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Istanbul - An Historic City Spanning
Empires and Civilizations
Barry Grummer
Introduction
 Barry Grummer leads a respected roofing and facade
restoration company that provides clients throughout
New...
Istanbul
 Beginning in the 7th century B.C., Byzantium emerged as
a Greek colony that connected sea trade between the
Med...
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Istanbul - An Historic City Spanning Empires and Civilizations

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Barry Grummer leads a respected roofing and facade restoration company that provides clients throughout New Jersey and New York City with quality building solutions. Blessed with a passion for travel, Barry Grummer has visited locales from Machu Picchu in Peru to Istanbul and Cappadocia in Turkey.

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Istanbul - An Historic City Spanning Empires and Civilizations

  1. 1. Istanbul - An Historic City Spanning Empires and Civilizations Barry Grummer
  2. 2. Introduction  Barry Grummer leads a respected roofing and facade restoration company that provides clients throughout New Jersey and New York City with quality building solutions. Blessed with a passion for travel, Barry Grummer has visited locales from Machu Picchu in Peru to Istanbul and Cappadocia in Turkey. A historic crossroads between East and West, Istanbul stands in the geographic area where Neolithic humans crossed from Asia into Europe by foot, as the Bosphorus Straits, which currently divide the continents, only formed 5,000 years ago. The area subsequently became a trade colony of the ancient Phoenicians, who dominated Mediterranean seafaring.
  3. 3. Istanbul  Beginning in the 7th century B.C., Byzantium emerged as a Greek colony that connected sea trade between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Conquered by Emperor Severus at the start of the 2nd century B.C., it was a vital Roman city. In the third century A.D., Constantin the Great succeeded in bringing together the Western and Eastern parts of the Roman Empire and moved the capital city from Rome to what was renamed Constantinople. Constantin was also noteworthy as the first Roman leader who converted to Christianity. Prior to the emergence of modern Turkey in the early 20th century, Istanbul stood as the capital of the Ottoman empire, and it was during this 450-year period that many of the city’s defining buildings were constructed, from the Blue Mosque to the Topkapi Palace.

Barry Grummer leads a respected roofing and facade restoration company that provides clients throughout New Jersey and New York City with quality building solutions. Blessed with a passion for travel, Barry Grummer has visited locales from Machu Picchu in Peru to Istanbul and Cappadocia in Turkey.

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