Chapter 4Conceptualizing Research Problems,Research Questions, and Hypotheses      Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health ...
Basic TerminologyResearch problemAn enigmatic, perplexing, or troublingconditionProblem statementA statement articulating ...
Basic Terminology (cont’d)Research questionsThe specific queries the researcher wants toanswer in addressing the research ...
Basic Terminology (cont’d)Statement of purposeThe researcher’s summary of the overallstudy goalResearch aims or objectives...
Sources of Research Problems• Experience and clinical fieldwork• Nursing literature• Social issues• Theory• Ideas from ext...
Developing and Refining Research                Problems• Selecting a broad topic area (e.g., patient  compliance, caregiv...
Evaluating Research Problems• Significance of the problem• Researchability of the problem• Feasibility of addressing the p...
Problem Statements• Should identify the nature, context, and  significance of the problem being  addressed• Should be broa...
Statement of Purpose-Quantitative                 Studies:• Identifies key study variables• Identifies possible relationsh...
Statement of Purpose-Qualitative Studies:• Identifies the central phenomenon• Indicates the research tradition (e.g.,  gro...
Research Questions:• Are sometimes direct rewordings of  statements of purpose, worded as  questions• Are sometimes used t...
Research Questions: (cont’d)• In qualitative studies, pose queries  linked to the research tradition:   Grounded theory: ...
Hypothesis:• States a prediction• Must always involve at least two variables• Must suggest a predicted relationship betwee...
Simple Versus Complex HypothesesSimple hypothesisExpresses a predicted relationship between oneindependent variable and on...
Directional Versus Nondirectional               HypothesesDirectional hypothesisPredicts the direction of a relationshipNo...
Research Versus Null HypothesesResearch hypothesisStates the actual prediction of a relationshipStatistical or null hypoth...
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Po bech04

  1. 1. Chapter 4Conceptualizing Research Problems,Research Questions, and Hypotheses Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  2. 2. Basic TerminologyResearch problemAn enigmatic, perplexing, or troublingconditionProblem statementA statement articulating the researchproblem and indicating the need for astudy Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  3. 3. Basic Terminology (cont’d)Research questionsThe specific queries the researcher wants toanswer in addressing the research problemHypothesesThe researcher’s predictions about relationshipsamong variables Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  4. 4. Basic Terminology (cont’d)Statement of purposeThe researcher’s summary of the overallstudy goalResearch aims or objectivesThe specific accomplishments to beachieved by conducting the study Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  5. 5. Sources of Research Problems• Experience and clinical fieldwork• Nursing literature• Social issues• Theory• Ideas from external sources Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  6. 6. Developing and Refining Research Problems• Selecting a broad topic area (e.g., patient compliance, caregiver stress)• Narrowing the topic—asking questions to help focus the inquiry Examples: – What is going on with…? – What factors contribute to….? Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  7. 7. Evaluating Research Problems• Significance of the problem• Researchability of the problem• Feasibility of addressing the problem (e.g., time, resources, ethics, cooperation of others)• Interest to the researcher Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  8. 8. Problem Statements• Should identify the nature, context, and significance of the problem being addressed• Should be broad enough to include central concerns• Should be narrow enough to serve as a guide to study design Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  9. 9. Statement of Purpose-Quantitative Studies:• Identifies key study variables• Identifies possible relationships among variables• Indicates the population of interest• Suggests, through use of verbs, the nature of the inquiry (e.g., to test…, to compare…, to evaluate…) Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  10. 10. Statement of Purpose-Qualitative Studies:• Identifies the central phenomenon• Indicates the research tradition (e.g., grounded theory, ethnography)• Indicates the group, community, or setting of interest• Suggests, through use of verbs, the nature of the inquiry (e.g., to describe…, to discover…, to explore…) Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  11. 11. Research Questions:• Are sometimes direct rewordings of statements of purpose, worded as questions• Are sometimes used to clarify or lend specificity to the purpose statement• In quantitative studies, pose queries about the relationships among variables Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  12. 12. Research Questions: (cont’d)• In qualitative studies, pose queries linked to the research tradition:  Grounded theory: process questions  Phenomenology: meaning questions  Ethnography: cultural description questions Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  13. 13. Hypothesis:• States a prediction• Must always involve at least two variables• Must suggest a predicted relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable• Must contain terms that indicate a relationship (e.g., more than, different from, associated with) Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  14. 14. Simple Versus Complex HypothesesSimple hypothesisExpresses a predicted relationship between oneindependent variable and one dependentvariableComplex hypothesisStates a predicted relationship between two ormore independent variables and/or two or moredependent variables Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  15. 15. Directional Versus Nondirectional HypothesesDirectional hypothesisPredicts the direction of a relationshipNondirectional hypothesisPredicts the existence of a relationship,not its direction Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  16. 16. Research Versus Null HypothesesResearch hypothesisStates the actual prediction of a relationshipStatistical or null hypothesisExpresses the absence of a relationship(used only in statistical testing) Copyright © 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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