped Chopped SED P-value Intake of WCBS Dry matter, kg day − 1 3.42 4.20 0.147 0.001 Dry matter, g kg −1 live weight 16.3 19.7 0.51 < 0.001 Neutral detergent fibre, kg day − 1 1.55 1.93 0.066 < 0.001 Neutral detergent fibre, g kg − 1 live weight 7.38 9.06 0.229 < 0.001 LWG Initial weight 182 184 4.6 0.728 Final weight 236 249 4.5 0.027 LWG, kg 53.9 64.8 1.45 < 0.001 LWG, kg day − 1 0.855 1.028 0.0230 < 0.001 Chopping of whole-crop barley silage improves intake and live-weight gain of young dairy steers Rustas and Nadeau 2011
  44. 44.  PSPS with 2 sieves provided a better description of the variation in dietary physical effectiveness and the potential of the diet to promote chewing and prevent ruminal acidosis.  Differences in particle size do not always result in differences in mean rumen pH.  When evaluating a diet to determine a possible risk of subclinical acidosis, we should review levels of fiber and nonstructural carbohydrates, along with their associated fermentability
  45. 45.  THANKYOU
  46. 46. http://images.vancepublishing.com/pdfs/dairy herd/NDF_DairyRations.pdf
  47. 47.  unclear which measure of peNDF and what peNDF contents provide the most accurate estimation of chewing activity and ruminal pH in dairy cows  These different methods of peNDF estimation result in very different values
  48. 48. Feed particles retained on a 1.18-mm sieve had a high resistance to passage from the rumen of sheep.  Important to fractionate the larger feed particles requiring chewing to pass from the rumen,  Standard laboratory assessment for measuring pef for feeds using dry sieving techniques. Poppi et al. (1980)
  49. 49. what is the critical particle size for passage from the rumen? which fraction of particles remains in the rumen to stimulate chewing?
  50. 50.  Although the peNDF system has become firmly established using the 1.18-mm sieve to measure pef,  Critical size for cattle is actually closer to a fraction of particles that would be retained on a 3.35-mm sieve. Oshita et al. (2004) Yang et al. 2001
  51. 51. Larger critical size may be more appropriate for cattle  Ruminal outflow rate of particles: 1.18 mm averaged 5.57%/h a 3.35-mm sieve = 1.75%/h.  Feed particles retained on sieves with apertures >4.0 mm would be retained in the rumen of dairy cows and contribute to chewing activity. Yang et al. (2001) Cardoza and Mertens (1986)
  52. 52. Unchopped WCBS Chopped WCBS Dry matter, g kg− 1 fresh weight 334 319 Crude protein 83.0 83.4 Sugar 27.7 24.3 Starch 173 157 Neutral detergent fibre 449 460 IVDOM, g kg− 1 OM(96h) 756 752 Indigestible NDF(288h-in situ) 150 146 pH 4.1 4.1 NH3-N, g kg−1 total N 100 103 Lactic acid 51.3 45.6 Acetic acid 7.7 7.2 Butyric acid 1.2 1.1 Ethanol 9.2 8.4 Rustas and Nadeau (2011) chemical composition of whole-crop barley silage (WCBS) (g kg− 1 dry matter)

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