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General Maintenance Standards V0.6

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This report is an overview of available standards (IEC, ISO, EN and other standards) applicable within physical asset and maintenance management projects.

The standards are not described in detail, purpose of this document is to list a set of standards (including a short description) relevant for asset, engineering and maintenance management projects. The interested reader should check the details in the standard(s) itself.

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General Maintenance Standards V0.6

  1. 1. Stork Asset Management Solutions GENERAL STANDARDS IN PHYSICAL ASSET MANAGEMENT Date June 2009 Place Antwerp (Belgium) Version 0.6 (draft) Author B. Den Tijn File name General maintenance standards_V0.6.doc PREFACE This report is an overview of available standards (IEC, ISO, EN and other standards) applicable within physical asset and maintenance management projects. The standards are not described in detail, purpose of this document is to list a set of standards (including a short description) relevant for asset, engineering and maintenance management projects. The interested reader should check the details in the standard(s) itself. 'The nice thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from.' (Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum) "How can something "standard" contribute to something as creative as "engineering" ? Page 1 of 54
  2. 2. Stork Asset Management Solutions Table of content: 1 Standardization organizations ........................................................................................ 8 2 Standards and the organization ...................................................................................... 9 3 IEC Standards .................................................................................................................11 3.1 IEC as a standardization organization:................................................................11 3.2 CENELEC and IEC: ..............................................................................................11 3.3 How the IEC defines a standard: .........................................................................11 3.4 IEC 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres .....................11 3.4.1 Part 17: Inspection and maintenance in hazardous areas (other than mines) ...............................................................................................................12 3.5 IEC 60300: Dependability management: ............................................................12 3.5.1 Part 1: Dependability management systems ................................................12 3.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for dependability management .......................................12 3.5.3 Part 3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology ...............................................................................................12 3.5.4 Part 3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field ...........................................................................................................................12 3.5.5 Part 3-3: Application guide - Life cycle costing .............................................12 3.5.6 Part 3-9: Application guide - Risk analysis of technological systems .........13 3.5.7 Part 3-10: Application guide - Maintainability ................................................13 3.5.8 Part 3-11: Application guide - Reliability centred maintenance ...................13 3.5.9 Part 3-14: Application guide - Maintenance and maintenance support......13 3.5.10 Part 3-16: Application guide - Guideline for the specification of maintenance support services ........................................................................13 3.6 IEC 60706: Maintainability of equipment: ...........................................................13 3.6.1 Part 1: Introduction, requirements and maintainability programme ............13 3.6.2 Part 2: Maintainability requirements and studies during the design and development phase..........................................................................................14 3.6.3 Part 3: Verification and collection, analysis and presentation of data ........14 3.6.4 Part 4: Maintenance and maintenance support planning ............................14 3.6.5 Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing .......................................................14 3.6.6 Part 6: Statistical methods in maintainability evaluation ..............................14 3.7 IEC 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) ......................................................................14 3.8 IEC 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) ..................................................................15 3.9 IEC 61070: Compliance test procedures for steady-state availability ..............15 3.10 IEC 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods............................................................................................15 3.11 IEC 61164: Reliability growth - Statistical test and estimation methods ..........15 3.12 IEC 61346: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products: Structuring principles and reference designations ............................16 3.12.1 Part 1: Basic rules............................................................................................16 3.12.2 Part 2: Classification objects and codes for classes ....................................16 3.12.3 Part 4: Discussion of concepts .......................................................................16 3.13 IEC 61355: Classification and designation of documents for plants, systems and equipment .......................................................................................................16 3.14 IEC 61508: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safety-related systems ..........................................................................................16 Page 2 of 54
  3. 3. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.14.1 Part 1: General requirements .........................................................................17 3.14.2 Part 2: Requirements for electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems ....................................................................................17 3.14.3 Part 3: Software requirements ........................................................................17 3.14.4 Part 4: Definitions and abbreviations .............................................................17 3.14.5 Part 5: Examples of methods for the determination of safety integrity levels ...........................................................................................................................17 3.14.6 Part 6: Guidelines on the application of IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-3 ....17 3.14.7 Part 7: Overview of techniques and measures .............................................17 3.15 IEC 61666: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products - Identification of terminals within a system ........................................17 3.16 IEC 61703:Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms ..........................................................................17 3.17 IEC 61882: Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP studies) - Application guide .......................................................................................................................17 3.18 IEC 62023: Structuring of technical information and documentation ...............17 3.19 IEC 62027: Preparation of parts lists ...................................................................17 3.20 IEC 62061: Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems ................17 3.21 IEC 62079: Preparation of instructions – Structuring, content and presentation .................................................................................................................................18 3.22 IEC 62198: Project risk management - Application guidelines .........................18 3.23 IEC 62308: Equipment reliability – Reliability assessment methods...............18 3.24 IEC 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications ............................................................................................................18 3.25 IEC 82045: Document management ...................................................................18 3.25.1 Part 1: Principles and methods ......................................................................19 3.25.2 Part 2: Reference collection of metadata and reference models ................19 4 ISO Standards .................................................................................................................20 4.1 ISO as an organization: ........................................................................................20 4.2 ISO 13374: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Data processing, communication and presentation ....................................................20 4.2.1 Part 1: General guidelines ..............................................................................20 4.2.2 Part 2: Data processing...................................................................................20 4.3 ISO 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems ....20 4.4 ISO 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment .........................................20 4.4.1 Part 1: Principles ..............................................................................................20 4.4.2 Part 2: Practical guidance and examples of methods ..................................21 4.5 ISO 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: ..................21 4.6 ISO 15489: Information and documentation - Records management ..............22 4.6.1 Part 1: General .................................................................................................22 4.6.2 Part 2: Guidelines ............................................................................................22 4.7 ISO 18436: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Requirements for training and certification of personnel ............................................................22 4.7.1 Part 1: Requirements of certifying bodies and the certification process ....22 4.7.2 Part 2: Vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics ................................22 4.8 ISO 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ................................................................23 Page 3 of 54
  4. 4. Stork Asset Management Solutions 5 MIL Standards .................................................................................................................24 5.1 Defence and military standards............................................................................24 5.2 MIL-HDBK-189: Reliability growth management ................................................24 5.3 MIL-STD-721C: Definitions of terms for reliability and maintainability .............24 5.4 MIL-STD-1629A: Procedures for performing a failure mode, effects and criticality analysis ...................................................................................................24 5.5 MIL-STD-2074: Failure classification for reliability testing.................................24 5.6 MIL-STD-2173: Reliability centred maintenance requirements for naval aircraft, weapons systems and support equipment ............................................25 5.7 MIL-P-24534A: Planned maintenance system – Development of maintenance requirement cards, maintenance index pages and associated documentation . .................................................................................................................................25 6 EN / CEN Standards .......................................................................................................26 6.1 CEN as an organization ........................................................................................26 6.2 EN 1050: Safety of machinery - Principles of risk assessment ........................26 6.3 EN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts 26 6.4 EN 13306: Maintenance terminology ..................................................................27 6.5 EN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance ....................................27 6.6 EN 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems .....28 6.6.1 Part 1: General principles for design .............................................................28 6.6.2 Part 2: Validation .............................................................................................28 6.7 EN 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment ..........................................28 6.8 EN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators...............28 6.9 EN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ................................................................28 6.10 EN 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres ......................28 6.11 EN 60300: Dependability management ..............................................................28 6.12 EN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods............................................................................................28 6.13 EN 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms ..........................................................................29 6.14 CEN/TR 15628: Qualification of maintenance personnel ..................................29 7 BSI Standards .................................................................................................................30 7.1 British Standards Institute .....................................................................................30 7.2 BS 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: ..................30 7.3 BS 6548: Maintainability of equipment ................................................................30 7.3.1 Part 1: Guide to specifying and contracting for maintainability ...................30 7.3.2 Part 2: Guide to maintainability studies during the design phase ...............30 7.3.3 Part 3: Guide to maintainability, verification and the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability data ........................................................30 7.3.4 Part 4: Guide to the planning of maintenance and maintenance support ..30 7.3.5 Part 5: Guide to diagnostic testing .................................................................30 7.3.6 Part 6: Guide to statistical methods in maintainability evaluation ...............30 7.4 BS 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms ..........................................................................31 8 AFNOR Standards ..........................................................................................................32 8.1 Association française de normalisation ...............................................................32 Page 4 of 54
  5. 5. Stork Asset Management Solutions 8.2 FD X60-000: Industrial maintenance – The maintenance function ..................32 8.3 NF X60-010: Maintenance - Concepts and definitions of maintenance activities ..................................................................................................................32 8.4 NF X60-020: Maintenance indicators ..................................................................33 8.5 NF X60-090: Maintenance - Criteria of choice of the maintenance contract - Means contracts - Results contracts ...................................................................34 8.6 NF X60-200: Maintenance - Technical documentations associated with an item throughout its life cycle .................................................................................34 8.7 NF X60-212: Maintenance - Handbook of instructions maintenance - Definitions and general principles for the wording and layout...........................34 8.8 NF X60-250: Maintenance - Function "User technical documentation" - Recommendations for its introduction or organization within manufacturers of equipment ...............................................................................................................34 8.9 NF X60-317: Maintenance – Documents for maintenance ...............................34 8.10 NF X60-318: Maintenance – Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts .................................................................................................................35 8.11 NF X60-319: Maintenance – Maintenance terminology ....................................35 8.12 NF X60-500: Terminology relating to reliability, maintainability and availability . .................................................................................................................................35 8.13 NF X60-503: Initiation into availability .................................................................35 8.14 NF E60-182: Manufacturing systems - Performance indicators .......................35 8.15 NF 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts . .................................................................................................................................35 8.16 NF 13306: Maintenance terminology...................................................................35 8.17 NF 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance ....................................36 9 NORSOK Standards .......................................................................................................37 9.1 Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon ....................................................................37 9.1 S-005: Machinery – Working environment analysis and documentation .........37 9.2 Z-006: Preservation ...............................................................................................37 9.3 Z-008: Criticality analysis for maintenance purposes ........................................37 9.4 Z-013: Risk and emergency preparedness analysis (EPA) ..............................38 9.5 Z-016: Regularity management & reliability technology ....................................38 10 VDI Standards .............................................................................................................39 10.1 Verein Deutscher Ingenieure................................................................................39 10.2 VDI 2246: Designing maintainable engineered products ..................................39 10.2.1 Part 1: Basic principles ....................................................................................39 10.2.2 Part 2: Requirements catalogue .....................................................................39 10.3 VDI 2884: Purchase, operating and maintenance of production equipment using Life Cycle Costing .......................................................................................39 10.4 VDI 2885: Standardized data for maintenance planning and determination of maintenance costs - Data and data determination ............................................40 10.5 VDI 2886: Benchmarking applied to maintenance .............................................40 10.6 VDI 2887: Quality management of maintenance ...............................................40 10.7 VDI 2888: Maintenance condition monitoring .....................................................40 10.8 VDI 2889: Methods and systems for condition and process monitoring in maintenance ..........................................................................................................41 10.9 VDI 2890: Planned maintenance; guide for the drawing up of maintenance lists ..........................................................................................................................41 10.10 VDI 2891: Maintenance relevant criteria for purchase of machines .................41 Page 5 of 54
  6. 6. Stork Asset Management Solutions 10.11 VDI 2892: Management of maintenance spare parts ........................................41 10.12 VDI 2893: Selection and formation of indicators for maintenance ...................41 10.13 VDI 2895: Organisation of maintenance - Maintenance as a task of management ..........................................................................................................42 10.14 VDI 2896: Controlling of maintenance within plant management .....................42 10.15 VDI 2898: Utilisation of EDP for maintenance - Requirements and criteria ....42 10.16 VDI 2899: Maintenance service - Procedure for deciding whether in-house or external supply .......................................................................................................43 10.17 VDI 3423: Technical availability of machines and production lines ..................43 10.18 VDI 3822: Failure analysis ....................................................................................43 10.18.1 Part 1: Fundamentals, terms, definitions - Procedure of failure analyses 44 10.18.2 Part 2: Failures caused by mechanical working conditions .....................44 10.18.3 Part 3: Failures caused by corrosion in electrolytes .................................44 10.18.4 Part 4: Failures caused by thermal loading ...............................................44 10.18.5 Part 5: Failures caused by tribology working conditions ..........................44 10.18.6 Part 6: Compilation and evaluation of failure analysis .............................44 11 DIN Standards .............................................................................................................45 11.1 Deutsches Institut für Normung............................................................................45 11.2 DIN 6789: Systematic arrangement of documents ............................................45 11.2.1 Part 1: Arrangement of technical product documentation ...........................45 11.2.2 Part 2: Sets of documents of technical product documentation ..................45 11.2.3 Part 3: Revisions of documents and items - General requirements ...........45 11.2.4 Part 4: Structure of contents of technical product documentation ..............45 11.2.5 Part 5: Release of technical product documentation....................................45 11.2.6 Part 6: Protection against falsification of digital technical documentation..45 11.2.7 Part 7: Quality criteria for the release process of digital product data ........45 11.3 DIN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts .................................................................................................................................45 11.4 DIN 13306: Maintenance terminology .................................................................45 11.5 DIN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance ..................................45 11.6 DIN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators .............45 11.7 DIN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ................................................................45 11.8 DIN 25419: Event tree analysis - Method, graphical symbols and evaluation 46 11.9 DIN 25424: Fault tree analysis .............................................................................46 11.9.1 Part 1: Method and graphical symbols ..........................................................46 11.9.2 Part 2: Manual calculation procedures for the evaluation of a fault tree ....46 11.10 DIN 25448: Failure mode analysis .......................................................................46 11.11 DIN 31051: Fundamentals of maintenance ........................................................46 11.12 DIN 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) ......................................................................46 11.13 DIN 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) ..................................................................46 11.14 DIN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability – Reliability block diagram and Boolean methods ...........................................................................................46 11.15 DIN 66232: Structure and contents of a data documentation ...........................46 12 SAE Standards ............................................................................................................47 12.1 Society of Automotive (and Aeronautical) Engineers ........................................47 Page 6 of 54
  7. 7. Stork Asset Management Solutions 12.2 SAE AS9110: Quality Maintenance Systems - Aerospace - Requirements for Maintenance Organizations ..................................................................................47 12.3 SAE JA1010-1: Maintainability Program Standard Implementation Guide ......47 12.4 SAE JA1011: Evaluation criteria for Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) processes ...............................................................................................................47 12.5 SAE JA1012: A guide to the Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) standard .................................................................................................................................47 12.6 SAE J1739: Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design (Design FMEA), Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Processes (Process FMEA), and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Machinery (Machinery FMEA) ............................................48 13 ASTM Standards .........................................................................................................49 13.1 American Society for Testing and Materials .......................................................49 13.2 E2135-07: Standard terminology for property and asset management ...........49 13.3 F2446-04: Standard classification for hierarchy of equipment identifiers and boundaries for reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) performance data exchange .......................................................................................................49 14 ASQ Standards............................................................................................................50 14.1 American Society for Quality ................................................................................50 14.2 ASQ Q10015: Quality management - Guidelines for training ..........................50 14.3 ASQ E2-1996: Guide to inspection planning ......................................................50 14.4 ASQ D60300-3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology ..........................................................................................50 14.5 ASQ D60300-3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field .........................................................................................................................50 15 API Standards .............................................................................................................51 15.1 American Petroleum Institute ...............................................................................51 15.2 API RP 580: Risk-based inspection .....................................................................51 15.3 API RP 581: Risk-based inspection - Base resource document ......................51 15.4 API STD 689: Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment ...............................................................................................................52 16 IEEE Standards ...........................................................................................................53 16.1 The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers .........................................53 16.2 IEEE 516 - Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines ........53 16.3 IEEE 902 - Maintenance, Operation and Safety of Power Systems ................53 16.4 Institute of Asset Management .............................................................................54 16.5 PAS 55: Asset management ................................................................................54 16.5.1 Part 1: Specification for the optimised management of physical infrastructure assets ........................................................................................54 16.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for the application of PAS 55-1 .......................................54 16.6 PAS 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications ............................................................................................................54 Page 7 of 54
  8. 8. Stork Asset Management Solutions 1 Standardization organizations There are several standardization organizations in the world and they can be divided into three groups (from the European point of view): International level IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission ISO: International Organization for Standardization European level CEN: Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Commitee for Standardization) CENELEC: Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) National level ÖN: Österreichisches Normungsinstitut (Austria) BIN : Belgisch Instituut voor Normalisatie (Belgium) DS : Dansk Standard (Denmark) SFS: Finnish Standards Association (Finland) AFNOR : Association Française de NORmalisation (France) DIN : Deutsches Institut für Normung (Germany) ELOT Hellenic Organization for Standardization (Greece) NSAI: National Standards Authority of Ireland (Ireland) UNI: Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione (Italy) SEE: Service de l'Energie de l'Etat (Luxemburg) NNI: Nederlands Normalisiate Instituut (Netherlands) NSF: Norges StandardiseringsForbund (Norway) IPQ: Instituto Português da Qualidade (Portugal) AENOR: Asociación Española de Normalización (Spain) SIS: Standardiseringen i Sverige (Sweden) SNV: Schweizerische Normen Vereinigung (Switzerland) BSI: British Standards Institution (UK) ANSI: American National Standards Institute (USA) Other ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials IAM: Institute of Asset Management MIL: U.S. Department of Defence (Military) SAE: Society of Automotive (and Aeronautical) Engineers VDI: Verein Deutscher Ingenieure Page 8 of 54
  9. 9. Stork Asset Management Solutions 2 Standards and the organization Many maintenance organizations and especially maintenance and availability engineers, have a "love/hate" relationship with standards. Most engineers realize that standards contain a wealth of helpful information and that working to certain standards is wise and often mandatory. However, there is a simple dichotomy between the words "engineer" and "standard" - How can something "standard" contribute to something as creative as “engineering" ? Also, with the plethora of standards available - corporate, industry, national, regional, international, government - finding all of the right, most useful standards can be a daunting task that many engineers would rather not pursue. Successful organizations know how to find the right standards and use them as the foundation for maintenance that is innovative, socially responsible, and cost-effective. Each of the disciplines underneath benefits in different ways from the standards. Research, Design and Development Manufacturing and Operations Quality Control Sales and Marketing Maintenance and Repair Research, Design and Development The initial stages of any product lifecycle represent both a vital investment for long-term business success and a constant challenge to minimize that investment. Time is one of the greatest factors in minimizing R&D costs and maximizing return on investment (ROI). Manufacturing Operations When the designed product is handed off to manufacturing, the challenge of minimizing time to market and maximizing ROI remain in place, though the standards-related strategies for meeting those challenges differ. The discipline of manufacturing builds on the R&D process by further incorporating Product Data Management (PDM), Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, all while monitoring the engineering process for standards compliance. In manufacturing, maximizing ROI means avoiding engineering change orders, redesigns, and production downtime, which is often a function of having a centralized information management solution that integrates and accommodates all the various documents and applications inherent to the manufacturing process. Quality Control Throughout the processes of manufacturing, maintenance and repair, the discipline of quality control acts to limit your company's product liability and maximize ROI, all while relying on documents such as specifications, industry regulations, safety codes, reports and tracking, and more. Page 9 of 54
  10. 10. Stork Asset Management Solutions Quality products and services are invariably built upon quality information and standards. As the amount of information your quality control team has at its manageable disposal increases, the results are: superior testing reports faster decision-making better quality products increased productivity Sales and Marketing While standards may not be traditionally associated with the disciplines of sales and marketing, any good salesperson will tell you how important it is to know your market. Any salesperson, regardless of their engineering status, will generate more sales and company profitability when armed with: a thorough technical understanding of your product documentation on industry standards or regulations that ensure customers of product compliance valuable intelligence on competitors' manufacturing processes and products potential leads in the form of companies that may need your products or components Maintenance and Repair Standards guide both successful companies and products from beginning to end. In the case of products, the end of the lifecycle is best represented by maintenance and repair, which comes with its own standards-related challenges, such as: accessing detailed parts information and historical specs and standards identifying and procuring replacement parts, whether common or hard to find, new or old researching alternatives for obsolete parts and finding stocking vendors In each of these cases, the issue of compliance remains front and centre. Working confidently with a combination of replacement and historical standards as well as alternative parts is possible with the help of up-to-date, verified industry document resources. Page 10 of 54
  11. 11. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3 IEC Standards 3.1 IEC as a standardization organization: The International Electrotechnical Commission is the international standards and conformity assessment body for all fields of electrotechnology. Founded in 1906, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the global organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies. The IEC was founded as a result of a resolution passed at the International Electrical Congress held in St. Louis (USA) in 1904. The membership consists of more than 60 participating countries, including all the world's major trading nations and a growing number of industrializing countries. 3.2 CENELEC and IEC: CENELEC and the International Electrotechnical Commission operate at two different levels but it is self-evident that their actions have a strong mutual impact since they are the most important standardization bodies in the electrotechnical field. Collaboration has always been felt necessary. Co-operation between CENELEC and the IEC is described in what is known as "the Dresden Agreement" since it was approved and signed by both partners in the German city in September 1996.This agreement (which relates to common planning of new work and parallel CENELEC/IEC voting) intends: to expedite the publication and common adoption of International Standards; to ensure rational use of available resources and therefore should full technical consideration of the content of the standard preferably take place at international level; to accelerate the standards preparation process in response to market demands. 3.3 How the IEC defines a standard: A standard (as defined in IEC/ISO Guide 2) is a document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context. An international standard is a standard adopted by an international standardizing/standards organization and made available to the public. The definition given in all IEC standards reads: "A normative document, developed according to consensus procedures, which has been approved by the IEC National Committee members of the responsible committee in accordance with Part 1 of the ISO/IEC Directives as a committee draft for vote and as a final draft International Standard and which has been published by the IEC Central Office." 3.4 IEC 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres Electrical installations in hazardous areas possess features specially designed to render them suitable for operation in such atmospheres. It is essential, for reasons of safety in those areas, that, throughout the life of such installations, the integrity of those special features is preserved; they therefore require initial inspection and either regular periodic inspections thereafter, or continuous supervision by skilled personnel Page 11 of 54
  12. 12. Stork Asset Management Solutions in accordance with this standard and, when necessary, maintenance. 3.4.1 Part 17: Inspection and maintenance in hazardous areas (other than mines) This part of IEC 60079 is intended to be applied by users, and covers factors directly related to the inspection and maintenance of electrical installations within hazardous areas only. It does not include conventional requirements for electrical installations, nor the testing and certification of electrical apparatus. 3.5 IEC 60300: Dependability management: 3.5.1 Part 1: Dependability management systems Describes the concepts and principles of dependability management systems. Identifies the generic processes in dependability for planning, resource allocation, control, and tailoring necessary to meet dependability objectives. Deals with the dependability performance issues in the product life-cycle phases concerning planning, design, measurements, analysis and improvement. Dependability includes availability performance and its influencing factors: reliability performance, maintainability performance, and maintenance support performance. Aims at facilitating co-operation by all parties concerned (supplier, organization and customer) and fostering understanding of the dependability needs and value to achieve the overall dependability objectives. 3.5.2 Part 2: Guidelines for dependability management Provides guidelines for dependability management of product design, development, evaluation and process enhancements. Life cycle models are used to describe product development or project phases. Applicable for detailed planning and implementation of a dependability programme to meet specific product needs. 3.5.3 Part 3-1: Application guide - Analysis techniques for dependability - Guide on methodology Gives a general overview of commonly used dependability analysis techniques. It describes the usual methodologies, their advantages and disadvantages, data input and other conditions for using various techniques. It is an introduction to selected methodologies and is intended to provide the necessary information for choosing the most appropriate analysis methods. 3.5.4 Part 3-2: Application guide - Collection of dependability data from the field This part of IEC 60300 provides guidelines for the collection of data relating to reliability, maintainability, availability and maintenance support performance of items operating in the field. It deals in general terms with the practical aspects of data collection and presentation and briefly explores the related topics of data analysis and presentation of results. Emphasis is made on the need to incorporate the return of experience from the field in the dependability process as a main activity. 3.5.5 Part 3-3: Application guide - Life cycle costing This part of IEC 60300 provides a general introduction to the concept of life cycle costing and covers all applications. This standard is intended for general application by both customers (users) and suppliers of products. It explains the purpose and value of life cycle costing and outlines the general approaches involved. It also identifies typical life cycle cost elements to facilitate project and programme planning. Page 12 of 54
  13. 13. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.5.6 Part 3-9: Application guide - Risk analysis of technological systems Provides guidelines for selecting and implementing risk analysis techniques. The objective of this standard is to ensure quality and consistency in the planning and execution of risk analyses and the presentation of results and conclusions. 3.5.7 Part 3-10: Application guide - Maintainability The application guide can be used to implement a maintainability programme covering the initiation, development and in-service phases of a product, which form part of the tasks in IEC 60300-2. It provides guidance on how the maintenance aspects of the tasks should be considered in order to achieve optimum maintainability. It uses other IEC standards, notably IEC 60706, as reference documents or tools as to how a task should be undertaken. 3.5.8 Part 3-11: Application guide - Reliability centred maintenance Provides guidelines for the development of an initial preventive maintenance programme for equipment and structures using reliability centred maintenance (RCM) analysis techniques. RCM analysis can be applied to items such as ground vehicle, ship, power station, aircraft, etc, which are made up of equipment and structure, e.g. a building, airframe or ship's hull. Typically an equipment comprises a number of electrical , mechanical, instrumentation or control systems and subsystems which can be further broken down into progressively smaller groupings, as required. 3.5.9 Part 3-14: Application guide - Maintenance and maintenance support Describes a framework for maintenance and maintenance support and the various minimal common practices that should be undertaken. Outlines in a generic manner, management, processes and techniques related to maintenance and maintenance support that are necessary to achieve adequate dependability to meet the operational needs of the customer. Applicable to items, which include all types of products, equipment and systems (hardware and associated software). Most of these require a certain level of maintenance to ensure that their required functionality, dependability, capability, economic, safety and regulatory requirements are achieved. 3.5.10 Part 3-16: Application guide - Guideline for the specification of maintenance support services This IEC standard describes a framework for the specification of services related to the maintenance support of products, systems and equipment that are carried out during the operation and maintenance phase. The purpose of this standard is to outline, in a generic manner, the development of agreements for maintenance support services as well as guidelines for the management and monitoring of these agreements by both the company and the service provider. 3.6 IEC 60706: Maintainability of equipment: 3.6.1 Part 1: Introduction, requirements and maintainability programme This standard is intended to make recommendations for maintainability practices, and to simulate ideas in the maintainability field. Organizations acquiring items will find the standard useful in assisting them in defining maintainability requirements and associated programmes. Page 13 of 54
  14. 14. Stork Asset Management Solutions Item suppliers will benefit from use of the standard, gaining an understanding of the requirements for achieving and verifying maintainability objectives. 3.6.2 Part 2: Maintainability requirements and studies during the design and development phase This part of IEC 60706 examines the maintainability requirements and related design and use parameter, and discusses some activities necessary to achieve the required maintainability characteristics and their relationship to planning of maintenance. It describes the general approach in reaching these objectives and shows how maintainability characteristics should be specified in a requirements document or contract. It is not intended to be a complete guide on how to specify or to contract for maintainability. Its purpose is to define the range of considerations when maintainability characteristics are included as requirements for the development or the acquisition of an item. 3.6.3 Part 3: Verification and collection, analysis and presentation of data This part of IEC 60706 describes the various aspects of verification necessary to ensure that the specified maintainability requirements of an item have been met and provides suitable procedures and test methods. This standard also addresses the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability related data, which may be required during, and at the completion of, design and during item production and operation. 3.6.4 Part 4: Maintenance and maintenance support planning This section of the guide describes the tasks required for planning of maintenance and maintenance support. They should be performed during the system acquisition phase in order to meet the availability objectives in the operational phase. The interfaces between reliability, maintainability and the maintenance support planning programme and their tasks are also described. 3.6.5 Part 5: Testability and diagnostic testing This guide has for purpose to provide guidance for the early consideration of testability aspects in design and development, and to assist in determining effective test procedures as an integral part of operation and maintenance. This second edition constitutes a technical revision. It expands and provides more detail on the techniques and systems broadly outlined in the first edition. 3.6.6 Part 6: Statistical methods in maintainability evaluation The part of IEC 60706 is applicable to the tasks of maintainability, allocation, maintainability demonstration and maintainability data evaluation, as described in sections five, six and seven, respectively of the guide. 3.7 IEC 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) This International Standard describes Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), and gives guidance as to how they may be applied to achieve various objectives by: providing the procedural steps necessary to perform analysis; identifying appropriate terms; defining basic principles; providing examples of the necessary worksheets or other tabular forms. Page 14 of 54
  15. 15. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.8 IEC 61025: Fault tree analysis (FTA) This International Standard describes fault tree analysis and provides guidance on its application as follows: definition of basic principles; describing and explaining the associated mathematical modelling; explaining the relationships of FTA to other reliability modelling techniques; description of the steps involved in performing the FTA; identification of appropriate assumptions, events and failure modes; identification and description of commonly used symbols. 3.9 IEC 61070: Compliance test procedures for steady-state availability This International Standard specifies techniques for availability performance testing of frequently maintained items when the availability performance measure used is either steady-state availability or steady-state unavailability. It is applicable to compliance testing of the steady-state availability of items attaining only two states, up-state and down-state, under the following conditions: One single repaired item. All up times have the same exponential distribution. Preventive maintenance time is not included in down time although it is recognized as having possible impact on availability performance. All contributors to down time need to be explicitly stated in the requirement or test specification. Very reliable items may require an extremely long test time to determine compliance. The compliance test procedures use the complementary measure steady-state unavailability. 3.10 IEC 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods This International Standard describes procedures for modelling the dependability of a system and for using the model in order to calculate reliability and availability measures. The RBD (Reliability Block Diagram) modelling technique is intended to be applied primarily to systems without repair and where the order in which failures occur does not matter. For systems where the order of failures is to be taken into account or where repairs are to be carried out, other modelling techniques, such as Markov analysis, are more suitable. It should be noted that although the word “repair” is frequently used in this standard, the word “restore” is equally applicable. Note also that the words “item” and “block” are used extensively throughout this standard: in most instances interchangeably. 3.11 IEC 61164: Reliability growth - Statistical test and estimation methods This International Standard gives models and numerical methods for reliability growth assessments based on failure data, which were generated in a reliability improvement programme. These procedures deal with growth, estimation, confidence intervals for product reliability and goodness-of-fit tests. Page 15 of 54
  16. 16. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.12 IEC 61346: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products: Structuring principles and reference designations 3.12.1 Part 1: Basic rules This part of IEC 61346 establishes general principles for describing the structure of information about systems and of the systems themselves. Based on these principles, rules and guidance are given for the formulation of unambiguous reference designations for objects in any system. The reference designation identifies objects for the purpose of correlating information about an object among different kinds of documents and the products implementing the system. For manufacturing, installation and maintenance purposes, the reference designation or part of it may also be shown on or near the physical part corresponding to the object. The principles laid down are general and are intended to be applicable to all technical areas. They can be used for systems based on different technologies or for systems combining several technologies. It should be noted that this standard provides a number of possibilities for the construction of reference designations. For most applications, however, only a subset of the possibilities given need be used. 3.12.2 Part 2: Classification objects and codes for classes This part of IEC 61346 defines object classes and associated letter codes for these classes to be used in reference designations. The classification schemes are applicable for objects in all technical areas and may be applied at any position in a tree-like structure set up in accordance with IEC 61346-1. 3.12.3 Part 4: Discussion of concepts This Technical Report discusses the concepts used in IEC 61346 Structuring principles and reference designation, with a life cycle story of an "object" as a basis. 3.13 IEC 61355: Classification and designation of documents for plants, systems and equipment This International Standard provides rules and guidelines for the classification and designation of documents. It serves as a basis for agreements about the preparation of a structured documentation, primarily required for larger installations, for example plants with their systems and equipment. It covers all technical areas and is open for further development of documentation and documentation systems. Guidance is also given for applications such as communication in the field of documentation and for document identification. Documents from non-technical areas are included to the extent required for and during the engineering process. One aim of this standard is to establish a method for better communication and understanding between parties involved in document interchange. Another aim of this standard is to set up rules for relating documents to the objects they describe. For this purpose a document designation system is provided, linking the document kind designation to the object designation used within the plant , system or equipment. 3.14 IEC 61508: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/ programmable electronic safety- related systems This International Standard sets out a generic approach for all safety lifecycle activities for systems comprised of electrical and/or electronic and/or programmable electronic components Page 16 of 54
  17. 17. Stork Asset Management Solutions (electrical/electronic/programmable electronic systems (E/E/PESs)) that are used to perform safety functions. This unified approach has been adopted in order that a rational and consistent technical policy be developed for all electrically-based safety-related systems. A major objective is to facilitate the development of application sector standards. 3.14.1 Part 1: General requirements 3.14.2 Part 2: Requirements for electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems 3.14.3 Part 3: Software requirements 3.14.4 Part 4: Definitions and abbreviations 3.14.5 Part 5: Examples of methods for the determination of safety integrity levels 3.14.6 Part 6: Guidelines on the application of IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-3 3.14.7 Part 7: Overview of techniques and measures 3.15 IEC 61666: Industrial systems, installations and equipment and industrial products - Identification of terminals within a system This International Standard provides rules for the designation of terminals of objects within a system. The principles laid down are primarily intended for use in the electrotechnical and related areas, but are general and applicable to all technical areas. They can be used for systems based on different technologies or for systems combining several technologies. 3.16 IEC 61703:Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms Provides mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support measures. Non-repaired items and repaired items with zero and non-zero time to restoration are considered separately in this standard. 3.17 IEC 61882: Hazard and operability studies (HAZOP studies) - Application guide Provides a guide for HAZOP studies of systems utilizing the specific set of guide words defined in this standard. Also gives guidance on application of the technique and on the HAZOP study procedure, including definition, preparation, examination sessions and resulting documentation and follow-up. 3.18 IEC 62023: Structuring of technical information and documentation This International Standard provides rules for the structuring of technical information and documentation, based on the use of a main document (leading document) for the keeping together of information for each object. 3.19 IEC 62027: Preparation of parts lists This International Standard provides rules for the preparation of parts lists. This standard is applicable to parts lists used in the design and engineering process intended to be supplied with the documentation. The role of parts lists as a main document in structured documentation is described in IEC 62023. 3.20 IEC 62061: Safety of machinery – Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems Page 17 of 54
  18. 18. Stork Asset Management Solutions This International Standard specifies requirements and makes recommendations for the design, integration and validation of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems (SRECS) for machines. It is applicable to control systems used, either singly or in combination, to carry out safety-related control functions on machines that are not portable. 3.21 IEC 62079: Preparation of instructions – Structuring, content and presentation This standard provides general principles and detailed requirements for the design and formulation of all types of instructions that will be necessary or helpful for products of all kinds ranging from small, simple ones, such as a tin of paint, to large or highly complex ones, such as a large industrial installation. It is intended for application by product manufacturers, technical writers, technical illustrators, software designers, translators or other people engaged in the work of conceiving and drafting such instructions; authorized representatives of the product manufacturer in the country of product installation and/or usage. It will also be helpful in contract negotiations between product supplier and customer. This standard does not establish a fixed amount of documentation that has to be delivered together with a product. This would obviously not be possible because this standard has to be valid for all kind of products but the amount of documentation very much depends on the complexity of the product. Therefore this standard lists all possible kinds of instructions one can think of. What this standard does aim to standardize is how such instructions are to be prepared. No general standard can provide comprehensive information covering each special case. This International Standard, therefore is to be used in conjunction with the requirements of specific product standards or, where no such standards exist, with the relevant requirements of standards for similar products. 3.22 IEC 62198: Project risk management - Application guidelines Applicable to any project with a technological content. Provides a general introduction to project risk management, its subprocesses and influencing factors. Guidelines are provided on the organizational requirements for implementing the process of risk management appropriate to the various phases of a project. 3.23 IEC 62308: Equipment reliability – Reliability assessment methods This International Standard describes early reliability assessment methods for items based on field data and test data for components and modules. It is applicable to mission, safety and business critical, high integrity and complex items. It contains information on why early reliability estimates are required and how and where the assessment would be used. 3.24 IEC 62508: Guidance on human factors engineering for system life cycle applications This IEC standard describes the process on human factors (HF) influencing system dependability design and provides HF methods and practices applicable to system life-cycle implementation to achieve dependability performance. 3.25 IEC 82045: Document management Page 18 of 54
  19. 19. Stork Asset Management Solutions 3.25.1 Part 1: Principles and methods Specifies principles, methods and information models to define metadata for the management of documents associated with objects throughout their life cycle; this cycle generally covers a range from the conceptual idea of a document to its deletion. The established principles and methods are basic for all document management systems. Is intended as a general basic standard in all application fields and provides the framework applicable for part 2. Is primarily intended as a resource for use in computerised systems such as Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMS) or Product Data Management Systems (PDMS) for the management, retrieval, storage and selection and archiving of documents, and as a basis for the exchange of documents. 3.25.2 Part 2: Reference collection of metadata and reference models Provides a comprehensive set of standardized metadata elements for document management. Includes a standardized EXPRESS-based information reference model. Provides a standardized framework for data exchange and a basis for the implementation of a document management system. Also provides a standardized DTD based on the XML language for document exchange. Page 19 of 54
  20. 20. Stork Asset Management Solutions 4 ISO Standards 4.1 ISO as an organization: ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies) from more than 140 countries, one from each country. The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for whom a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. 4.2 ISO 13374: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Data processing, communication and presentation 4.2.1 Part 1: General guidelines ISO 13374-1 establishes general guidelines for software specifications related to data processing, communication, and presentation of machine condition monitoring and diagnostic information. 4.2.2 Part 2: Data processing ISO 13374-2 details the requirements for a reference information model and a reference processing model to which an open condition monitoring and diagnostics (CM&D) architecture needs to conform. Software design professionals require both an information model and a processing model to adequately describe all data processing requirements. ISO 13374-2 facilitates the interoperability of CM&D systems. 4.3 ISO 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems See EN 13849. 4.4 ISO 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment 4.4.1 Part 1: Principles ISO 14121-1 establishes general principles intended to be used to meet the risk reduction objectives established in ISO 12100-1, Clause 5. These principles of risk assessment bring together knowledge and experience of the design, use, incidents, accidents and harm related to machinery in order to assess the risks posed during the relevant phases of the life cycle of a machine. ISO 14121-1 provides guidance on the information that will be required to enable risk assessment to be carried out. Procedures are described for identifying hazards and estimating Page 20 of 54
  21. 21. Stork Asset Management Solutions and evaluating risk. It also gives guidance on the making of decisions relating to the safety of machinery and on the type of documentation required to verify the risk assessment carried out. 4.4.2 Part 2: Practical guidance and examples of methods ISO/TR 14121-2 gives practical guidance on the conducting of risk assessments for machinery in accordance with ISO 14121-1 and describes various methods and tools for each step in the process. It also provides practical guidance on risk reduction (in accordance with ISO 12100) for machinery, giving additional guidance on the selection of appropriate protective measures for achieving safety. The intended users of ISO/TR 14121-2 are those involved in the integration of safety into the design, installation or modification of machinery (e.g. designers, technicians, safety specialists). 4.5 ISO 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: This international standard focuses on the two main issues: Data requirements for the type of data to be collected for use in various analysis methodologies Standardised data format to facilitate the exchange of reliability and maintenance data between plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors The main areas where such data are being used are: Reliability, e.g. failure events and failure mechanisms Availability/efficiency, e.g. equipment availability, system availability, plant production availability Maintenance, e.g. corrective and preventive maintenance, maintenance supportability Safety and environment, e.g. equipment failures with adverse consequences for safety and/or environment The following main categories of data are to be collected: 1. Equipment data, e.g. equipment taxonomy, equipment attributes 2. Failure data, e.g. failure cause, failure consequence 3. Maintenance data, e.g. maintenance action, resources used, maintenance consequence, down time Standardisation of data collection practices facilitates the exchange of information between relevant parties e.g. plants, owners, manufacturers and contractors throughout the world. This standard establishes requirements that any in-house or commercially available RM data system shall meet when designed for RM data exchange. Examples/guidelines/principles for how to exchange and merge such RM data is addressed. The data collection principles and associated terms & definitions defined in this standard do also constitute a "reliability language" which can be useful for communicating operational experience. The failure modes defined in the normative part of this International Standard is meant to be a "Reliability thesaurus" for various quantitative as well as qualitative applications. Page 21 of 54
  22. 22. Stork Asset Management Solutions 4.6 ISO 15489: Information and documentation - Records management 4.6.1 Part 1: General This part of ISO 15489 provides guidance on managing records of originating organizations, public or private, for internal and external clients. All the elements outlined in this part of ISO 15489 are recommended to ensure that adequate records are created, captured and managed. Procedures that help to ensure the management of records according to the principles and elements outlined in this part of ISO 15489 are provided in ISO/TR 15489-2. This part of ISO 15489: Applies to the management of records, in all formats or media, created or received by any public or private organization in the conduct of its activities, or any individual with a duty to create and maintain records; Provides guidance on determining the responsibilities of organizations for records and records policies, procedures, systems and processes ; Provides guidance on records management in support of a quality process framework to comply with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001; Provides guidance on the design and implementation of a records system, but does not include the management of archival records within archival institutions. This part of ISO 15489 is intended for use by: Managers of organizations; Records, information and technology management professionals; All other personnel in organizations and other individuals with a duty to create and maintain records. 4.6.2 Part 2: Guidelines This part of ISO 15489 is an implementation guide to ISO 15489-1 for use by record management professionals and those charged with managing records in their organizations. It provides one methodology that will facilitate the implementation of ISO 15489-1 in all organizations that have a need to manage their records. It gives an overview of the processes and factors to consider in organizations wishing to comply with ISO 15489-1. 4.7 ISO 18436: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Requirements for training and certification of personnel 4.7.1 Part 1: Requirements of certifying bodies and the certification process ISO 18436-1 defines the requirements for bodies operating certification systems for personnel who perform machinery condition monitoring, identify machine faults, and recommend corrective action. Procedures for the certification of condition monitoring and diagnostic personnel are specified. 4.7.2 Part 2: Vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics This part specifies the general requirements for vibration analysis personnel who perform machinery condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Certification to this standard will provide recognition of the qualifications and competence of individuals to perform machinery Page 22 of 54
  23. 23. Stork Asset Management Solutions vibration measurements and analysis using portable and permanently installed sensors and equipment. ISO 18436-2 covers a four-category certification programme that is based on the technical areas discussed herein. 4.8 ISO 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management ISO 20815 provides processes and activities, requirements and guidelines for systematic management, effective planning, execution and use of production assurance and reliability technology. This is to achieve cost-effective solutions over the life cycle of an asset- development project structured around the following main elements: production-assurance management for optimum economy of the facility through all of its life-cycle phases, while also considering constraints arising from health, safety, environment, quality and human factors; planning, execution and implementation of reliability technology; application of reliability and maintenance data; and reliability-based design and operation improvement. ISO 20815 designates 12 processes, of which seven are defined as core production-assurance processes and addressed in this standard. The remaining five processes are denoted as interacting processes and are outside the scope. The interaction of the core production- assurance processes with these interacting processes, however, is within the scope of ISO 20815 as the information flow to and from these latter processes is required to ensure that production-assurance requirements can be fulfilled. Page 23 of 54
  24. 24. Stork Asset Management Solutions 5 MIL Standards 5.1 Defence and military standards A United States Defence Standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", or "MIL-SPEC", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defence. Standardization is beneficial in achieving interoperability, ensuring products meet certain requirements, commonality, reliability, total cost of ownership, compatibility with logistics systems, and similar defence-related objectives. Defence Standards are also used by other non-Defence government organizations, technical organizations, and industry. This article discusses definitions, history, and usage of Defence Standards. Related documents, such as Defence Handbooks and Defence Specifications are also addressed. 5.2 MIL-HDBK-189: Reliability growth management This handbook provides procuring activities and development contractors with an understanding of the concepts and principles of reliability growth, advantages of managing reliability growth, and guidelines and procedures to be used in managing reliability growth. It should be noted that this handbook is not intended to serve as a reliability growth plan to be applied to a program without any tailoring. This handbook, when used in conjunction with knowledge of the system and its development program, will allow the development of a reliability growth management plan that will aid in developing a final system that meets its requirements and lowers the life cycle cost of the fielded systems. This handbook is intended for use on systems / equipments during their development phase by both internal and external personnel. 5.3 MIL-STD-721C: Definitions of terms for reliability and maintainability This Standard defines words and terms most commonly used which are associated with Reliability and Maintainability (R&M). It is intended to be used as a common base for R&M definitions and to reduce the possibility of conflicts, duplications, and incorrect interpretations either expressed or implied elsewhere in documentation. The definitions address the intent and policy of Department of Defence Directive 5000-40. Statistical and mathematical terms which have gained wide acceptance are not defined in this standard since they are included in other documents. 5.4 MIL-STD-1629A: Procedures for performing a failure mode, effects and criticality analysis This standard establishes requirements and procedures for performing a failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) to systematically evaluate and document, by item failure mode analysis, the potential impact of each functional or hardware failure on mission success, personnel and system safety, system performance, maintainability, and maintenance requirements. Each potential failure is ranked by the severity of its effect in order that appropriate corrective actions may be taken to eliminate or control the high risk items. 5.5 MIL-STD-2074: Failure classification for reliability testing This Standard contains criteria for classification of failures during reliability testing. Failures are classified as either relevant or non-relevant. Information on reclassification of failures, failure analysis and failure reports is also provided. Page 24 of 54
  25. 25. Stork Asset Management Solutions 5.6 MIL-STD-2173: Reliability centred maintenance requirements for naval aircraft, weapons systems and support equipment The purpose of this standard is to provide the procedures for a reliability centred maintenance (RCM) analysis for naval aircraft, weapons systems and support equipment. The goals of this standard are to provide organisational focus and systematic procedures to accomplish the following: Analyse the maintenance requirements for each type / model aircraft; Objectively justify every maintenance requirement; Enforce the performance of only the justified maintenance actions. This standard is to be used by contractors during development of new systems and equipment and by analysts and auditors within the Naval Air Systems Command for determining preventive maintenance requirements and developing age exploration requirements. The tasks shall also be used to update the initial reliability centred maintenance analysis and analyse newly discovered failure modes. 5.7 MIL-P-24534A: Planned maintenance system – Development of maintenance requirement cards, maintenance index pages and associated documentation This specification identifies the requirements and standards for the development and production of Maintenance Requirement Cards (MRCs), Maintenance Index Pages (MIPs), and other associated documentation used with the Navy Maintenance and Material Management (3-M) Systems and Planned Maintenance System (PMS). This specification implements Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology for the determination of maintenance requirements and applies to all levels of system or equipment grouping and to all scheduled maintenance, whether equipment is in use, ready for use or in standby or lay up condition. This specification addresses the total scheduled maintenance program for a ship, irrespective of the maintenance echelon possessing the capability to perform the maintenance; that is, organisational, intermediate and depot level scheduled maintenance tasks are considered. This specification provides procedures for development of unscheduled maintenance within the PMS program. Planned maintenance system documentation shall be developed in accordance with this specification. This specification is intended for use by PMS development activities and by activities which manage, monitor or coordinate that development. Page 25 of 54
  26. 26. Stork Asset Management Solutions 6 EN / CEN Standards 6.1 CEN as an organization CEN (= Comité Européen de Normalisation / European Committee for Standardization) is one of the two components of the Joint European Standards Institution CEN/CENELEC. CEN constitutes a "European forum" in the field of non-electrotechnical standardization, facilitating and organizing contacts with all interested parties: governments, public bodies, producers, users, consumers, trade unions, etc... The aim of CEN may be realized in any way, and in particular by the following means: Harmonization of national standards published by CEN members; Promotion of uniform implementation of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and other international standards or recommendations by CEN members; Preparation of reports on the state of harmonization of standards of CEN members; Preparation of European Standards (EN) 'de novo' when justified by requirements in Western Europe where no appropriate international or other standard exists for use as a reference document; Provision of procedures for the mutual recognition of test results and certification systems on the European level; Support for world-wide standardization in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); Co-operation with the European Communities, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and other international governmental organizations so that European Standards (EN) and Harmonization Documents (HD) can be referred to in their directives or other instruments; Co-operation with other international governmental, economic, professional and scientific organizations on questions linked with standardization; Co-operation with the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), the other component of the Joint European Standards Institution. 6.2 EN 1050: Safety of machinery - Principles of risk assessment This standard establishes general principles for the procedure known as risk assessment by which the knowledge and experience of the design, use, incidents, accidents and harm related to machinery is brought together in order to assess the risks during all phases of the life of the machinery. This standard gives guidance on the information required to allow risk assessment to be carried out. Procedures are described for identifying hazards and estimating and evaluating risk. The purpose of the standard is to provide advice for decisions to be made on the safety of machinery and the type of documentation required to verify the risk assessment carried out. This standard is not intended to provide a detailed account of methods for analysing hazards and estimating risk as this is dealt with elsewhere. A summary of some of these methods is given for information only. Replaced by ISO EN 14121. 6.3 EN 13269: Maintenance - Guideline on preparation of maintenance contracts Page 26 of 54
  27. 27. Stork Asset Management Solutions In addition, as technical and economic developments increase, the demand for contracted maintenance services both nationally and across borders also increases. It is therefore important that maintenance contracts are approached in a structured and careful manner. The purpose of this Standard is to: promote cross-border company/maintenance contractor relationships and to produce a clear interface between the company and the maintenance contractor for maintenance services; improve the quality of maintenance contracts so that disputes and adjustments are minimized; draw attention to the scope of maintenance services and to identify options for their provision; give assistance in, and advice on, the drafting and negotiation of maintenance contracts and in specifying arrangements in the case of dispute; identify types of maintenance contracts and to make recommendations for the attribution of rights and obligations between the parties of the contract including risks; simplify comparison between maintenance contracts. The standard also could facilitate in specifying the required output of maintenance activities. 6.4 EN 13306: Maintenance terminology The purpose of this European standard is to define the generic terms used for all types of maintenance and maintenance management irrespective of the type of item considered except software. It is the responsibility of any maintenance management to define its maintenance strategy according to three main criteria: to ensure the availability of the item for the required function, often at optimum costs; to consider the safety requirements associated with the item for both maintenance and user personnel, and, where necessary, any impact on the environment; to uphold the durability of the item and/or the quality of the product or service provided considering, where necessary, costs. The terms contained in this standard indicate that maintenance is not confined to the technical actions but includes all the activities such as planning, documentation handling and many others. The standard IEC 60050 (191) has been used as a basis for the preparation of this standard but some terms have been modified and some terms have been added. Not all terms specified in IEC 60050 (191) are included in this European standard. 6.5 EN 13460: Maintenance - Documents for maintenance This standards specifies the general guidelines for: the technical documentation to be supplied with an item, at the latest before it is ready to be put into service, in order to support its maintenance. the documentation of information to be established within the operational phase of an item, in order to support the maintenance requirements. Page 27 of 54
  28. 28. Stork Asset Management Solutions 6.6 EN 13849: Safety of machinery – Safety-related parts of control systems 6.6.1 Part 1: General principles for design EN 13849-1 provides safety requirements and guidance on the principles for the design and integration of safety-related parts of control systems (SRP/CS), including the design of software. For these parts of SRP/CS, it specifies characteristics that include the performance level required for carrying out safety functions. It applies to SRP/CS, regardless of the type of technology and energy used (electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical, etc.), for all kinds of machinery. It does not specify the safety functions or performance levels that are to be used in a particular case. 6.6.2 Part 2: Validation EN 13849-2 specifies the procedures and conditions to be followed for the validation by analysis and testing of: the safety functions provided and the category achieved For the safety-related parts of the control system in compliance with EN 954-1 (EN 13849-1), using the design rationale provided by the designer. 6.7 EN 14121: Safety of machinery – Risk assessment See ISO 14121. 6.8 EN 15341: Maintenance - Maintenance key performance indicators This European standard describes a system for management of Key Performance Indicators to measure maintenance performance in the framework of the influencing factors such as the economical, technical and organizational aspects, to appraise and to improve efficiency and effectiveness in order to achieve a excellence in maintenance of Technical Assets. 6.9 EN 20815: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Production assurance and reliability management See ISO 20815. 6.10 EN 60079: Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres See IEC 60079. 6.11 EN 60300: Dependability management See IEC 60300. 6.12 EN 61078: Analysis techniques for dependability - Reliability block diagram and boolean methods See IEC 61078. Page 28 of 54
  29. 29. Stork Asset Management Solutions 6.13 EN 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms See IEC 61703. 6.14 CEN/TR 15628: Qualification of maintenance personnel The scope of this document is to report about the current situation for defining the competence levels for personnel operating in maintenance and the knowledge levels required to be addressed to carry out those competencies. It defines three competence and knowledge levels and how to achieve a structured qualification program for maintenance personnel. Page 29 of 54
  30. 30. Stork Asset Management Solutions 7 BSI Standards 7.1 British Standards Institute Since its foundation in 1901 as the Engineering Standards Committee, BSI Group has grown into a leading global independent business services organization. The Group now operates globally through its three divisions: BSI British Standards, BSI Management Systems and BSI Product Services. The BSI Group: Certifies management systems and products Provides product testing services Develops private, national and international standards Provides training and information on standards and international trade and Provides performance management software solutions BSI British Standards is the National Standards Body of the UK, with a globally recognized reputation for independence, integrity and innovation in the production of standards that promote best practice. It develops and sells standards and standardization solutions to meet the needs of business and society. 7.2 BS 14224: Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries - Collection and exchange of reliability and maintenance data for equipment: See ISO 14224. 7.3 BS 6548: Maintainability of equipment 7.3.1 Part 1: Guide to specifying and contracting for maintainability See IEC 60706-1. 7.3.2 Part 2: Guide to maintainability studies during the design phase See IEC 60706-2. 7.3.3 Part 3: Guide to maintainability, verification and the collection, analysis and presentation of maintainability data See IEC 60706-3. 7.3.4 Part 4: Guide to the planning of maintenance and maintenance support See IEC 60706-4. 7.3.5 Part 5: Guide to diagnostic testing See IEC 60706-5. 7.3.6 Part 6: Guide to statistical methods in maintainability evaluation See IEC 60706-6. Page 30 of 54
  31. 31. Stork Asset Management Solutions 7.4 BS 61703: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms See IEC 61703. Page 31 of 54
  32. 32. Stork Asset Management Solutions 8 AFNOR Standards 8.1 Association française de normalisation Within a context of trade globalisation and the pursuit of competitiveness, the AFNOR Group, which brings together the activities of both AFAQ and AFNOR, is the preferred partner of most socio-economic players. The Group has demonstrated its expertise in four complementary activities. Standardisation: AFNOR develops the reference systems required by economic players to promote their strategic and commercial development. As European and International standardisation represents more than 80% of its work, AFNOR is influential in representing French interests within these standardisation authorities. Publication and distribution of information products: AFNOR helps players to access reference systems by providing them with international reference standards and information and assisting companies with setting up documentary databases tailored to their needs. Training: CAP AFNOR, a subsidiary of the Group, helps economic players to apply the reference systems and prepare applications for standardisation, certification and progress initiatives through its wide range of inter/intra company training and information days. Certification: AFAQ AFNOR Certification is now the Group's certification body. It offers a wide range of certifications for management systems, products, services and persons. A dedicated international centre has been set up within the new Group to contribute to an ambitious development programme in the certification, technical cooperation and training fields. It is supported by AFAQ's subsidiaries, partners and counterparts outside France and AFNOR's standardisation and international technical cooperation network. 8.2 FD X60-000: Industrial maintenance – The maintenance function This standard concentrates on the company maintenance process. It concerns: Asset maintenance, from the technical function fulfilled by the asset-equipments or a production system in general (software maintenance is not included in this standard). The industrial companies and their services. It does not concern certain traditional activities reserved for enterprise maintenance services but those activities which do not belong to “maintenance” as described in NF EN 13306 for example third works, safety, environment. This guideline is only available in French. 8.3 NF X60-010: Maintenance - Concepts and definitions of maintenance activities The terms contained in X60-010 indicate that maintenance is not confined to the technical actions but includes activities like: Introduction to the “maintenance” function The role of maintenance and the function of maintenance as a service Maintenance types (corrective, preventive, …) Terms and definitions within maintenance Page 32 of 54

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