Dietary fiber


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Dietary fiber

  1. 1. Role of dietary fiber in treating and preventing diabetes H.M.C.P.K Herath
  2. 2. Introduction • diabetes is a rapid growing public health issue • 347 million people worldwide are affected by diabetes • Prevention and controlling diabetes is important. • Taking healthy diet is essential • In 1970s , Trowell suggested that dietary fiber may play a role in diabetes. • More evidences to prove that dietary fiber can affect in reducing diabetes risk. 2
  3. 3. Dietary fiber • Dietary fiber is -highly complex substances -human lack of enzymes to digest • Two types of dietary fiber 1.soluble – water soluble eg: Inulin, pectin, bete-glucans 2.insoluble – water insoluble eg: waxes, chitins, cellulose, hemicellulose
  4. 4. Sources of dietary fiber • Soluble fiber fruits(, plums,berries,banana,apple,pears root tubers (sweet potato, onions) Certain vegetables (broccoli, carrot) Legumes (peas,soybean) • Insoluble fiber Whole grain foods Wheat and corn bran Legumes such as bean and peas Nuts and seeds 4
  5. 5. Health benefits of dietary fiber high intakes of dietary fiber appear to be at significantly lower risk for developing -diabetes -coronary heart disease -stroke -hypertension -obesity -certain gastrointestinal diseases -blood pressure -serum cholesterol levels 5
  6. 6. Diabetes Mellitus • Diabetes is • Two types of diabetes -type 1 diabetes -type 2 diabetes 6
  7. 7. Diabetes patients are in higher risk of • heart disease and stroke • As reduces the blood flow nerve damages in feet • Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure • Diabetes can be cause of blindness 7
  8. 8. Role of dietary fiber in treating and preventing diabetes Blood glucose Plasma insulin Insulin sensitivity High starch increases increases decreases High fiber decreases No effect increases 8 • Fermentability • Decreases subsequent hunger- weight management • The dosage of insulin, decreases by increasing fiber rich diet
  9. 9. Soluble fiber • Tend to slow the movement of food through the digestive system • Dissolves to form a gel • Viscosity -thickness of a solution -resistance to flow • Thickens the inner layer of the intestine • Readily fermented in the colon into gases 9
  10. 10. Soluble fiber reduces the rate of absorption of nutrients The mechanism, • Dissolved soluble fiber traps nutrients inside its gummy gel • Inside the gel, nutrients are less likely to reach the wall of the intestine • So sugar is absorbed into the blood stream more slowly. 10
  11. 11. Insoluble fiber • Tend to accelerate the movement of food through the digestive system. • This provides a feeling of satiety, or fullness, which helps prevent overeating- prevent over weight • Lower fermentability 11
  12. 12. Insoluble fiber helps to • directly increase insulin sensitivity -in healthy people - in type 2 diabetes patients - individuals with insulin resistance • insoluble fiber associates in reducing diabetes risk But the mechanism is not identified 12
  13. 13. Glycemic index of food is important in a diabetes diet foods with high glycemic index- digest and absorbs quickly into the body foods with low glycemic index – digest and absorbs into the body more slowly • diabetes patients should consume foods with low glycemic index • Even though fiber is considered a complex carbohydrate, it does not raise blood glucose level. 13
  14. 14. fiber intake • high dietary fiber intake can be mainly obtained by increasing the consumption of legumes, fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods • adults women should consume > 25 grams of dietary fiber per day • Adult men should consume >38g of dietary fiber per day • for children is that intake should equal age in years plus 5 g/day - Academy of nutrient and dietetics 14
  15. 15. sd 15 Thank you