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Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan - Volume 1 Main Report

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The Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan describes the needs of the city of Beira after cyclone Idai. The main sector needs are:
- Housing and settlements
- Drainage
- Sanitation
- Coastal Protection
- Green and Road Infrastructure
- Business
- Solid Waste Management

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Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan - Volume 1 Main Report

  1. 1. BEIRA MUNICIPAL RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE PLAN A Roadmap to Building Beira Back Better With technical assistance and contributions of: Volume 1 - Main Report
  2. 2. With technical assistance and contributions of: BEIRA MUNICIPAL RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE PLAN A Roadmap to Building Beira Back Better Volume 1 - Main Report
  3. 3. 4 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Preface On March 14 2019 cyclone Idai struck the central region of Mozam- bique with tremendous force, causing widespread human loss and economic damages. The city of Beira received the full force of the cyclone, and in the following days large areas within the municipal boundaries were flooded. Most buildings in Beira were damaged and many were destroyed. In the weeks after the cyclone an outbreak of cholera added to the disaster, and several dozens of people lost their lives as a consequence. The events were extremely tragic for Beira and the central region, but there is also another side to the disaster. First it showed the tremendous strength and courage of all parts of Beira’s civil society. The munici- pality organized road clearing and removal of debris and waste, with strong support from the private sector with equipment, and hundreds of volunteers. The national government supported wherever possible through INGC. Secondly it showed that Beira has friends. Internation- al organizations, NGO’s and governments came to Beira to provide immediate practical support, and in the weeks after the disaster they supported the population and the government both with help on site and with financial aid. Only a few weeks after the disaster the repair operations were in full force. We are thankful to all those who helped us in these difficult times. However, the work for recovery is only starting. In the coming months and years, the city of Beira has to be rebuilt. Not as it was, but in a better, cyclone proof and climate change resilient way. This process will demand a lot of resources, and support from international finance institutions is needed to make recovery possible. Beira suffered a di- saster. With international support it will be able to turn the disaster into a bright future for a safe, prosperous, resilient and attractive Beira. Let’s turn the motto ‘Building Beira Back Better’ into reality! Daviz Simango Mayor of Beira
  4. 4. 5Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  5. 5. 6 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Acknowledgements Principal author Municipality of Beira Technical Assistance Government of the Netherlands Contributors: • Housing and settlements UN-Habitat, SHELTER Program, Arcadis CSR partnership with UN-Habitat • Drainage, Sanitation, SHELTER Program, Arcadis CSR Coastal Protection partnership with UN- Habitat • Solid waste management SHELTER Program, Arcadis CSR partnership with UN- Habitat, UNDP Graphic Design and Layout SIGNUS MZ Cover photo: Bas Agerbeek, Arcadis Shelter
  6. 6. 7Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report On behalf of the Municipal Council of the City of Beira, I would like to thank all those that have contributed to the creation of this Beira Recovery and Resilience Plan. This plan has been compiled by the ‘Taskforce Rebuild Beira 2019’ under the guidance of Beira Municipality. To develop the Beira Recovery and Resilience Plan staff was generously provided by three main partners: The Netherlands government, UN-Habitat, and the Shelter Program (Arcadis, CSR partnership with UN-Habitat). UN-Habitat and the Arcadis Shelter Program contributed with specific sectorial annexes to the Beira Recovery and Resilience Plan, which in turn were used by the Municipal Council of the City of Beira to develop the main contents of this report. In addition, significant support was provided by The Impact Initiative, the UN Development Program, and the World Bank. The task force started as a team of 7 with a relatively short and focused assignment and ended up as a 23 person team delivering a full recovery and resilience plan that will allow for rapid implementation. Numerous companies and organi- zations have worked with the task force and provided valuable input. Among them are the ‘Associação Comercial da Beira’, the Dutch knowledge institute Deltares, dredging company Van Oord, engineering firm Royal Haskoning DHV, Beira based non-governmental organi- zation CAM, Wissing Urban Planners, and many others. The work was done in coordination with the team in Maputo that was conducting the Post Disaster Needs Assessment for all the affected areas, of which Beira is a part. The interaction has been fruitful and has allowed for the damages, losses and needs in Beira to be incorporated into the national Government’s final document, to which this Plan is an annex. Many thanks to all involved in that process and in particular to Mr. Francisco Perreira, Director of the Idai Post Disaster Recovery Executive Office. We look forward to our ongoing cooperation. Finally we also like to honor the work of the staff of the Beira Municipality who, under difficult circumstances due to the loss of personal property in the cyclone, as well as difficulties of the work environment due to damage to the municipal buildings and equipment, have tirelessly worked to make the recovery of the city, and this plan, a reality. The methodology applied to prepare this Plan was derived from the St. Maarten Recovery and Resilience Plan, prepared by World Bank and Government of the Netherlands in 2018. To all of you: many thanks! The Mayor
  7. 7. 8 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Preface 2 Acknowledgements 4 Table of Contents 7 Abbreviations and Acronyms 8 Executive Summary 10 Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan 14 I. Vision for Recovery and Resilience 18 II. Objectives of Recovery and Resilience 22 III. Guiding Principles to Enhance Recovery and Resilience 32 IV. City context, Cyclone Idai, First Response and Early Recovery 36 V. Scope and Methodology of the Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan 40 VI. Summary of Damages, Losses, and Needs 44 VII. Proposed Recovery and Resilience Interventions 48 A1. Housing and settlements 50 A2. Resilient Expansion of Residential Areas 52 B. Municipal real estate 54 C. Coastal protection 56 D. Drainage 58 E. Sanitation 60 F. Solid Waste Management 62 G. Road Infrastructure 64 H. Green infrastructure 66 I. Business 68 VIII. Implementation framework 72 Table of Contents
  8. 8. 9Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Annex I Summary of Sector Needs Periodization 76 Annex II Overview of Proposed Needs Interventions 77 Annex III Acknowledgements 96 Annex IV SDU Beira 97 Annex V Stakeholder platform implementation arrangement 100 Volume II - Sector Reports Annex A - Housing and settlements Annex B - Municipal buildings and services Annex C - Coastal protection Annex D - Drainage Annex E - Sanitation Annex F - Solid waste management Annex G - Road infrastructure Annex H - Business
  9. 9. 10 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  10. 10. 11Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Abbreviations and Acronyms BBBB Build(ing) Beira Back Better BURD Beira Urban Development Corporation CCA Climate Change Adaptation DRR Disaster Risk Reduction GDP Gross Domestic Product GIS Geographic Information System ICT Information and Communication Technologies MRRP Municipal Recovery & Resilience Plan N&E Nature and Environment NGO Non Governmental Organization PDNA Post Disaster Needs Assesment QLI Quality of Life Index UNDP United Nations Development Programme
  11. 11. 12 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Executive Summary The Beira Recovery and Resilience Plan has been prepared by the Municipality of Beira in the aftermath of cyclone Idai that hit Beira on 14 March 2019. It addresses the immediate recov- ery needs, applying principles of ‘building back better’ and ‘disaster risk reduction’, with a wide range of strategies and plans that aim to make Beira a resilient city. It should be noted that this Plan has been brought in line, as much as possible, with the na- tional Post Disaster Needs Assessment methodology. It seeks to address a fuller range of recovery and resilience interventions. The Plan focuses on those sectors that are under the responsibility of the Municipality of Beira. From the table below it can be seen that by far the largest damages and losses have been sustained by people who have seen destruction of their houses, and to businesses. The Beira Municipality has very few resources that might be employed to address the enormous needs that result from this. It appeals to the national government and the international com- munity to focus on the needs of people and of businesses, because they are vital for the recovery of the city.
  12. 12. 13Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report The climate change and disaster resilience strategy of the Municipality focuses on five key areas of infrastructure. The plans for these areas of infrastructure are summarized below. Coastal protection is the most vital of all. Cyclone Idai hit Beira at neap tide. Had it reached Beira during spring tide, sea water levels would have been nearly two meters higher and the flooding of the city from the sea would have been extensive. The coastal protection of Beira has to be brought to a minimum acceptable level for the city to have a future. The existing system of breakwaters needs to be upgraded, sand nourishment to the beach is necessary in the short term, and the Praia Nova area requires urgent attention. The total cost of the minimum protection works amounts to 91 million USD. Drainage is equally important. The reconstructed primary drainage system in part of the city worked well during the cyclone and other storms. The primary system in other parts of the city also requires rehabilitation. Only a completely rehabilitated drainage system will minimize the risk of inundation in the city. Expansion of the primary system and construction of a large retention basin in the Rio Maria area are part of the priority drainage project. Next to the need for the completion of the primary system, attention is needed for the secondary and tertiary system to evacuate water faster from the areas where people live. A total cost of 193 million USD for the first five years has been calculated.
  13. 13. 14 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Sewage is a sector that requires urgent attention, both to rehabilitate the existing system and expand it into unserved areas of the city. No city can function properly and sustainably without a sewage system and combined with high water tables, many citizens of Beira expe- rience unhygienic conditions in their houses and neighborhoods. The total cost for rehabili- tation and expansion would come to 49 million USD. Solid waste The weaknesses of the solid waste management of Beira was exposed by the cyclone. Solid waste, in enormous quantities, was visible throughout the city. The weaknesses are in the whole chain, including, notably, a lack of equipment. The total need to structurally improve solid waste management would be 28 million USD, of which the largest part would be invest- ed in a proper sanitary landfill. Roads infrastructure The damage to roads has been extensive by the cyclone, particularly along the coast where the road has been destroyed by sea waters, and by the heavy equipment used to remove fallen trees and waste. In other areas there is an urgent need not only to restore cyclone damage but to build resilient roads that can stand heavy rainfall without deteriorating and that can be used as evacuation routes during future flooding. Strong roads will improve, for instance, the ability to reach the waste deposit site. The total needs amount to 37 million USD. Housing and settlements Beira’s existing housing stock was badly affected by cyclone Idai with approximately 70% of houses destroyed partially (63.506 units) or totally (23.833 units). The biggest destruc- tion occurred in the poorest neighborhoods, increasing an already critical social, economic and environmental vulnerability. On top of huge damages for most households, the cyclone caused major losses, making the self-recovery processes even more difficult for the poorer victims due to their lack of money. An estimated 275 million dollars is needed to develop an efficient and inclusive implementation strategy, to ensure an integrated approach to in- crease resilience, not only for better-built homes but also at settlement scale, through a strong partnership between communities, humanitarian and development partners, private sector, with the Municipality in a key coordination role.
  14. 14. 15Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Municipal buildings and services 176 buildings owned by the municipality are damaged or severely damaged by cyclone Idai, and most of them are critical municipal infrastructures. Due to rainfall, lots of equipment and municipal furniture suffered damage, and much had to be discarded. The municipal functionality needs to be restored as quickly as possible by repairing and reconstructing its critical infrastructure in a resilient way (BBB) and by replacing lost and damaged equipment and furniture. This will involve an amount of 12 million USD. Urban extensions The Beira Masterplan 2035 which was approved by Beira Municipality in 2014 provides the framework for the resilient development of the city. The Maraza Residential Area and the Munhava Industrial and Commercial Park, in combination with the new Port Access Road. Are key developmental projects which can contribute to release pressure from existing ar- eas, including those that were affected by the cyclone, and can create space for new devel- opments. For the implementation of the Maraza and Munhava urban developments the SDU Beira – urban development corporation has been created by the Beira Municipality in November of 2018, in order to prepare and implement these area developments.
  15. 15. 16 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan NASA Beira
  16. 16. 17Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Build Beira Back Better (BBBB) refers to a range of improvements on the pre-disaster situation that have been recommended in the sector recov- ery strategies and needs analyses. BBBB measures can include (a) right-siz- ing, right-siting, and structural improvement of assets and infrastructure based on disaster risk and current demographic needs; (b) improved build- ing standards and structural improvements according to sector norms; (c) improved service delivery standards per present sector developmental norms; and (d) the human resources and skills development required to manage such improvements.
  17. 17. 18 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report BEIRA MUNICIPAL RECOVERY AND RESILIENCE PLAN
  18. 18. 19Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  19. 19. 20 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report I Vision for Recovery and Resilience
  20. 20. 21Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  21. 21. 22 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Recovery after a major disaster like the cyclone Idai is essentially about restoring the live- lihoods, homes, and general wellbeing of the people, so they can continue their lives with confidence. Reconstructing critical infrastructure is crucial, but the recovery’s ultimate pur- pose is to restore people’s hope for the future—a future that builds on the past but that rec- ognizes that more needs to be done now, together, to build back better. A strong commit- ment to strengthening the city’s resilience to offset risks and incorporate future threats such as climate change is essential for this process. To stimulate and shape the recovery process, and to guide the country to a resilient and sustainable future, the Government of Mozambique has decided to develop a comprehen- sive Post Disaster Need Assessment (PDNA). Beira is the largest city in the area which was hit by Idai. To investigate the situation and needs for Beira in more detail it was decided by the Municipality to develop a plan which focuses on the municipal area of Beira. The goal of this Beira Recovery and Resilience Plan (Beira RRP) is to restore, secure, and strengthen the well-being of the people of Beira, with short, mid and long term action. The aims of the recovery process in Beira, and as such for the Beira RRP, is to create a resilient community in a healthy living environment; a strong economy; an effective governance with enhanced capacity and sufficient financial sources. The Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan is closely related to the Post Disaster Needs Assessment, both in spirit and in content, and to emphasize this relationship the Beira RRP is included as an annex to the PDNA. The Beira RRP recommends as top priorities: (a) the basic needs of the people of Beira—such as food, shelter, safety from floods both from the sea and rainfall, health and psychosocial care, education, and livelihoods, (b) the preparedness of Beira for future cyclones and other natural disasters by ensuring sound coastal protection and sufficient drainage facilities and (c) key initiatives aimed at restarting and revitalizing the economy. The Beira RRP focuses on those elements in the recovery process which are under the re- sponsibility of the municipality. Sectors which are under the responsibility of the national government or other organizations are in the Post Disaster Needs Assessment. The expected outcomes from the Beira RRP are (a) sustainable recovery of social sectors in all affected communities; (b) restoration of business continuity combined with a strategy for fostering and strengthening business activity; (c) rehabilitation and reconstruction of critical infrastructure to BBB and DRR standards; and (d) strengthening of the city’s readiness to mitigate, respond to and recover from the future impacts of natural disasters and climate change. I Vision for Recovery and Resilience
  22. 22. 23Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  23. 23. 24 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report The Beira Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan takes a comprehensive multisectoral, pro- grammatic approach, aggregating proposed interventions across all relevant sectors. To achieve the intended outcomes under recovery and resilience components, we focus on community and socio-economic aspects, critical infrastructure and services, governance and finance. Finally, a number of cross cutting issues are addressed. Community, social economic aspects Housing and settlements Objective: providing resilient housing for the people in Beira in an urban context with access to basic services (including to water, sanitation, lighting, electricity, and waste), secure tenure (including compliance with a continuum of land rights, promotion of gender-equality, and prohibition of housing discrimination and forced evictions), and embedded in plans at city- wide-, regional- and national levels and sectoral investment strategies to improve the access of adequate housing for all. Post disaster housing recovery is an opportunity to repair and reconstruct housing, building back better (BBB) for adaptation and disaster risk reduction (DDR) and to improve the living conditions and resilience of settlements in coordination with the sectoral interventions at city level. In the short-term the priority is the reconstruction of partially and totally damaged hous- ing, reducing the vulnerability and exposure to disaster. Reconstruction should limit relocation -avoiding high social and economic costs - and aim at urban adaptation to risk and building back better for resilience. Additionally, capacity building and technical guidelines for building back better, combined with special assistance for the most vulnerable will be essential. In the medium-term the focus is addressing resilience at settlement level through neighbor- hood planning, community-led infrastructure, housing, and response to risk. Moreover, the capacities of the municipality to coordinate and prioritize actions to ensure the integration of sectorial interventions will be strengthened. In the long-term the focus should be creating mechanisms and frameworks to ensure safer, resilient housing for all. Health Services Objective: Improving the quality and availability of health and mental health services for the people of Beira since they are crucial for community recovery. II Objectives of Recovery and Resilience
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  25. 25. 26 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Access to healthcare should be guaranteed throughout the recovery and beyond—including strengthening emergency services through the purchase of equipment damaged in the cy- clone and subsequent flooding, expanding psychosocial care, enhancing prevention activities to address potential post-cyclone health impacts and ensuring continuity of health insurance. Education Objective: secure safer school buildings and provide for a safe learning environment for chil- dren through a comprehensive school safety framework. Immediate needs include repairing and rebuilding damaged schools to more resilient stan- dards, implementing a food program and strengthening after-school programs for vulnerable children. Providing psychosocial care to affected students and staff with the ultimate goal of creating a safe learning environment for children and teaching staff. The longer-term objec- tive is to promote labour market entry for graduate students by providing them with a local, financially sustainable and high-quality education system with emphasis on the vocational and tertiary infrastructure. Employment, Livelihoods, and Social Protection Objective: Social assistance to address immediate recovery needs, such as providing income support and employment training. The medium-to-longer-term objective is to build resilience, which will include fostering em- ployability in the labour force in key sectors, building in financial mechanisms for income support to cope with economic shocks and streamlining the delivery of vital social services centered on a community-based approach. Business Activity Objective: Re-establishment of business activity focusing on strengthening the city’s main economic pillars. Immediate needs include a marketing and communications strategy to secure Beira’s eco- nomic position during the recovery phase and a resilience strategy to ensure the main eco- nomic pillars such as the port facilities can weather future storms. In the short to medium term, it will be important to explore options for strengthening the economy of Beira. One approach will be to create better conditions for the establishment of companies, by offering affordable and services commercial and industrial areas in the vicinity of the port. The Beira Urban De-
  26. 26. 27Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report velopment (BURD) Corporation is the municipal institution that will prepare the necessary investments. Critical infrastructure and services Municipal buildings and facilities Objective: recover the municipal functionality in all its aspects as quickly as possible by re- pairing and reconstructing critical infrastructure in a resilient way (BBB) and replace lost and damaged equipment and furniture Approximately 188 municipality buildings are damaged or severely damaged by cyclone Idai, and most of them are considered as critical municipal infrastructure. To name a few import- ant categories: main municipal service buildings, headposts of neighbourhoods, community buildings, schools, health posts, market places, sanitation buildings, houses of public ser- vants, and rented out buildings that deliver income to the municipality. Due to rainfall lots of equipment and municipal furniture suffered damage and some destroyed completely. Coastal protection Objective: repair and reconstruct Beira’s coastal protection to Building Back Better standards and thus reduce risks for people and the economy. This is the top priority of the Municipality. The main objective of coastal protection is to protect the city of Beira (and the increasing economic value of the city) from severe hazards from sea, taking into account its vulnerability as a result of climate change. The landfall of cyclone Idai occurred largely during low tide. If it would have happened during high tide a disastrous flood of sea water would have caused numerous casualties and extreme damage in large parts of the urban area. This knowledge shows that urgent action is needed with regard to coastal protection. In the recovery process the existing coastal protection must be repaired and reconstructed to withstand future disas- ters and thus ensure strengthened resilience, taking climate change and sea level rise into ac- count. It is important that this improvement of coastal protection provides not only additional safety but also enhances the unique quality of Beira as a seaside city. The attractiveness of this location on the Indian ocean with beautiful beaches and views is an economic asset for the city. This means that in the approach to coastal protection, safety and attractiveness should be closely linked. A nature-based approach for coastal protection with a combination of soft and hard measures can be an important part of the Building Beira Back Better strategy.
  27. 27. 28 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Drainage Objective: address recurrent flooding issues by providing adequate drainage. The extensive flooding after cyclone Idai caused a terrible loss of human lives and widespread damage – though mostly outside of the city. With climate change might lead to more extreme weather conditions and rainfall events. Providing adequate drainage will contribute to pro- tecting the environment and road infrastructure, while helping to mitigate health risks and protect assets of affected citizens and businesses. Where possible, nature-based solutions for drainage and increased water retention can enhance the quality of the city. This means that the following objectives can be identified: 1. Recovery of direct damages as well as indirect damages (losses) to the drainage sys tem in a sustainable and durable way. 2.Enhancement of resilience of the existing primary, secondary and tertiary network to improve drainage during calamities and flood situations. 3.A robust drainage network is also essential for Beira to support people in normal sit uations / daily life. 4. Financial investment in (tertiary) drainage in low swampy areas, alleviating the health hazards and standard of living for people living there.
  28. 28. 29Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Solid Waste Management Objective: develop a robust waste collection program in combination with environmentally sound waste treatment technology. Immediate action needed: deal with the debris left be- hind by Idai. There is currently limited solid waste management and recycling capacity in the city, and the existing dumpsite is well over capacity and not environmentally safe. Waste collection does not cover a sufficiently large fraction of the population. This leads to a large issue of fly tipping and extensive environmental, health and safety issues. Of particular concern is asbestos containing debris and hazardous waste mixed up in the waste streams. Cyclone IDAI has caused a double problem. Part of the waste collection capacity has been lost and the amount of waste to be collected has multiplied wdue to the huge amount of disaster debris. We aim to enhance the implementation of the Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan, to recover from the impact of the Cyclone and to make the future waste management healthier and environmentally safe as well as resilient to future natural disasters.
  29. 29. 30 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Sanitation Objective: develop a robust waste water collection and treatment system. Immediate action needed: recover the sanitation system and make it more resilient Sanitation is one of the most important aspects of community well-being because it protects human health, extends life spans, and is documented to provide benefits to the economy. Sanitation (e.g. septic tanks, latrines, sewage collection systems) is currently deployed as a way to contain and/or treat human excreta to protect human health and the environment – including water reservoirs that are sources for drinking water.Several economic and social benefits can result from improving sanitation services: reductions in deaths associated with di- arrhoeal disease; economic benefits related to savings from seeking less health care; reduced losses of productive time due to disease; reduction in premature mortality. The economic impacts of improving sanitation in Beira may be even greater. As deficiencies in the sewage collection system are widespread, it is known that a significant amount of sewage overflows to the drainage system or percolates in the soil. Reaching the sea, the raw sewage may affect fishing and tourism, important economic activities in the municipality. The sewer collection system was built in concrete pipes by the Portuguese colonizers in the 1960’s, serving less than 37% of the urban population. After so long, it is to be expected that the piping is cracked causing severe leakage. The majority of the population rely on septic tanks or latrines for disposal of sewage. It is urgent to secure and strengthen the well-being of the people. It is necessary to replace the existing concrete sewer network with more resistant polymer-based piping (e.g. PVC or PP) and expand it to the new populated areas. In addition, it is important to implement a Faecal Sludge Management program for removal and treatment of the sludge stored in septic tanks and latrines Roads and public squares Objective: Building roads back better to withstand cyclone conditions avoiding the high level of damage in the future. Beira’s roads suffered during the cyclone and subsequent flooding. Additional damage was caused by heavy-weight equipment in the aftermath of the disaster. Moreover, locations along the coastal road, which aided in coastal protection were destroyed. The repair of roads is an important part of the recovery process. Recovery of direct damages as well as indirect damag- es (losses) to roads in a sustainable and durable way is required. The objective is to enhance the resilience of the exiting main road network and to improve traffic flow during calamities
  30. 30. 31Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report and flood situations, by creating safe evacuation routes. A robust road network is also essen- tial for Beira, a logistical hub, to support economic activities in normal situations / daily life. Governance and finance Objective: Improve the resilience of the city by restoring and reinforcing adequate gover- nance processes. Adequate governance processes add to the resilience of the city as a whole. It is of vital im- portance that institutions and their networks are able to respond quickly and effectively to disasters. Professional staff, adequate monitoring systems, contingency plans are elements of a resilient governance. The financial infrastructure, as well as the necessary resources comple- ment this framework. Crosscutting topics Green infrastructure Objective: Greening the city with trees along the roads as important element of building back better. Building Beira Back Better includes a nature-based approach to technical solutions. When done right, investments in increased safety can add to the quality of the city. Examples in- clude a coastal protection with a combination of soft and hard measures with extended dunes, beaches and mangroves, green embankments of drainage facilities, a combination of reten- tion lake and urban green, and small green public parks in neighbourhoods which can double as temporary retention areas. Greening the city with trees along the roads is also an important element of building back better, which means replacing trees which did not survive the cy- clone and adding trees where possible. Green infrastructure is a cross cutting issue, and in this report includes the respective sectors such as dune plantations in coastal protection and road trees in road infrastructure.
  31. 31. 32 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Gender Rapid and unplanned urbanization has established a challenge to national and local govern- ments in their role of developing economically fair and vibrant, inclusive, safe cities. In this process of fast urbanization, failure to fully mainstream gender equality into urban develop- ment processes must be addressed. Gender inequalities, as a result of socio-cultural norms and unconscious biases, persist, caus- ing women and girls to benefit less from urbanization and urban spaces than men and boys. In fact, women and girls in cities face a range of specific barriers and vulnerabilities based on gender inequalities: gender based violence; feminization of poverty; unpaid and low employ- ment; limited control over housing, land and property rights (HLP); glass ceiling and sexual harassment at workplace; safety issues in public spaces and access to transportation; unequal participation in public and private decision-making processes, as well as barriers to education, housing and basic services. In order to empower women and girls and improve the well-being of all persons in the city, it is paramount to work toward promoting inclusive cities with spaces that welcome and engage women and girls.
  32. 32. 33Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Human Rights Applying a human rights-based approach defines a pattern of human rights relationships between the individual (rights holder) and the State (duty-bearer). It moves away from simply assessing the needs of beneficiaries toward empowering and building their capacity as (right holders) in asserting their rights. Thus, promoting and mainstreaming Human Rights effec- tively into strategies, policies, programmes and advisory services, UN Habitat contributes to the focus of urban development and the meaningful participation of the beneficiaries of development, especially the marginalized. UN Habitat, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, is mandated by the UN General Assembly to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all. Further, as part of the UN family, UN Habitat is mandated to respect, promote, and protect human rights in all of its activities. Therefore, all of UN Habitat’s interventions are underpinned by universal values and human rights that promote the adoption and implementation of a strong human rights-based approach to de- velopment. Specifically, UN Habitat is the key agency in the implementation of two specific rights – the Right to Adequate Housing and the Right to safe drinking water and sanitation (basic services).
  33. 33. 34 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report The following principles are used to guide the proposed recovery and resilience actions. Build Back Better for Disaster Risk Reduction Recovery from the disaster repair of damages is not enough. Cyclone Idai has shown what destruction natural forces are capable of, and it is important to prepare for this with improve- ments in all sectors. Climate change makes the need to Build Back Better even greater. Build- ing back better thus aims to reduce the risks that natural disasters pose to the city. This Di- saster Risk Reduction (DRR) strategy is key. But Build Back Better is more than just adequate structures; it also refers to the opportunity to aim for improved quality in design. Comprehensive solutions with added value Investments in improved safety should always be regarded in relation to the opportunities to improve the quality of the city as a whole. A comprehensive approach can make the city safer and more attractive simultaneously. Nature-based solutions are often the key to create this added value. For instance, creating dunes to increase coastal safety enhances the seafront and improves ecological quality. Nature based solutions Nature-based solutions are preferred where possible. Nature based solutions are flexible, often more cost effective and contribute to the quality of the city. The motto is nature-based solutions where possible and built solutions where necessary. The combination of nature based and constructed solutions may also be possible. Inclusive people-centred approach, gender equity and pro-poor The wellbeing of the people of Beira is central to the principles for the Beira RRP. The UN-Hab- itat motto ‘Leaving no place and no one behind’ is reflected in an inclusive people-centred approach, with the promotion of gender equity and the social inclusion of the city’s most vul- nerable populations. The people of Beira must be engaged in the actual implementation and monitoring of the recovery and resilience interventions. Transparency The Beira RRP should be implemented in an accountable and transparent manner. Major decisions should be widely disseminated through public media. Key recovery and resilience information must be available in the public domain. The process should involve all critical stakeholders, including municipality of Beira and other relevant government levels, the pri- III Guiding Principles to Enhance Recovery and Resilience
  34. 34. 35Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  35. 35. 36 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report vate sector, academia, civil society, unaffiliated citizens, as well as regional and international partners. It is essential to recognize the role different stakeholders play in the process and leverage their contributions to ensure common ownership of the process. Sustainability Sustainable recovery is a process that balances community, economic, and governance needs without compromising the well-being of future generations. Certainly, promoting climate change adaptation and building-back-better principles will foster long-term resilience. Sus- tainability also strives to ensure that benefits of the Beira RRP continue well beyond its imple- mentation period. Relation with Beira Master Plan 2035 In order to ensure that all actions in the short term contribute in the long term to the quality of Beira as a whole, a long-term vision for all sectors is important. The Beira Master Plan 2035 provides such a spatial vision. It is the vision for the city which has been approved by the mu- nicipality in 2014. This Master Plan is guiding urban developments and forms the basis for the sectoral planning in the Beira RRP.
  36. 36. 37Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Mozambique National Policy Principles In the Terms of Reference of the post-disaster recovery program (PREPOC) that the national government has issued (April/May 2019), guiding principles have been provided. These include: • The interventions should focus on the rapid and improved reconstruction of infrastruc- tur that were damaged: o With rapid it is meant the minimum necessary time to rebuild with quality o Improved/resilient means all the reconstruction that, beyond replacing the in- frastrture, guarantees the quality and durability, ensuring that the infrastructures realized with these new investments should at least be resilient to disasters of the same nature and magnitude. • Interventions to be realized under the recovery program should: o Prioritize the protection of lives, the rapid return of economic activities and pro- duction, and the social protection of vulnerable people o Prioritize the reconstruction of affected infrastructures, goods and services in places identified in agreement with the territorial planning instruments and local plans for climate change resilience and adaptation in rural and urban areas o Ensure the resilience of infrastructures, goods and services to be able to respond to future disasters of equal or larger magnitude o Ensure that spatial zoning plans are respected, while prohibiting constructions in high risk area, and promoting new urbanization plans and possible new urban centres. Disaster risk reduction is recommended as an approach for territorial and development planning of the affected areas to avoid future risks o Improve the liveability of the peri-urban areas, taking action to promote the opening of new roads that are broader and provide space for illumination, drainage and adequate sanitation o Include infrastructures to reduce flooding, refuge platforms and territorial plans o Promote community participation in the reconstruction process, as a way of strengthening local capacity (participatory planning, community based reconstruc- tion, etc.)
  37. 37. 38 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report City context Beira is a major city with an economic importance and potential to the country. It lies in the central region of the country in Sofala Province, where the Pungwe River meets the Indian Ocean. Beira had a population of 397,368 in 1997, which grew to 530,604 in 2019. It holds the regionally significant Port of Beira which acts as a gateway for both the central interior portion of the country as well as the land-locked nation of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. A large part of the inhabitants of Beira suffer from poor living conditions and a poor qual- ity of life. This is mainly due to inadequate coverage of urban infrastructure (e.g. drainage, drinking water, sewage, electricity) and poor service delivery (e.g. education, health and safety). The so-called ‘bairros desordenados’ are flagrant examples of the poor living condi- tions in Beira. Furthermore, unplanned and uncoordinated urban development negatively affects the living conditions of the inhabitants of Beira, especially in flood-prone areas. The coverage of urban infrastructure and service levels should be increased to improve the liv- ing conditions in Beira. Also, urban development should be planned and coordinated, to prevent urban development in flood prone areas and to provide sufficient infrastructure and services. The city of Beira is vulnerable to climate-related threats. The city is located just a few meters above sea level and faces heavy rainfall during the summer. The capacity and quality of the drainage system and coastal protection is currently insufficient to effectively protect Beira and its inhabitants against floods and heavy storms. Cyclone Idai proved this vulnerability of the city; had the cyclone come with high tide, its devastating effects would have been even worse. A clear climate change adaptation strategy is necessary to meet the challenges with regard to flood and storm safety, economic development and quality of life. IV City context, Cyclone Idai, First Response and Early Recovery
  38. 38. 39Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Cyclone Idai Tropical Cyclone Idai was one of the worst tropical cyclones on record to affect Africa and the Southern Hemisphere. On the 14th of March 2019, Idai made landfall in Beira in the late afternoon. Devastating winds were blowing up to 185 km/h with gusts going above 200 km/h until the early morning of the 15th of March. The long-lived storm caused catastrophic damage to Beira: at least 70% of all buildings were severely damaged with many losing their roofs partly or entirely. Vulnerable constructions collapsed, 3000 trees were uprooted and an enormous amount of utility poles and lampposts fell down. Critical infrastructure of the municipality has been severely damaged as well. The coastal protection system, roads, the drainage system and the sewage system suffered. After Idai in the early morning of the 15th of March, Beira had turned into a post-apocalyptic landscape. The heavy rainfall, that kept coming up for 8 days after cyclone Idai, increased the damage done to the infrastructure. Many inhabitants of Beira lost their homes and belongings and had to go through a very dif- ficult period of time. Dozens of people in Beira died as a direct effect of the storm.
  39. 39. 40 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report First Response After the landfall of cyclone Idai on March 14, a state of emergency was declared on March 19 by the President of Mozambique. The National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC), operating under the Minister of State Administration (MAE) is in charge of the day-to-day management in coordination with UNOCHA. In response to the destruction caused, a flash appeal of 41 million USD was launched for immediate lifesaving and life sustaining assis- tance to the affected communities, including support for health, hygiene, food security, pro- tection, nutrition and education. Right after the cyclone a few organisations started with immediate support (Red Cross, MSF, locally present NGO’s. After the state of emergency announcement, other organisations (UN, INGO’s) came in to support as well. A hub was created at the airport grounds to coordinate the operation. Most of the support went to affected areas outside Beira and the camps with- in Beira. Within Beira, rapid support was given to repair critical infrastructure by supporting existing local structures. People were vulnerable because of injuries, loss of livelihoods and displacements. Com- municable diseases were on the rise. Of particular concern were cholera and malaria. The government declared a cholera outbreak in Beira on 27 March, and later in Tica, Buzi and Dondo. Information on prevention was given in the communities and an oral vaccination campaign was set up rapidly and reached over 800,000 people by early April 2018. Bed nets have been distributed to prevent malaria. Many schools were damaged or used as shelter for displaced people. Humanitarian partners called for swift relocations out of schools, so that they could operate to be again, but this had to be safe, dignified and voluntary. Locally clean water supplies were set up and communi- ties were informed about how to protect themselves in order to stop more people from be- coming sick. Teams have been treating people for their immediate needs in the wake of the cyclone, including injuries, infections and cases of diarrhoea. They also have supported the normal functioning of the health system with deliveries, and assisting people still needing vital medication for illnesses such as HIV. Food distributions took place in some areas as well as distribution of utensils to people in camps so that they could start their daily lives again in their own home area.
  40. 40. 41Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Early Recovery and developments The mayor and municipality had a difficult task to make the city accessible again and remove debris and waste, without the possibility of mobile communication in the first days after the cyclone. But even so, within a few days the main roads were already accessible and within a few weeks the biggest part of the visible debris on the streets was cleaned up, preventing outbreak of diseases. This was all organized with strong support from the private sector with equipment and hundreds of volunteers. Recovery and development activities resumed at the onset of the crisis, while humanitarian needs were still being addressed. Longer term contributions of technical expertise, infra- structure (re)-development and economic investment are key and must be coordinated with national priorities so that risk conditions are not reinstalled. The United Nations encourage donors to support activities that allow the local private sector to “get back in business” as soon as possible. UNDP and partners are currently working with the Government, companies and foundations in Mozambique in implementing a recovery strategy. A UN coordinated inter-agency response plan and appeal was launched at the beginning of April as follow up to the flash appeal. The total amount needed is 337.2 million USD for a target population of 2,4 million people. As of the beginning of May, 155 million had been pledged by the various donors. The operation will include all sectors. The humanitarian situation is compounded by high levels of poverty, as well as the Gov- ernment’s limited fiscal space to respond effectively. Despite a downward trend in the in- cidence of poverty over the years, the number of poor people remains high and inequality is growing. Cyclone Idai is expected to exacerbate this situation, as recent poverty analysis conducted in Mozambique shows that cyclone, flood or drought can lead to a drop of up to 25 to 30 per cent in per capita food consumption and that affected households also cut back on expenditures in basic non-food items. The rain-dependent agricultural sector -which accounts for around 25 per cent of Mozam- bique’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employs nearly 75 per cent of the labour force- has been hard-hit by Cyclone Idai.
  41. 41. 42 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report V Scope and Methodology of the Municipal Recovery and Resilience Plan Scope The BRRP covers the sectors within the responsibility of the Beira municipality that are affect- ed by cyclone Idai. With respect to the temporal scope, needs interventions are categorized sequentially into three phases: short-, medium- and long-term. • Short term is up to 1 year. Within this timeframe the municipality wants to repair and restore immediate damages to critical infrastructure, and initiate studies for long term resilience of the city. Also BBB will commence of the damaged houses and businesses in the city. • Mid term is up to 3 years. The less critical or less damaged infrastructure will be re- stored in this period of time. Also the Building Back Better of systems like: coastal pro- tection, drainage, sewage, roads and solid waste will commence. • Long Term is up to 5 years. This will be a continuation of the mid term mainly with BBB of the critical infra-structure as mentioned in the mid-term. Apart from the periodization of the needs, the needs have been categorized based on the Three legged approach of UN-Habitat, which entails the following; • Physical needs: Relates to needs/interventions that have a material (physical) defini- tion that will derive into direct building / (re)construction. Physical conditions relate to the natural environment and the built environment, through the intervention lifecycle. • Governance needs: Relates to the needs that should be in place for the coordination, management and operation of the intervention in the short, medium and long term. This also refers to adequacy and alignment of the legal frameworks and governance system to achieve the actions of the intervention throughout the intervention lifecycle. In addition, this also relates to partnerships and engagement of relevant stakeholders (from communities to both private and public sector). • Capacity Building needs: Relates with the availability of sufficient, suitably qualified, and experienced professionals and stakeholders (from communities to both private and public sector) to undertake the type and scale of projects envisaged throughout the intervention lifecycle. • Financing needs: Relates with the financial capacity in place to address the needs (implement the intervention) throughout the intervention lifecycle. This includes the identification of financing mechanisms for initial investments, affordability of interven- tions, as well as the future needs related to financing instruments or mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of the intervention within the time.
  42. 42. 43Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  43. 43. 44 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Methodology The assessment methodology calculates the damages and losses as well as the social, eco- nomic, and environmental impacts of a disaster. Based on the best available information, the damages and losses provide a close approximation of damages to assets and losses in terms of the economic flows and total macroeconomic impact. Damage and Loss Quantifications Damages are defined as total or partial destruction of physical assets in the affected area. Damages occur during and immediately after the disaster and are measured in physical units (e.g., number of destroyed houses, number of damaged vehicles or boats, etc.). Their monetary values are expressed as the replacement costs according to prices prevailing just before the event. Losses are defined as changes in economic flows arising from the disaster. They occur until full economic recovery and reconstruction is achieved, and for the purposes of this assess- ment are projected up through the fourth quarter of 2019. Typical losses include the decline in output in productive sectors (e.g., tourism and commerce) or economic flows (e.g., em- ployment earnings and livelihoods). Data Collection and Validation The most important source of information for damages and losses has been the municipality of Beira. All assessments have been executed by various municipality teams and specialists. As of 22nd March, the “Taskforce Rebuild Beira 2019” was formed on request of the mayor. The Taskforce consists of Dutch consultants already involved in the Beira Master Plan proj- ects, the Arcadis Shelter Team and a team of UN-Habitat specialists. The taskforce has been working closely together with the municipality teams in order to execute all assessments, validate all the information and make resilient plans for the future. For the data gathering of housing in Beira, the Reach Initiative was an important supplier of information with satellite images and maps of counted buildings and damages before and after the disaster. Recovery and Resilience Needs Quantification Recovery and resilience needs are the costs of recommended interventions and resources, including the needs estimated for financing reconstruction, replacement, or repair of the physical assets that were damaged or destroyed by the disaster, rehabilitation of basic ser- vices, and restoration of personal or household income. Recovery needs also include capacity building and operational costs for service delivery that
  44. 44. 45Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report are necessary for the implementation of interventions. Costing for recovery needs include differentials for building back better, which considers quality improvements and other disas- ter-risk-reduction measures implemented for enhanced disaster resilience. For the purposes of this plan, resilience needs are those actions that address vulnerabilities revealed and magnified by the disaster but that are not necessarily linked to the damages or losses caused by the disaster, such as the identified needs for coastal protection, drainage, sewage, roads and solid waste management.
  45. 45. SUMMARY OF DAMAGES, LOSSES, AND NEEDS
  46. 46. 48 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report VI Summary of Damages, Losses, and Needs Sectoral distribution of needs
  47. 47. 49Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  48. 48. VII.Proposed Recovery and Resilience Interventions
  49. 49. 52 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report A. 1. Housing and settlements What: Approximately 70% of the housing in Beira has been affected by the Idai and prelim- inary assessments indicate that the quality of the housing but also the characteristics of the settlements have been decisive in the damage. There is a need for an integrated approach for resilient housing in an urban context which includes: - access to basic services (including to water, sanitation, lighting, electricity, and waste), - secure tenure (including compliance with a continuum of land rights, promotion of gen- der-equality, and prohibition of housing discrimination and forced evictions), and should be embedded in plans at citywide-, regional- and national levels and sectoral investment strategies to improve the access to adequate housing for all (Habitat III Policy Paper Housing Policies, UN-Habitat). Why: Post disaster housing recovery is an opportunity to repair and reconstruct housing building back better (BBB) for adaptation and disaster risk reduction (DDR) and to improve the living conditions and resilience of settlements in coordination with the sectoral interven- tions at city level. How and when: In the short-term the priority is the reconstruction of partially and total- ly damaged housing reducing the vulnerability and exposure to disaster. Reconstruction should limit relocation -avoiding high social and economic costs - and aim at urban adapta- tion to risk and building back better for resilience. Additionally, capacity building and tech- nical guidelines for building back better combined with special assistance to the most vul- nerable will be essential. In the medium-term the focus is addressing resilience at settlement level through neighbor- hood planning, community-led infrastructure, housing, and response to risk. Moreover, the capacities of the municipality to coordinate and prioritize actions to ensure the integration of sectorial interventions will be strengthened. Finally, in the long-term the focus should be creating mechanisms and frameworks to ensure safer, resilient housing for all. Who: The government and development partners will partially finance and oversee home- owner-driven repair and reconstruction. Development partners will provide technical assis- tance to promote safe building practices and support the government in the definition of policy and guiding frameworks for building back better. Communities will actively participate in the process for resilience in settlements with appro- priate technical assistance and coordination with the municipality and development part- ners.
  50. 50. 53Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report DAMAGES 184,380,000 USD LOSSES 37,626,000 USD NEEDS 275,345,000 USD
  51. 51. 54 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report A.2 Resilient Expansion of Residential Areas What: Beira Municipality wants to build 25,000 houses in the medium to longer term for low- er income groups in the city. The Beira Master Plan 2035 provides the spatial vision for that to happen. The Maraza neighbourhood has been indicated as the area for the development of a whole new residential neighbourhood of 400 hectares. A pilot of 4 hectares and 125 housing plots ready for construction (with energy, water, sewerage, road services available) will be implemented in 2019. A special focus is on the provision of social housing to address the city’s pro-poor development policies. Why: The present urban development reality is that of uncontrolled sprawl with people, most- ly coming from low income strata, moving into low lying areas that are unsuitable for human habitation due to the frequent inundations from rain and flooding. To turn that around, areas need to be prepared in which living conditions are decent and no flooding occurs and where people can settle and buy or build an affordable house. How: Investment is necessary to prepare areas for housing development, raising the level by sand fill and providing basic services such as drainage, sewage, water, access roads and power. The Beira Urban Development Corporation (BURD) was created with the objective to do this. The developed land that is ready for construction will be sold to users of the plots or to housing developers that want to develop affordable housing for low income groups. The BURD Corporation will enter into partnerships with local and other developers to achieve this. The BURD has received start-up funding from the Government of the Netherlands to develop the first mini-pilot in Maraza. The approach to land and housing development in Beira is market based, but viable for low- cost groups. Banks have demonstrated serious interest to provide long-term home loans to low income families, which is a revolutionary development in Mozambique and potentially a solution for large groups of low-income households. Donor funding is useful to reduce the overall cost of main infrastructure such as sewage and drainage so that plots become cheap- er and more accessible to lower income groups. Who: • Beira Urban Development Corporation • Beira Municipality is the sole shareholder in the BURD Corporation • Government of the Netherlands and other donors • Private developers such as Casa Real (Mozambique) and others • Social entrepreneurs such as REALL (UK)
  52. 52. 55Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report When: The Beira Master Plan 2035 was approved in 2014. The BURD Corporation was estab- lished in 2018 and will be fully operational in 2019. The Maraza mini-pilot will start mid 2019. Expansion is possible as soon as further investment has been secured and developers have started in Maraza. Damages: none, Losses: none, Needs: 10 million USD for main infrastruc- ture such as main sewage connection, area access roads, main drainage, to reduce the land price for lower income groups. DAMAGES 0 USD LOSSES 0 USD NEEDS 10,000,000 USD
  53. 53. 56 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report B.Municipal buildings and services What: The municipality owns approximately 176 buildings in the city (see picture below for categories). Of these buildings, 65% was assessed by a team of municipality technicians, accompanied by engineers from the Taskforce Rebuild Beira via field visits. Damage assess- ment forms and matrix have been prepared and detailed assessment has been made with measurements and pictures taken. The cost of damage of the remaining buildings was es- timated on basis of the average costs of the same type of buildings assessed. Conclusion of the assessment is that 60% of the municipal buildings is heavily damaged, 25% medium damaged and 15% lightly damaged. Apart from this, assets like IT-equipment and furni- ture were damaged severely and need replacement. Also the municipality had losses of destroyed commercial rented out facilities and tax income due to tolerance in tax payment. Why: Repair or reconstruction of most buildings is urgently needed as most of the municipal buildings have important public and income generating functions. Apart from that, contin- ued ingress of rainwater will cause further deterioration of the buildings. To make the build- ings resilient to future disasters Building Back Better has to be applied and this will raise the needed amount for reconstruction. In order to restore the municipal functionality IT-equip- ment and furniture needs to be replaced and losses in income have to be compensated. How and When: The municipality team together with the taskforce engineers made a divi- sion in categories of priority in order to plan the reconstruction: - Short term: Category 1 (50%): essential buildings for the operation of the municipality of Beira that are severely damaged. - Medium term: Category 2 (23%): Buildings that, despite being damaged, continue functioning. - Medium term: Category 3 (22%): Buildings less important for public services and or out of use. - Long term: Category 4 (5%): Complete destroyed buildings that need to be rebuild but require further consideration / elaboration regarding their function. Who: The Urban Development Cooperation Beira will accompany the preparation of tender documents and the contracting process of the works that are coming forth out of the assessment. The construction department of the municipality will be in charge of the supervision of the reconstruction works. DAMAGES 8,290,000 USD LOSSES 1,460,000 USD NEEDS 12,310,000 USD
  54. 54. 57Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  55. 55. 58 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  56. 56. 59Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report C.Coastal protection Why: Since the implementation in the 1950’s and 1970’s, the coastal protection system was poorly maintained. It was helpless against the force of cyclone Idai and the damage (to both the coastal protection and the city of Beira) would have been much higher had Idai hit Beira during spring tide conditions. There is clear indications that the lifetime of the existing coastal protection has come to an end. For that reason, reinforcement of the coastal protection system is necessary. When: Emergency repairs to the dune area, seawall, coastal road should be installed as soon as pos- sible to protect Beira against future storm conditions. Within a matter of years, an improved coastal protection scheme should have been implemented to protect Beira against extreme hazards from sea for decades to come. What: East of Ponta Gea, a coastal protection principle of groynes and sand is preselected. This choice is based on the fact that this protection principle has proven to be suitable for Beira. Secondly, this type of coastal protection requires relatively low maintenance. West of Ponta Gea, a more complex situation exists because of the complex coastal morphological system (technical) and the fact that people are currently living in the floodplain area (socio economic). For the protection of this area (and the city centre of Beira, for the same reasons) a combination of sand and hard structures is proposed. How: Implementing the coastal protection system is a critical operation because works at a one loca- tion may have a negative impact on other locations along the coast. Implementation of groynes will be accompanied by small scale nourishments for compensating coastal erosion. The execution method should be assessed thoroughly in a detailed design study. During construction, reliable equipment and overcapacity should be available to cope with unexpected events. Who: The coastal protection works should be implemented reliably and in relatively short time. A combination of international and national contractors is preferred. Once finished, ownership of the coastal protection works should be arranged to deal with dune protection, monitoring and mainte- nance. DAMAGES 1,975,000 USD LOSSES 0 USD NEEDS 90,850,000 USD
  57. 57. 60 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  58. 58. 61Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report D.Drainage Why: Reconstruction of at least a basic drainage network is a necessity to keep frequency and duration of flooding conditions limited during calamities and to support economic activity. This “Needs”-inter- ventions builds further on the interventions of the main road network by the Municipality – thus speed- ing up this ongoing rehabilitation. What: The scope covers the Municipality drainage network within Beira. Damages have been as- sessed by Serviços Autónomos de Saneamento da Beira (SASB) (refer to Annex D). The damages to the drainage system are relatively small and mainly consist of damages to roofs and electrical installations of (small) service buildings and a damaged generator. It seems that erosion has occurred at the Maraza retentions basin (earthwork damages) that have not been assessed yet. Drainage systems serve in keeping urban and agricultural areas dry during and after periods of rain- fall. In flat, coastal areas like Beira a dense drainage network helps in keeping the frequency and du- ration of flooding conditions limited. If the drainage capacity of natural and artificial water systems is insufficient, urban areas get water-logged or flooded for several days per year. Directly after Idai, many drainage canals were partly or completely blocked by fallen trees and debris. An accurate assessment of this damage is not considered possible nor meaningful and expert judge- ment was used to obtain a “Loss” figure. The identified needs are feasibility studies, detailed design, monitoring, training; improve primary drainage (phase 2); improve & replace existing tertiary network; Improve & deepen secondary drain on a pilot stretch of 2,5km; new tertiary networks in three pilot areas of 1km2 each. How: The repair of the local damages (bridges, culverts and so on) is ongoing and done by the SASB. Also, the municipality has a drainage rehabilitation program that can absorb these works, with some additional support and management. Coordination regarding the long-term planning for drainage and sewerage works shall be secured. The execution method should be assessed thoroughly in a detailed design study. During construc- tion reliable equipment and overcapacity should be available to cope with unexpected events. Who: Contracting & management can be done the Beira Urban Development Cooperation (SDUB) supported by the Municipality / SASB and construction supervision by SASB. When: Although in general the works should be done as soon as possible, there is no real urgency. Execution outside the rainy season is preferable for quality and efficiency. DAMAGES 121,000 USD LOSSES 0 USD NEEDS 193,606,000 USD
  59. 59. 62 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  60. 60. 63Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report E.Sanitation What: It is necessary to implement a program for faecal sludge management as well as expand the sewer network to new areas. The old existing sewer network (from the 1960’s) needs to be replaced and the wastewater treatment plant would (WWTP) work better with a power generator. Why: Several economic and social benefits can result from improved sanitation services. Reductions in deaths associated with diarrheal disease, as well as economic benefits related to savings from seek- ing less health care, from reduced losses of productive time due to disease and from a reduction in premature mortality. According to the World Health Organization, the economic return on sanitation spending is US$ 5.50 per US dollar invested. Less than 37% of the population in urban region of Beira are served with sewer network – the majority rely on septic tanks and latrines for disposal of sewage. How: The faecal sludge management will be implemented with the use of adapted vehicles (locally called “Txopellas”) and trucks with pumps for removal of sludge from septic tanks and latrines. Seven sludge transfer stations will be built to store the sludge before it is transferred to the WWTP. Two thirds of the existing sewer network will be replaced and the network will be expanded to new areas. A new power generator for the wastewater treatment plant will be acquired. Who: SASB (the Sanitation Authority in Beira) will be responsible for elaborating the terms of refer- ence for the design and construction/implementation of the new infrasctructure. When: The purchase of the power generator and the design of the new infrastructure are expected to be completed in the short term. The construction of the infrastructure for faecal sludge management, and for replacement/expansion of the sewer network are going to start in the mid-term and finish in the long-term. DAMAGES 98,000 USD LOSSES 0 USD NEEDS 48,958,000 USD
  61. 61. 64 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report F.Solid Waste Management What: The Municipal Plan for Integrated Solid Waste Management (SWM)*, elaborated in 2018, pro- vides strategic orientations for the improvement of the sector, and identifies the following needs: • Collection service needs to be enlarged as well as improved in terms of efficiency; • Final disposal lacks economic, environmental and social sustainability; • SWM segregation and valorisation needs to be encouraged; • Municipal by-laws need improvement, update, and enforcement; • The Municipal directorates in charge of SWM and maintenance needs capacity development; • Financial sustainability needs to be improved.
  62. 62. 65Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report The response to Cyclone IDAI made the already identified needs more urgent, due to supplementary waste generation and increased disfunction of the waste management system. “Needs” is looking at options to maximize the potential of material recovery and circular economy, increasing availability of cheap secondary materials, minimising costs for transportation and disposal, and defining specific solutions for potentially hazardous material. But Cyclone IDAI also exposed additional needs of pre- paredness to deal with disaster waste generated overnight with an immediate need for removal. Why: Cyclone IDAI seriously affected the SWM infrastructure (where present) in Beira and intensified existing needs, due to damages and losses of equipment and the generation of large quantities of waste and debris to be discarded. The intense efforts made by the Municipality of Beira in the clear- ance of debris in the city in the wake of Idai need to be followed by significant investments in the waste treatment sector as soon as possible. These investments will guarantee sustainable positive impacts on urban livability, environmental quality and public health. They will also potentially reduce vulnerability to floods through reduced obstruction in the drainage infrastructure and increase cre- ation of livelihood linked to waste valorisation. How: The sustainable improvement of the SWM sector can be achieved through simultaneous im- plementation of (1) direct investments for waste collection, (more) sanitary disposal, and valorisation equipment and infrastructure, (2) strengthening of technical, financial and regulatory capacity of the Municipality and (3) increased involvement, support and accountability of private sector and citizens. When: Actions should take place according to a 3-phase program, following the Municipal Plan for Integrated SWM. While short-term actions will focus on restoring the pre-IDAI situation, all key needs described in the first section will need to be addressed simultaneously in each phase to allow a pro- gressive and sustainable improvement. Both short term, medium term and long term actions need to be started up simultaneously and should be consistent in order to strengthen each other. Who: SWM services in Beira are under the responsibility of the Municipality, however the successful and sustainable improvement of the sector will require a multi-stakeholder approach. Key actors to be involved are: Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and civil society, provincial representation of key ministries such as Environment (DPTADER) and Health (DPS), the private sector, in particular formal and informal recycling actors, development partners already supporting the SWM sector in Beira, such as CAM (Consortium Association with Mozambique), AMOR (Mozambican Recycling As- sociation), TERRANOVA, as well as other actors involved in the post-emergency support to the SWM sector (UNICEF, Atlas log). * Prepared by Municipal Council of Beira (CAB), with support from CAM and UNDP DAMAGES 410,000 USD LOSSES 223,000 USD NEEDS 28,079,000 USD
  63. 63. 66 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report G.Road Infrastructure What: The scope covers the Municipality road network within Beira, excluding national and provincial roads. Damages have been assessed by the municipal road department (refer to Annex D). Direct damages to roads were relatively minor and attributable to: • More than 2.500 fallen trees along the roads, their roots torn out and lifted up, damaging pave- ments, sidewalks, fences & walls, etcetera, amounting to significant damage. • Wave attack and erosion of 3 coastal roads; these are included in the section “Coastal Defense”. • Road furniture - road signs, robots, squares & roundabouts etc. Directly after Idai, many roads were partly or completely blocked by fallen trees and debris and there was no telecommunication possible in a chaotic situation. Forces were joined to restore mobility as quickly as possible, with the help of local transport companies & contractors. Due to the use of heavy equipment on sometimes saturated and submerged roads, to temporary dump sites at improvised locations, this operation caused substantial indirect damage to Beira’s road network – in a poor state of repair even before the cyclone. An accurate assessment of this damage is not considered possible nor meaningful and expert judgement was used to obtain a “Loss” figure. Why: Reconstruction of at least a basic road network is a necessity to secure mobility during calami- ties and to support economic activity. This “Needs”-interventions builds further on the interventions of the main road network by the Municipality – thus speeding up this ongoing rehabilitation, that is severely hampered by lack of funds. The scope has been proposed by the Municipality. Furthermore, resilience is enhanced by creating flood safe evacuation routes, of which the “Elevated “Airport Road” is the most obvious. Interventions in neighborhoods, also those without formal network, are not part of the Needs scope. How: The repair of the local damages (trees, furniture and so on) is ongoing and done by the Munic- ipality. Also the Municipality has a road rehabilitation program that can absorb these works, with some ad- ditional support and management. Coordination regarding the long-term planning for drainage and sewerage works shall be secured. Flood safe evacuation routes will require further study. Rehabilita- tion of the coastal roads is part of the Coastal Defense package. Who: Contracting & management can be done the Beira Urban Development Cooperation (SDUB) supported by the Municipality / CMB and construction supervision by CMB. When: Repair of the damages is urgent because unsafe situations occur: missing robots & road signs, fallen trees, big holes in pavement and coastal roads; these things are gradually being repaired by the Municipality already. In general the other works (Needs) are not really urgent, but should be done “as soon as practically possible” and preferably outside the rainy season.
  64. 64. 67Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report DAMAGES 2,000,000 USD LOSSES 1,850,000 USD NEEDS 37,300,000 USD
  65. 65. 68 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  66. 66. 69Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report H.Green infrastructure What: Building Beira Back Better includes a greening of the city and nature based approach to tech- nical solutions. Green infrastructure includes: 1. dune areas with trees and shrubs as part of a coastal protection (cross cutting, in budget included in the coastal protection) 2. mangrove planting and restoration 3. green embankments of drainage facilities 4. a combination of retention lake and urban green 5. small green public parks in neighbourhoods which can double as temporary retention area. 6. trees along the roads including replacing trees which did not survive the typhoon and adding trees where possible. Why: Greening Beira with green infrastructure adds to: 1. safety in the coastal zone, where trees and shrubs on extended dunes are part of a natural coastal protection, and create a wind buffer between the ocean and the sea 2. improved environmental quality and especially the air quality 3. increased water retention capacity to reduce peak flow 4. the attractiveness of Beira How: In all planning actions in the city the policy of greening of the city has to be incorporated. With a comprehensive approach, investments in increased safety and other functional aspects can add to the quality of the city. When: Short term: replacement of trees which were destroyed due to cyclone damage, planting of dunes in combination with dune restoration. Mid term and long term dune plantations in combination with the development of the coastal protec- tion, mangrove restoration in existing mangroves east of Praia Nova and mangrove development in combination with coastal protection works west of Praia Nova, development of green canal banks in combination with the drainage works, development of a park around the planned retention lake, de- velopment of small neighborhood parks in combination with temporary water retention and planting of street trees along all existing and new main roads Who: The municipal works department is responsible for plantations, working together with coastal protection for dune development, road department for trees along roads, drainage experts for reten- tion lake and drainage channel embankments.
  67. 67. 70 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  68. 68. 71Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report I.Business What: The business sector in Beira has appealed for assistance to overcome the impact by the cy- clone and to allow for a rapid recovery. To develop a resilient economy of Beira the city has a strategy and plans to improve the conditions for investment and business in the city by creating an industrial and commercial park. Short term support to the business sector for recovery and longer-term devel- opment for a resilient economy are both necessary. Why: An assessment of damages to the business sector in Beira carried out by CTA and its members, encompassing 311 companies , arrived at the amount of total damages and losses of USD 119 million. It is expected that at least 90% of these businesses do not have any insurance that could moderate the impact on these mostly small and medium size businesses. If no outside assistance will be provided, the likely scenario is that a significant number of companies will have to file for bankruptcy, no longer capable of paying their staff and bank obligations. Hundreds of people could lose their jobs. Vital companies that should be part of the recovery of the city’s economy could be lost. For a resilient economy the conditions for investment and business must be favourable. Apart from fiscal and other central instruments, the municipality needs to have a strategy and plan to create a resilient business environment. How: With respect to short term support for recovery of the business sector the national government is working on a support package. This could consist of tax holidays and other fiscal instruments. How- ever, it is likely that more direct financial assistance will be necessary to bridge the financial gaps and ensure the continuity of businesses. Most of the support measures will be in the area of fiscal and other instruments of the national gov- ernment, and loan facilities. The municipality has very few resources to provide short term support to the business sector, although the municipality has been tolerant towards tax payments of companies. For a lasting economic development of the city, the 1000 hectare Munhava industrial and commercial area will be developed with a market based approach, providing land that is ready for construction (with energy, roads, water, sewerage utilities already implemented) to interested parties. To improve the access to the area and to the port, a new Port Access Road will need to be built. The new road will also significantly decongest heavy traffic through the city and provide a straight connection to the new EN6 highway. Who: • National government’s Ministry of Finance, with partners in the banking sector national and inter- national • Beira Municipality • Beira Urban Development Corporation • Ministry of Public Works, Roads Administration ANE When: The disruption of business due to the damages and losses is such that many businesses can no
  69. 69. 72 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report longer wait for measures to be put in place. Support to the business sector facilitated by the national government is among the most urgent of measures. The creation of the Munhava Industrial and Commercial Park was started in 2018 with the attribution of 1000 hectares of land to the Beira Urban Development Corporation with the aim to develop the area over the next 20 years. A complete feasibility study for the Port Access Road was concluded in 2018 with funding from the Government of the Netherlands. The development plan for the Munhava Industrial and Commercial Park will be prepared in 2019. Damages and losses of the business sector: 119 million USD (CTA assessment) Needs (Municipality): 84 million USD to construct the Port Access Road When: The disruption of business due to the damages and losses is such that many businesses can no longer wait for measures to be put in place. Support to the business sector facilitated by the national government is among the most urgent of measures. The creation of the Munhava Industrial and Commercial Park has been started in 2018 with the attri- bution of 1000 hectares of land to the Beira Urban Development Corporation with the aim to develop the area over the next 20 years. A complete feasibility study for the Port Access Road has been con- cluded in 2018 with funding from the Government of the Netherlands. The development plan for the Munhava Industrial and Commercial Park will be prepared in 2019. Damages and losses of the business sector: 119 million USD (CTA assessment) Needs (Municipality): 84 million USD to construct the Port Access Road. DAMAGES & 119,000,000 USD LOSSES NEEDS 203,000,000 USD
  70. 70. 73Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  71. 71. 74 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report
  72. 72. 75Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Post Idai Reconstruction Office The overall implementation responsibility for post-disaster reconstruction projects is with the Post-Id- ai Reconstruction Office (PIRO) that has been created for this purpose by the Council of Ministers. The PIRO is a coordination office. The actual implementation will be carried out by the various implement- ing agencies of the government at the various governance levels. Beira Municipality The Beira Municipality can take responsibility for the implementation of reconstruction projects of infrastructure under its responsibility. The management of donor funds, the procurement of works, goods and services, the supervision of implementation and the reporting towards the donors can be taken up by the central organization of the Municipality or by the SDU Beira, see below. The Municipality has limited experience with the implementation of large infrastructure with contracts above 10 million USD. Its experience is mostly with operation and maintenance contracts for roads maintenance and upgrade, for the sewage system, limited coastal protection works, and municipal buildings. Large investments channelled through the Municipality would best be accompanied by Technical Assistance and capacity building. The creation of dedicated Project Implementation Units (PIU) within the Municipality is a model that has been implemented before. Coordination Platform In order to have Beira municipality in the lead of the humanitarian intervention and to have a resilient reconstruction planning and management process, a strong coordination will be needed with hu- manitarian and development partners, donors, NGOs and private sector. An integrated approach is needed, with people and place needs at the center of the process. The creation of a Coordination Platform could be a solution in order to: • Support Beira Municipality in multiple stakeholders engagement and coordination • Create an enabling environment for a qualitative response, recovery & reconstruction • Increase collaboration and commitment in humanitarian action and reconstruction • Formalize a Protocol of Engagement between key stakeholders • Establish a coordination mechanism for decision making in policy and planning, through a partici- pative approach • Function as a bridge between emergency response and recovery and resilient reconstruction phases • Ensure that humanitarian aid in Beira will also support actions towards resilient reconstruction, with short, medium and long term interventions agreed with all stakeholders Such institutional setting for recovery and resilient reconstruction governance could avoid problems VIII Implementation framework
  73. 73. 76 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report like lack of trust between stakeholders, inefficiencies in communication-coordination, differences in agendas, priorities and approaches, superficiality in local context understanding, exclusion of affect- ed people from decision-making process. Beira Urban Development Corporation, S.A. For the purpose of the attracting investment into the city’s spatial development projects for housing and industrial & commercial areas, the Beira Municipality has created the ‘Sociedade de Desenvolvi- mento Urbano da Beira, S.A.’ (SDU Beira) or the Beira Urban Development (BURD) Corporation. The BURD Corporation is an autonomous legal entity with the Municipality as its sole shareholder. It has been created in November of 2018 and is presently in the build-up phase of its management capacity. The capacity building of the BURD Corporation is supported by the Government of the Netherlands (GoN). GoN is supporting not only the capacity development of the central BURD organisation, but also the pilot project for residential land development in the Maraza area of Beira. In addition, funds for early recovery emergency projects of GoN will be channelled through the organisation. The BURD organization can also provide an institutional facility for interested donors who want to use a legally and administratively independent entity to channel their financial support for the implementation of (selected) post-emergency construction works. More information about the BURD Corporation, and contact details, in annex V. National Government Implementing Agencies For loan funded projects in the past the implementation was often entrusted to implementation agen- cies of the National Government. Most recently in Beira, AIAS, an institution under the responsibility of the Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources, has been the implementing agent for the WB funded phase 1 Drainage Project, concluded in 2018. UN-Habitat UN-Habitat is the coordinating agency within the United Nations System for human settlement activi- ties, the focal point for the monitoring, evaluation and implementation of the Habitat Agenda, and the custodian agency for the Sustainable Development Goal 11 and the New Urban Agenda. Based on its almost 20 years presence in Mozambique and its consolidated experience in post-disas- ter reconstruction processes, UN-Habitat has well established operations on disaster risk reduction and resilience, including Sofala province and in the city of Beira in particular. Therefore UN-Habitat can provide comprehensive quantified and spatialized understanding of the needs of affected house- holds, communities, and settlements. Moreover, UN-Habitat can facilitate and coordinate the human- itarian and development bridge in urban reconstruction interventions through a people-centered integrated process of neighborhood recovery and resilient reconstruction. This will be coupled with
  74. 74. 77Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report institutional and people-centered capacity building, as well with its technical assistance on sustain- able long-term vision for sustainable urban development. International Organizations International Organizations from the UN system or others can play a role in the community-based reconstruction projects and slum upgrading. Private Sector Implementing Partners (PSIP) In the development of new residential areas and industrial/commercial areas, the Municipality and the BURD Corporation have started to work with private implementing partners. For the Maraza residen- tial area first experience has been gained with a social entrepreneurial company that has started to build affordable housing at pilot scale in the Inhamizua area of Beira. Such partners can support the housing expansion efforts, particularly for low-income households (social housing). Where possible, the model is involving banks for the provision of home loans, which is a new development in Mozam- bique. The same process is under study for the industrial/commercial areas, where private implement- ing partners may be able to play a role. Also, in solid waste management (recycling) there are experiences with Private Sector Implementing Partners. The following matrix provides an overview of the possible implementation channels.
  75. 75. 78 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Annex I Summary of Sector Needs Periodization
  76. 76. 79Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Annex II Overview of Proposed Needs Interventions
  77. 77. Annex II Overview of Proposed Needs Interventions
  78. 78. 82 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report HOUSING AND SETTLEMENTS SHORT MEDIUM LONG TOTAL Key actions for implementation  204,783,577 25,569,511 44,991,495 275,344,583 Domestic goods 22,159,288 22,159,288 Livelihood regeneration programme: build- ing materials and skills incubator   22,159,288 Demolition costs and debris removal 31,333,249 31,333,249 Stimulation of household driven investment through progressive registry of housing registry cadastre   31,333,249 Administrative costs (licenses, permits) 728,953 242,984 60,746 1,214,922 Mobilize and channel financial assistance with private and public sector with delivery mechanisms for most vulnerable groups 425,223 242,984.40 60,746.10 Advocate for funding at national, provincial and municipal level 303,731 Revise the current building code to include resilience and DRR   182,238 Reconstruction and rehabilitation of totally destroyed houses 105,454,245 Vulnerability assessments 1,581,814 Define Urban Recovery Plans at the neigh- bourhood scale: 527,271 Reconstruction and rehabilitation works with a focus on the most vulnerable 103,345,160 Reconstruction of partially destroyed houses 96,624,379 96,624,379 Vulnerability assessments 1,449,366       Define Urban Recovery Plans at the neigh- bourhood scale: 483,122       Reconstruction and rehabilitation work with a focus on the most vulnerable 94,691,891       Structural retrofit 12,862,500 12,862,500 Retrofit and rehabilitate damaged structured following BBB approach     10,290,000   Scaling up of incremental building housing developments     2,572,500   Relocation into safe areas 666,000 666,000 Relocation of households in areas extremely vulnerable to disaster 566,100       SOCIAL | Annex II Overview of Proposed Needs Interventions in USD Amounts in USD, exclusive VAT.
  79. 79. 83Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Technical assistance for human-rights based relocation 99,900       Human settlements resilience and vulnerabil- ity reduction interventions 780,000 2,535,000 585,000 3,900,000 Establish a recovery coordination committee 195,000       Design financial assistance for owner driven reconstruction 585,000       Regional and metropolitan risk reduction and resilience plans   585,000     Establish and update contingency planning for cities in line with the resilience strategies   390,000     Building capacities of local authorities for resilience and risk-sensitive planning   975,000     Operationalize Livelihood regeneration programme: building materials and skills incubator   585,000     Revise the current housing policy to have resilience, DRR, and BBB at its core     195,000   Resilient and Sustainable Beira campaign for future investment in the city.     390,000   Technical assistance for local authorities dealing with housing and human settlements 400,000 450,000 150,000 1,000,000 Establish and independent recovery monitor- ing entity 50,000       Technical support on alternatives to relocation 250,000       Sensitize and mobilize stakeholders for community driven planning and actions for resilience 100,000 150,000     Strengthen saving mechanisms and facilitate access to finance for housing reconstruction tailored to different socio-economic groups   100,000     Continuous capacity building in BBB and mainstreaming of disaster preparedness “living with floods” and DRR measures   200,000     Operationalize national level social protec- tion and housing strategies at local level focusing on post-disaster housing recovery     150,000   Technical assistance for local construction MSME 130,000 130,000 Drafting and dissemination of Housing reconstruction and repair guidelines in local languages 39,000       HOUSING AND SETTLEMENTS SHORT MEDIUM LONG TOTAL Annex II Overview of Proposed Needs Interventions in USD Amounts in USD, exclusive VAT.
  80. 80. 84 Beira Municipal Recovery And Resilience Plan • Volume 1 - Main Report Support owner-driven implementation via training on BBB 26,000         Create financial incentives for MSMEs  engaged in housing sector reconstruction;  including skilled workers, construction  com- panies, material production banks, etc. 39,000         Continuous municipal support for the cre- ation of mechanisms to lower down costs  on resilient housing construction materials  and MSMEs. 26,000       MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS AND SERVICES SHORT MEDIUM LONG TOTAL Needs category Interventions 6.013.000 5.215.000 1.082.000 12.310.000 Physical Reconstruction and rehabilitation of mu- nicipal buildings and facilities. Long-term maintenance. 5.180.000 4.660.000 520.000 10.360.000 IT equipment and furniture 120.000 120.000 Governance Strengthening of departments and fi- nancing implementation, supervision and monitoring of construction and rehabilita- tion works. 518.000 465.000 52.000 1.035.000 Coverage losses income tax, licenses and concessions. 1.460.000 Capacity Building Training courses on BBB for Municipal technicians and civil servants 50.000 40.000 10.000 100.000 Exchange of experience visits on BBB 25.000 25.000 Financing Budget for maintenance rehabilitated buildings and facilities over next 5-10 years 500.000 500.000 Improvement of financial management capacity and modernisation of tax system 75.000 50.000 125.000 Improvement early warning and emer- gency communication system 30.000 30.000 HOUSING AND SETTLEMENTS SHORT MEDIUM LONG TOTAL Annex II Overview of Proposed Needs Interventions in USD Amounts in USD, exclusive VAT.

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