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Developing managementskillsb fowler


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Developing managementskillsb fowler

  1. 1. 1-1
  2. 2. Developing Management Skills: What Great ManagersKnow and Do• Barbara M Fowler••
  3. 3. Chapter 1Personal Effectiveness McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Learning and Personal Improvement• Personal Effectiveness: The foundation of great management• Most fundamental aspect of personal competence is to know yourself and to have a clear understanding of how you learn new skills and motivate yourself to improve your capability 1-4
  5. 5. Myths of Personal Effectiveness• Learning comes with age and experience• We know ourselves• Growth opportunities lie solely in our weaknesses• It’s not me, it’s them• The best managers are hyper-organized and workaholics 1-5
  6. 6. Learning How to Learn• Bandura’s social learning theory – learning of any new behavior is the result of three main factors – the person, the environment and the behavior 1-6
  7. 7. Social Learning Theory• Mutual influence is referred to as reciprocal determinism• Most learning is done through observation and modeling of the behaviors of others 1-7
  8. 8. Social Learning Theory• Perception – a person’s mental processes such as motivation, attention, self- regulation and self-efficacy• Behavior – person’s response or action• Environment – the physical and social environment surrounding an individual 1-8
  10. 10. Attention• First challenge of learning is to focus• Critical you isolate as specifically as possible the behaviors you hope to learn 1-10
  11. 11. Retention• Must be able to understand and remember what you have observed 1-11
  12. 12. Reproduction• Importance of practice or actual demonstration of a skill• Cannot learn management by just observing or reading• Have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior 1-12
  13. 13. Motivation• Won’t successfully acquire a new skill unless you are motivated to persist and stay with it 1-13
  14. 14. A Model of Self-Management• Self-Observation/Exploration• Self-Set Goals• Management of Cues• Positive Self-Talk and Rehearsal• Self-Reward and Punishment 1-14
  15. 15. Self-Set Improvement Goals1. In committing to a goal, a person devotes attention toward goal-relevant activities2. Goals energize people3. Goals affect persistence4. Goals motivate people to use their knowledge to help them attain the goal 1-15
  16. 16. Discussion Question?What is the most important part of self-set improvement goals?A. SpecificB. MeasurableC. AttainableD. RelevantE. Time-bound 1-16
  17. 17. Self-Set Improvement Goals 1-17
  18. 18. Putting It All into Practice1. Know where you are currently2. Set SMART goals for your change3. Arrange your world to focus your attention on and remind you of your improvement plan and goals4. Stay positive and rehearse the desired behaviors at every opportunity5. Create your own rewards for accomplishing your targets 1-18
  19. 19. Individual Differences and their Importance• Ability – what a person is capable of doing• Personality – represents the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person thinks, acts, and behaves 1-19
  20. 20. How Do I Think Critically and Analytically?• Cognitive ability – capacity to learn and process cognitive information such as reading, comprehension, mathematical patterns and spatial patterns 1-20
  21. 21. How Well Do I Understand and Use Emotion?• Emotional intelligence – refers to the ability to accurately identify emotions (in self and others) as well as understand and manage those emotions separately 1-21
  22. 22. Key Aspects of Emotional Intelligence• Be able to accurately identify and express yours and others feelings• Get in the right mood• Predict the emotional future• Do it with feeling 1-22
  23. 23. Cultural Intelligence• Cultural intelligence – represents a person’s capability to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity 1-23
  24. 24. Question?Which Culture-Quotient sub-skill is a person’s understanding of how cultures are similar and different?A. CQ-StrategyB. CQ-KnowledgeC. CQ-MotivationD. CQ-Behavior 1-24
  25. 25. Cultural IntelligenceDyne and Ang have identified CQ asconsisting of four sub-skills•CQ-Strategy – how a person interprets and understandsintercultural experiences•CQ-Knowledge – person’s understanding of how culturesare similar and different•CQ-Motivation – person’s interest in experiencing in andinteracting with people from different cultures•CQ-Behavior – person’s capability to modify their ownverbal and nonverbal behavior so it is appropriate fordifferent cultures 1-25
  26. 26. What Are My Dominant Personality Traits?Big Five Dimensions1. Extraversion2. Emotional stability3. Agreeableness4. Conscientiousness5. Openness to experience 1-26
  27. 27. What Are My Personality Preferences?Carl Jung• People’s behavior is rarely random but reflects a stable pattern of personal preferences• Large percentages of people in certain occupations tend to share similar preferences 1-27
  28. 28. What Are My Personality Preferences?Four Major Preference Areas1. Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I)2. Sensing (S) or Intuition (N)3. Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)4. Judgment (J) or Perception (P) 1-28
  29. 29. What Are My Core Values?• Individual’s value system – Enduring beliefs about what’s most important in the world – Non-negotiable deeply held beliefs 1-29
  30. 30. What Are My Core Values?• One of the most important ways values awareness operates is attempting to determine compatibility and fit with others in jobs, occupations and organizations• Occupational fit – condition that exists when there is relative agreement among the parties about what is most important 1-30
  31. 31. What is My Preferred Career Orientation?• Career orientation – preference for a specific type of occupation and work context act=viewProd&productId=10 1-31
  32. 32. What is My Preferred Career Orientation? 1-32
  33. 33. Career Orientations Figure 1.2 1-33
  34. 34. Important Self-Awareness Issues• Assessment results are simply feedback• Thousands of self-assessments exist but many have questionable legitimacy• Preferences are choices we make about how we perceive the world and function best in it• Look for patterns and consistency across your assessments 1-34
  35. 35. Involve Others: Seek Regular Feedback• Major obstacle to seeking feedback is fear• Multi-source feedback – enhances self- knowledge and improves managerial behavior 1-35
  36. 36. Focus on Strengths, Not Just Weaknesses• Most productive to place focus on strengths and the things you can realistically change 1-36
  37. 37. Question?What is the pattern of mental and physical responses to conditions of uncertainty and perceived threat?A. StressB. EustressC. TraumaD. Anxiety 1-37
  38. 38. The Prevalence and Dangers of Stress• Stress – pattern of mental and physical responses to conditions of uncertainty and perceived threat 1-38
  39. 39. The Prevalence and Dangersof Stress• Managers experiencing high stress are more likely to: – selectively perceive information – fixate on single solutions to problems – revert to old habits to cope with current situations – show less creativity – overestimate how fast time is passing 1-39
  40. 40. The Prevalence and Dangers of Stress• Some level of stress is essential to high performance• Eustress – controlled or productive stress• Challenge is not to eliminate stress, but to understand how it arises and to manage it in a way that does not derail your life and work 1-40
  41. 41. Sources of Stress: Big Events and Daily Hassles• People tend to overestimate how much large events in their lives contribute to their stress level and grossly underestimate the effects of “daily hassles” 1-41
  42. 42. Sources of Stress: Big Events and Daily Hassles• Daily hassles – annoying events that occur during the workday that make accomplishing work more difficult• Daily uplifts – unexpected positive outcomes that can have the opposite impact and can recharge a manager 1-42
  43. 43. Strategies for Managing Stress• Physical Hardiness• Psychological Hardiness – ability to remain psychologically stable and healthy in the face of significant stress 1-43
  44. 44. Psychological Hardiness• Commitment - persevering through a hard time• Control - greater our capacity to choose our best attitude, the greater our sense of being in charge of our circumstances• Challenge – seeing a problem as a challenge mobilizes our resources to deal with it – encourages us to pursue the possibilities of a successful outcome 1-44
  45. 45. Psychological Hardiness• Challenge – seeing a problem as a challenge mobilizes our resources to deal with it – encourages us to pursue the possibilities of a successful outcome 1-45
  46. 46. Dealing with Stress in the Moment• Muscle relaxation• Deep breathing• Mood repair 1-46
  47. 47. Managing Time• First be effective, then be efficient• Start with written goals• Follow the 80/20 rule• Use the time management matrix• Learn to say no• Make good lists for effective prioritization 1-47
  48. 48. Time Management Matrix Table 1.7 1-48
  49. 49. Three Effective Ways to Say No1. “I’m sorry. That’s not a priority for me right now.”2. “I have made so many commitments to others, it would be unfair to them and you if I took on anything more at this point.”3. “No.” 1-49
  50. 50. Make Good Lists for Effective Prioritization• Plan the work, then work the plan – ABC method – assign A to a high-priority item, B to medium priority item and C to low-priority items• Ask “What’s the next action?”• Know yourself and your time use – Internal prime time: time of day we typically work best – External prime time: best time to attend to others 1-50
  51. 51. Make Good Lists for Effective Prioritization• Fight procrastination• Swiss Cheese Method - poke small holes in an A project with instant tasks• Instant tasks - require 5 minutes or less of your time and makes some sort of hole in your high priority task• 2-minute rule - any time demand that will take less than 2 minutes should be done now 1-51
  52. 52. Management Effectiveness• Test your management effectiveness with “Management Vitality™” an Adizes Leadership Tool 1-52
  53. 53. Key Terms• ABC method • Occupational fit• Ability • Personality• Big Five • Positive self-talk• Burn out • Preferences• Career orientation • Psychological hardiness• Cognitive ability • Reward and punishment• Daily hassles • Self-management• Daily uplifts • Self-observation• Emotional intelligence • Small wins• Eustress • SMART goals• Extraversion • Social learning theory• Introversion • Stress• Modeling • Swiss Cheese Method• Multi-rater feedback • Unlearn 1-53 • Value system