A magazine on drylands development and sustainable agriculture / ISSUE 58, JULY 2010

Enhancing                      sm...

                       Dear Reader,
                       Welcome to the new look Baobab! The new m...
Contents                       ISSN: 0966-9035

                               Baobab is published four times a year

a smart solution for food and farming
Animals are a part of farming systems everywhere. In th...
contribution is minor. But as Carlos Seré, director   The growth in demand could imply enormous
of the International Lives...

more examples indicating that the livestock sector     future demands for animal products without
is infl...
and engage in learning processes (social capital).                      India, the Philippines and Thailand, has focused

Multiple benefits of

      keeping                                                     ...
goat meat is soft and tender, says Mr Mutemi. He                                        receiving two local goats in Septe...

their old house. Ms Ndeng’e reminiscences that        by Farm Africa multiplied ten fold and by mid-
in 20...

Fighting              East CoastMaasailand
                         Lessons from

protect their herds and their livelihoods. “These      by any livestock vaccine. However, up ti...

Livestock breeding to increase
income for small-scale farmers By Paul Sandys
Cattle breeders in developing

                                                           with farmers. He noted that new global trends

shifts in policy making                                                          ...

      livestock production systems and environmental                   are poorly accountable t...
Published research on African pastoral


                                                It’s important
some months later...
                             This life is hard!
                          Why is this happening?


   production                   A livelihoods perspective in Ph...
employment opportunities are limited households

 Let’s talk about

                                                           Capacity ...
•	 Improve	coordination	and	networking	skills	        The skills building workshops were facilitated by
   for the PLWHA n...

Access and availability of communication               the trainings and provide all the neces...
will continue to be vital advocacy tools for           this and played it on radio using spot messages
   the rights of PL...

Pig Farming
for Income Generation in Lukwanga, Uganda
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
Baobab issue 58 july 2010
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Baobab issue 58 july 2010


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The Baobab is a magazine on drylands development and sustainable agriculture published four times a year by Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN).
It is published with support from ileia - The Centre for learning on sustainable agriculture.

ALIN and ileia are members of AgriCultures, a global
network of organisations that share knowledge and provide information on small-scale, sustainable agriculture worldwide.

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Baobab issue 58 july 2010

  1. 1. A magazine on drylands development and sustainable agriculture / ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 Enhancing small-scale livestock production
  2. 2. E D I T O R I A L Dear Reader, Welcome to the new look Baobab! The new magazine is a merger of the old Baobab and Kilimo Endelevu Africa (KEA). It will now be longer, increasing in extent from 24 to 36 pages therefore enabling us to share more information that responds to the growing needs of our readers in East Africa. The merged Baobab will also feature more articles from the ‘AgriCultures’ network that produces Farming Matters, an international quarterly magazine that focuses on small-scale sustainable agriculture. Welcome to AgriCultures is a global network of organisations coordinated by the Centre for learning on sustainable agriculture (ileia) and supports the production of the new look regional editions in Latin America (Peru and Brazil), West Africa (Senegal) and Asia (India, China and Baobab Indonesia) with new Baobab now being the East African edition (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). Farming Matters, which was until this year known as Leisa magazine, was started 25 years ago by a group of enthusiastic people who believed that agricultural practices recommended by scientists in universities and research institutions were not always responsive to field level realities. They were convinced that there was relevant and valuable knowledge among farmers and field workers which needed to be captured and shared more widely. Baobab has since inception served a similar function with a focus on East Africa. It will continue to serve primarily community development workers or infomediaries who constitute ALIN’s membership in the region. We also believe it will appeal to anyone interested in issues affecting communities living in arid lands of Eastern Africa and therefore provide an extra channel for sharing best practices in agriculture and sustainable utilization of the environment. The merger process involved close consultation with ileia. In this inaugural issue, we carry an interview with Edith van Walsum, the Director of ileia, who gives more details about the process. The theme for this issue is “Small-scale livestock production”. We welcome your feedback and ideas about making Baobab a more effective forum for sharing information for sustainable small-scale agriculture in our region. James Nguo Regional Director
  3. 3. Contents ISSN: 0966-9035 Baobab is published four times a year to create a forum for ALIN members to Livestock a smart network, share their experiences and learn from experiences of other people working solution for food and in similar areas. farming 4 Editorial board James Nguo Multiple benefits of Anthony Mugo Noah Lusaka goat keeping 8 Esther Lung’ahi Susan Mwangi – Chief Editor 4 Fighting East Coast Consulting Editor fever - lessons from Wairimu Ngugi Maasailand 11 Illustrations Joe Barasa Livestock breeding 13 Consulting Designer Levi Wanyoike Pastoralism, shifts in Important notices policy making 15 Copyright: Articles, photos and illustrations from Baobab may be adapted for use in materials that are development oriented, provided the materials are distributed free of Stork Story 18 charge and ALIN and the author(s) are credited. Copies of the samples should be sent to ALIN. 8 Disclaimer: Opinions and views expressed in the letters Small-scale livestock and articles do not necessarily reflect the views of the production-Malawi 20 editors or ALIN. Technical information supplied should be cross- checked as thoroughly as possible as ALIN cannot accept responsibility should any problems occur. Capacity building for Regional editions PLWHA-Uganda 22 1. Farming matters global edition by ileia 2. LEISA REVISTA de Agroecologia, Latin America edition Small-scale pig farming by Asociacion ETC andes. - Uganda 26 Guest Column 30 15 3. 4. 5. LEISA India, by AME foundation SALAM majalah pertanian Berkelanjutan by VECO Indonesia AGRIDAPE, French West African edition by IED afrique 6. Agriculture, experiences em Agroecologia, the Brazilian edition by AS-PTA Camel milk 32 7. Chinese edition by CBIK Talk to us 26 Baobab writing The Baobab magazine guidelines & Call for Arid Lands Information Network, ALIN articles 33 PO Box 10098, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya AAYMCA Building, Ground floor Along State House Crescent, Resources 34 Off State House Avenue Tel. +254 20 2731557, Telefax. +254 20 2737813 Cell. +254 722 561006, Email: baobab@alin.net Or visit us at www.alin.net From our Readers 35 About ALIN Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN) is an NGO that facilitates information and knowledge exchange to and between extension workers or infomediaries and arid lands 30 communities in the East Africa region. The information exchange activities focus on small-scale sustainable agriculture, climate change adaptation, natural resources management and other livelihood issues.
  4. 4. THEME OVERVIEW Livestock a smart solution for food and farming Animals are a part of farming systems everywhere. In this issue, Baobab focuses on how small-scale farmers manage their animals, how they link animal husbandry with other activities and what their livestock means to them. An integrated perspective on the role of farm animals is crucial in overcoming simplistic assumptions on the opportunities and threats that livestock presents to family farmers. By Lucy Maarse L ivestock plays an important role in the livelihoods of many farmers and herders in the developing world, as it contributes to the basics of food, income, and security, as well as other social and cultural functions. Actually, the world’s poorest people – nearly one billion – depend on pigs, yaks (a wild domesticated ox), cattle, sheep, lamas, goats, chickens, camels, buffalos and other domestic animals. For undernourished people, selling one egg may imply being able to buy some rice and thus, instead of having one meal per day, a second one becomes reality. This is a typical survival strategy: selling high-quality foods to buy low-cost starchy Mrs Jerida Matasi a small-scale farmer milking her cow in Lugulu, Kenya food. In other parts of the world, we see an over- consumption of red meat and other animal-based food, which damages the health of many people: manure and slurry over the land. It is therefore it is a shocking dichotomy. a problem predominantly caused by western consumption patterns, as has been discussed Greenhouse gases produced by and studied by many researchers and authors animals (for example, Jonathan Safran Foer in Eating Animals). For some people, it is a reason to According to the FAO study, Livestock’s long promote a vegetarian lifestyle, as a protest against shadow: Environmental issues and options, animal exploitation. published in 2006, livestock contributes to 18 percent of the total global greenhouse gas There are, however, great differences in livestock emissions generated by human activity. Most production systems in various regions of the of these emissions come from countries using world. These systems emit very different amounts industrial farming practices, in the form of and types of greenhouse gases, and serve different methane produced by the belching and flatulence purposes. Considering that all of Africa’s of animals, carbon dioxide by felling and burning ruminants together account for three percent of trees for ranching, and nitrous oxide by spreading the global methane emissions from livestock, their 4 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  5. 5. contribution is minor. But as Carlos Seré, director The growth in demand could imply enormous of the International Livestock Research Institute opportunities for the poor, who could catch a (ILRI), rightly points out: ruminants maintained substantial share of the growing livestock market. on poor quality feeds make an inefficient But just 10 years later, Pica-Ciamarra and Otte conversion of feed to milk and meat, and more show in The livestock revolution: rhetoric and environmentally damaging. Skinny ruminants on reality, that this growth has been especially huge poor diets, while not competing with people for in China, India and Brazil in the poultry, pork grain, produce much more methane per unit of and dairy sectors. In sub-Saharan Africa and livestock product than well-fed cattle, sheep and developed regions, the growth has been decreasing goats. or stagnant. The geographical impact is patchy even within the nations and the impact is largest Yet many African livestock systems seem to be on poor urban consumers. The paper also observes the best way to deal with climate change because that an increasing polarisation has occurred in the these systems can be carbon-negative. According livestock sector. to Mario Herrera and Shirley Tarawali from ILRI, a typical 250 kilogram African cow produces Local developments approximately 800 kilogram CO2 equivalents The World Bank has embraced the notion of a per year, whilst carbon sequestration rates (the livestock revolution from the beginning, sensing amount of carbon taken up in the soil) can be opportunities for poor small-scale farmers in about 1400 kilograms of carbon per hectare developing countries. Jimmy Smith from the per year under modest stocking rates, making a Agriculture and Rural Development department positive balance. The same goes for stall-feeding of the World Bank admits that growth in the dairy systems, which emit less CO2 due to higher demand for animal products has not been quality diets and better recycling of products uniform: “Income growth has mostly happened in within the system. China. In South East Asia the demand for milk, poultry meat and eggs has increased enormously.” Livestock revolution revisited For Smith, this does not mean that the livestock The notion of a “Livestock Revolution” was revolution did not occur: “Despite regional introduced in an differences, changes influential International Food Policy Research “It’s mostly the private have been so large that it has influenced global Institute (IFPRI) organisations that have trade, livestock and publication in 1999. It climate. As smallholders initially simply stood benefited from the are often not connected for the unprecedented livestock revolution. Public to markets, they have growth in demand for not been able to benefit food of animal origin spending has been very low. as we would have in developing countries, because of population Veterinary services have expected.”policymakers to Smith, According growth, urbanization deteriorated. And there need to be more specific and increasing income (and subsequent have been no investments in on local situations: “It’s mostly the private changes in diets and links to markets.” organisations that have life style). The idea benefited from the that the Livestock livestock revolution. Revolution would be driven by demand, contrary Public spending has been very low. Veterinary to the Green Revolution which was supply driven, services have deteriorated. And there have been strongly influenced the thinking in the sector. no investments in links to markets.” There are BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 5
  6. 6. THEME OVERVIEW more examples indicating that the livestock sector future demands for animal products without is influenced by other factors, such as food price environmental damage. Strengthening and/or policies, availability of animal feed and investment developing ecological, cultural and socially-sound facilities for commercial farming. The idea of a livestock systems is possible, but it starts with livestock sector that grows as a result of increased understanding the different functions of livestock demand for meat is therefore misleading. It in rural livelihoods. prevents governments from intervening and identifying the real potentials that could stimulate Livestock means more than meat a growth in the livestock sector that would and milk be beneficial to poverty reduction and rural Farmers keep animals for direct consumption development at large. of food and non-food products such as milk, meat, wool, hair and eggs, but also manure for Mixed farming fuel and urine for medicine (output function). In Eastern Africa, one third of the rural Some of these products provide input for other population lives in areas where livestock activities: manure, urine and grazing fallow land predominate over crops as a source of income. are beneficial for crop production; stubble fields Nearly 40 percent help pastoralists feed of all livestock are kept in mixed Van der Ploeg (2009) brings theirdrought power for give animals; animals farming areas, where in the dimension of capital transport and their hair, they contribute to hoofs and manure help to rural livelihoods in when analysing farming disperse seeds and improve diverse ways. Various systems in his book New seed germination; their classifications grazing prevents bushfires are used to Peasantries and controls shrub growth, define livestock and stimulates grass production systems. From a family farming tillering and breaking-up perspective, livelihood criteria known as “the hard soil crusts (input function). But animals also relative dependency on livestock at the household permit farmers to raise money in times of need level” including the customary use of the terms (asset function). This often represents the priority “pastoral”, “agro-pastoral”, and “mixed farming”, function of livestock among poor farmers, and is place the livestock into perspective with all the the reason that animals are not necessarily sold activities and resources through which households when the market price is attractive but when there fulfil their needs. An agro-pastoral system would is a need for cash. Livestock are also part of the be one in which livestock account for between household. They are indicators of social status, 50 and 80 percent of the total income, whereas a festivals and fairs are based on livestock (bullock pastoral system would have livestock accounting cart racing, cock fighting, cow beauty contests) for over 80 percent. and many songs have been written about livestock (socio-cultural function). Caution is needed in making generalised statements about the links between livestock, Van der Ploeg (2009) brings in the dimension consumption of meat, greenhouse gas emissions, of capital when analysing farming systems in his climate change, food safety, poverty and animal book New Peasantries. There is the conversion welfare issues. The context, functions of livestock of living nature (ecological capital) into food, and trade-offs of animal husbandry are very drinks and a broad range of raw products. different all over the world. The crux of the matter But controlling the complex organisation and is to reach a situation in which family farming development of farming, needs communities to and herding in the developing countries meet network, cooperate, self-regulate, solve conflicts, 6 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  7. 7. and engage in learning processes (social capital). India, the Philippines and Thailand, has focused Finally, farming and herding stand for a certain on the impact of increasing the average farm culture and way of life (cultural capital), which size and annual livestock sales. There are some are even more clearly articulated in these modern interesting conclusions regarding family farming times, with anonymous global markets. Farming that can be noted. Independent small farms in culture stands for origin, quality, authenticity and India and the Philippines typically have higher freshness of products, and of associated ways of profits per unit than do independent large farms. producing, processing and marketing (fairness and Small farms with pigs and poultry also have a sustainability). lower negative impact on the environment than large farms. Hence, environmental concerns are The analyses of Rangnekhar (2006) and Van der compatible with promoting small-scale livestock Ploeg (2009) can be combined in the diagram pr oduction. Climate-smart farming is the future, below: as Camilla Toulmin, director of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) stated at the ileia conference on the Future of Family Farming in The Hague in December 2009. About the author Lucy Maarse is an independent livestock advisor, specialised in tropical animal production and extension. She currently works in the Netherlands. Email: lucy.maarse@gmail.com References Delgado, C. (2008), Determinants and implications of the growing scale of livestock farms in four fast-growing Livestock Production Systems: their functions and relationships to capital developing countries, IFPRI Washington D.C. Research report 157. Livestock Production Systems: Delgado C., Rosegrant M., Steinfeld H., Ehui S., their functions and relationships to Courboi, C. (1999), Livestock to 2020 – The Next Food Revolution. Food, Agriculture and the Environment. IFPRI, capital Washington D.C. Discussion Paper 28. The World Bank has already tried to adopt a more Van der Ploeg, J.D. (2009), The New Peasantries, struggles inclusive approach to livestock. Smith points for autonomy and sustainability in an era of empire and globalization, Earthscan, London, UK. out that livestock is mostly used for input into crops: “Some reports say that up to 50 percent of Pica-Ciamarra, U. and Otte, J. (2009), The livestock revolution: rhetoric and reality. FAO Rome. nitrogen use for crops comes from manure, which Rangnekar D. (2006) Livestock in the livelihoods of the means that livestock is incredibly important. underprivileged communities in India: A review. ILRI, Livestock has many uses and functions, which Nairobi, Kenya. have not received enough attention. Public Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, investments are needed, in order to sustainably M., De Haan, C. (2006), Livestock’s Long Shadow – develop the livestock sector and escape poverty.” environmental issues and options. FAO Rome. Sere, C. (2009). ‘It’s time for climate negotiators to put Climate smart rural development meat on the bones of the next climate agreement’. www.ilri.org/ilrinews/index.php/archives/1006/ A recent study by Delgado (2008) on the scaling- comment-page-1#comment-50. up of the production of some specific livestock products among small-scale producers in Brazil, BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 7
  8. 8. PROJECT FOCUS Goat Multiple benefits of keeping realised in Mwingi By Musembi Nzengu The goat is one of the most adaptable and geographically spread out livestock species in the world, with an estimated population of 700 million. With a habitat ranging from the mountains of Siberia to the deserts and the tropics of Africa, goats provide reliable access to meat, milk, skin, fibre, high quality manure and other goat products. To boost goat breeding in Kenya where many rural communities rear them for food and income, Farm Africa, a Non-governmental Organisation, has initiated pilot milk goat projects in Mwingi, Kitui and Meru districts in the Eastern Province of Kenya. Benefits of Goat Keeping Koki with her dairy goat . Photo: Musembi Nzengu According to the Mwingi District Farm Africa Manager, Mr Jacob Mutemi, many people keep Ancient cave paintings depicting people hunting goats for meat, skin and other benefits such as goats indicate that the animal has historically manure but ignore the milk, unaware of its high played an important role in human food nutritional and medicinal value. He explains that culture. Goats have traditionally contributed in comparison to cow milk, goat milk has higher to ceremonial and cultural ceremonies butter fat content and smaller fat globules that during functions such as marriage and dowry are beneficial to sick people. Research findings negotiations, explains Mr Mutemi. He adds that indicate that goat milk has the capacity to slow goat milk and cheese were historically revered down the adverse effects of the life threatening in ancient Egypt, with some pharaohs placing HIV virus, thus prolonging life, notes Mr goatrelated foods among the valuable treasures in Mutemi. His views are echoed by the Mwingi their burial chambers. District Range Management Officer, Mr John Njagi, who says: “Goat milk is exceptionally good Mr Mutemi says that goat milk is nutritious for HIV positive people and those with full blown and particularly good for young children AIDS as it has been scientifically proven that it and the sick. It is a source of calcium and the boosts the immunity of the sick.” He explains amino acid tryptophan, protein, phosphorus, that his department is encouraging everyone riboflavin (vitamin B2) and potassium and bears including those who are HIV positive to consume a close resemblance to human milk due to its goat milk because it enriches the T-cells in the constitution. Research has shown that goat milk blood. Infectious viruses normally attack T-cells, is a good alternative to breast milk for children weakening the body’s defence mechanism. whose lactating mothers become sick or die, while 8 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  9. 9. goat meat is soft and tender, says Mr Mutemi. He receiving two local goats in September 2004 however notes that although goat rearing had Ms Safari now owns eight crossbred goats. She evolved for over 10,000 years, there is need for explains that since selling her goat for 15,000 a paradigm shift towards embracing milk goat (USD 190) Kenya shillings everyone in her village rearing as opposed to rearing the animal solely wants the goats. “The community members have for meat, skin and fibre. The table below from realised these goats grow faster and produce Farmer Dairy Goat Production Handbook provides more milk than the local goats. My husband and a comparison of nutritional value between goat, children are very happy with the project. I have cow and human milk. been hosting many people who come to see the goats. I have benefited from use Content Goat Cow Human of manure and the milk we get Protein 3.0 * 3.0 1.1 from the goats,” she explains with a sense of pride. She adds Fat 3.8 3.6 4.0 that her family’s social standing Calories/100ml 70 * 69 68 has risen as they are held highly Vitamin A (iu/100ml) 39 * 21 32 and considered a good example Vitamin B (ug/100ml) 68 * 45 17 of those who have succeeded in rearing the dairy goats. “My Riboflavin (ug/100ml) 210 * 159 26 children are now very happy! Vitamin C (mg ascorbic acid/100ml) 2 2 3 They know that they cannot Vitamin D (iu/gram fat) 0.7 * 0.7 0.3 drop out of school due to lack Calcium 0.19 * 0.18 0.04 of school fees.” Iron 0.07 * 0.06 0.2 Ngooni Village Case Phosphorus 0.27 * 0.23 0.06 Study Cholesterol (mg/100ml) *Low is good 15 20 Ms Telesia Ndeng’e is a 38- Source: Kaberia, B.K, P. Mutia, and C. Ahuya - Farmers Dairy Goat Production Handbook. * Shows the best nutrition year-old widowed mother of three who hails from Ngooni Ngaani Case Study Village in Nzaatani location of Mwingi Central Division. She says the introduction of goat rearing Ms Koki Safari is a mother of three and one in Ngooni by Farm Africa was a godsend that has of the leading goat farmers in Nuu Division emancipated her from the yoke of poverty. After of Mwingi District. After defying all odds she only five years of marriage, Ms Ndenge’s husband, recently made history by selling a crossbreed goat Mr Ndeng’e Muthui died in 2001, leaving her to at Kenya shillings 15,000 (USD 190) which is an fend for three young children, Muthui who is now equivalent of 10 times the price of a local goat in 13 and a Kenya Certificate of Primary Education Nuu market. Narrated Ms Safari: “I joined Ngaani Candidate, Faith who is 10 and in standard 5 and Dairy Goat Self-Help Group in 2004. The chief Nzasu who is in standard 3. had called a baraza (a public meeting) and the poorest people in our location were identified and Due to poverty, Ms Ndeng’e’s family suffered requested to form a self-help group. We were told hunger among other problems, while crop that an organisation called Farm Africa wished to production on their farm was impossible since she assist the poorest within the location. To benefit had to keep seeking manual jobs. The family was from the Project, we formed the Ngaani Group forced to sleep out in the cold when their mud and registered it with Ministry of Culture and walled and grass thatched house caved in. After Social Services.” She was given two local goats for their house collapsed, members of the Ngooni crossbreeding with an exotic male Toggenburg Africa Inland Church donated seven iron sheets, breed shared with other group members. Since which the family placed over the mud walls of BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 9
  10. 10. PROJECT FOCUS their old house. Ms Ndeng’e reminiscences that by Farm Africa multiplied ten fold and by mid- in 2001 soon after her husband died [prior to February 2010 she was the proud owner of 30 introduction of free primary education in Kenya] goats. her eldest son was out of school for months because she was unable to raise the 600 Kenya Each of Ms Ndenge’s goats produces at least one shillings (USD 7.5) required for school fees. pint (0.6 litres) of milk per day and the income realised from the sale of milk helps to supplement After being identified as among the poorest of her earnings from community animal husbandry services. She has saved enough money to take her eldest son to secondary school next year and plans to sell four mature cross-bred goats. As a result of the goat project she is able to hire farm hands while the use of goat manure has helped to improved her farm yields and she expects to harvest 20 bags of maize at the end of the season. The goat project has raised Ms. Ndenge’s profile and she is now recognised by the local community as an opinion leader. “It is true my profile has risen steadily and I now sit in the local locational development committee meetings all the way A dairy goat with full udder. Photo: Farm Africa to the District Development Committee. I am also often called upon by various NGOs to co- the poor, Ms Ndeng’e qualified for assistance facilitate workshops on capacity building for through the Farm Africa goat rearing project and women and community based groups,” she says, became one of the 25 members of the Utethyo explaining that this earns her some additional Wa Ngya (Hope of the Poor) community group income. in Ngooni village. She was given four Gala milk goats to be mounted by an exotic Toggenburg he goat donated to the group to upgrade the local breed. She and other members of the milk goat About the Author project also received two-week training course as Musembi Nzengu is a writer based in Mwingi. He corresponds for various newspapers in Kenya. He can Community Animal Health Assistants and were be on reached on 0724 560832 or nzengumj@gmail. each given a bicycle and a treatment kit. com Reference “Soon after the training, I started crisscrossing Kaberia, B.K, P. Mutia and C. Ahuya “Farmer Dairy Goat the village on my bicycle attending to sick goats Production Handbook.” Meru and Tharaka Nithi Dairy and advising fellow farmers on how to manage Goat and Animal Healthcare Project (1996 - 2003): 1 common diseases,” says Ms Ndeng’e. She soon started making some money out of the paravet services. As a priority she built a permanent two-roomed brick walled and iron sheet roofed house to ensure that “my family could for once sleep in comfort”. She was also able to ensure food and clothing was readily availed to her family members. Her fame as a para-vet spread and soon people who were not members of her group sought her help, which increased her income. In the meantime the three goats donated to her 10 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  11. 11. LIVESTOCK DISEASE CONTROL Fighting East CoastMaasailand Lessons from Fever Every year, over one million cattle in East and Southern Africa die from East Coast Fever - about one cow every thirty seconds. In East Africa the loss amounts to about 190 million US dollars each year. East Coast Fever (ECF) (Theileriosis) is a cattle disease caused by the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. Though similar to Malaria, a tick called the Brown Ear Tick transmits it. The disease mainly occurs in Eastern and Southern Africa and is the The vaccine has drasticaly reduced calf mortality from 80% to 2%. number one killer of young cattle in the region. work of Lynen’s pharmaceutical company VetAgro Symptoms Tanzania, which has led the way in promoting the In the event of infection, the parotid lymph nodes ECF vaccine in the region for over 15 years. As a below the ear become enlarged 1 - 2 weeks after result of this achievement and a successful vaccine infection. A few days later, fever develops along registration campaign, coordinated by the Global with the enlargement of superficial lymph nodes Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines in front of the shoulder and stifle. Other signs may (GALVmed), veterinary authorities in Kenya, include: difficulty in breathing, a soft cough due to Uganda, Malawi and Tanzania have demonstrated accumulation of fluid in the lungs, blood-stained renewed interest in vaccination as a means of ECF diarrhea, muscle wasting and white discoloration control. of the eyes and gums. The animal may appear disturbed resulting in the so called “turning Alfred Kapolo Kumai, a livestock keeper in sickness” and paralysis. Longido District in the north of Tanzania is one of the few livestock keepers who Ways of controlling East Coast Fever understand the disease well. He has Treatment for a sick animal is expensive and costs enjoyed the benefits of the vaccine for quite between US dollars 50 to 60. The survival rate sometime. “Before I started the immunization, is also minimal. Another loss is the reduction in I would lose about eight calves from a total of milk production. Regular dipping of cattle should be maintained. However, this may be difficult to 10. Now I do not worry about that”. attain in open herds without proper organization. Treatment with antibiotics such as long acting Effective and affordable Oxytetracycline can occasionally cure the disease. The vaccination programme in northern Tanzania has resulted in over 80% of all calves vaccinated Tanzanian pastoralists pdopt across many wards being protected for life. vaccination to control East Coast Fever Achieving this kind of success in a remote area When asked about the success of vaccination with a vaccine, which depends on a cold chain against ECF in northern Tanzania, Dr Lieve for delivery, and costs up to US$10 per animal, is Lynen, is remarkably modest. And yet more than remarkable. But in Lynen’s view, the success should 500,000 animals have been vaccinated against be credited to two main factors: the efficacy of ECF in Tanzania since 1998, largely due to the the vaccine, and the willingness of the Maasai pastoralists to pay for the vaccine in order to BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 11
  12. 12. LIVESTOCK DISEASE CONTROL protect their herds and their livelihoods. “These by any livestock vaccine. However, up till now, are livestock keepers who know cattle and who governments in East, Central and Southern Africa know diseases,” she says. “They are willing to adopt have not supported widespread adoption of the a technology if it works - to commit themselves ECF vaccine due to the complexity of delivering to a product where they see it gives them a future the vaccine, which requires the vials to be stored in livestock production.” VetAgro has a network in liquid nitrogen. Administering the vaccine also of 90 delivery vets, trained in the ECF “infection requires training as the vaccine is administered in and treatment” method and about to be officially combination with an antibiotic to allow antibodies certified. Lynen feels this is crucial in order to to ECF to build up without the disease taking resolve concerns about mismanagement by some hold. vaccinators, including use of ‘dead’ vaccine, which Maintaining the production and supply of the has been injected too long after removal from the vaccine is seen as the key challenge to widespread cold chain, and cases of financial fraud. vaccination, and such private sector involvement Sharing the success is an essential component. GALVmed is currently News of the efficacy of the ECF vaccine spreads putting vaccination delivery out to tender in the quickly amongst the pastoralist community once private sector; inviting bids that will be scrutinised vaccination begins to be adopted in an area, by a panel of organisations, including the African observes Lynen. However, VetAgro is also raising Union/IBAR and Pan African Vaccine Centre, awareness through sensitisation days and use of which is responsible for quality control of all film and radio. livestock vaccines on the continent. Hameed Nuru, GALVmed director of policy and external VetAgro is keen to work with community animal affairs, outlines what the panel will be looking for health workers (CAHWs). Chosen and trusted by in the applications: “Number one, these business their communities, they are well placed to connect proposals have to be sustainable, we have to livestock keepers with certified vaccinators. A have continuity. Two - they have to be pro-poor, partnership with the Babati-based Community pricing the product for poor people. And three, Animal Health Network is currently being distribution of the production must be for a developed by VetAgro to link with the many defined area.” CAHWs who play an important role in alerting their communities to disease outbreaks and have The intention is that all aspects of vaccine been trained in recent years through various production and delivery will be in private hands NGO programmes. Through this network, by the end of 2011. In the longer term, research is VetAgro hopes to extend the reach of CAHWs for likely to focus on a new generation of vaccine that organising and publicising vaccination days. does not require the liquid nitrogen cold chain or the combined treatment with antibiotics. According to Kapoo Lucumay, a veterinary assistant and trained ECF vaccinator working in Private sector future Longido district, Tanzania, arranging vaccination One vial of vaccine currently contains enough days is not difficult once livestock keepers are doses for 40 animals. In future, the International aware of the success of the vaccine. “It is the Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), which livestock keepers who arrange it,” he says. “They produces the vaccine, may look at developing a just talk and find out the number of animals smaller vial of just five or eight doses, providing they have between them. Then they phone and a more marketable product for private sector ask me to come and do the immunisation. There companies with an interest in setting up is no problem, because they already know the vaccination services. importance of this vaccine.” The article was adopted from The “New Agriculturist” a WRENmedia production based in the UK. Challenges www.new-ag.info Developed 30 years ago, the ECF vaccine has Additional information from: been shown to be a highly effective product, www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/653/animalDiseases with a 95 percent success rate in pastoral herds www.agfax.net/radio/detail.php?i=353 www.galvmed.org/news-resources/content/east-coast-fever- - one of the highest rates of protection offered vaccine-registered-tanzania 12 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  13. 13. TECHNOLOGY Livestock breeding to increase income for small-scale farmers By Paul Sandys Cattle breeders in developing countries have been challenged to conserve valuable local breeds that can survive harsh conditions unlike imported breeds from industrialized nations. Given that genetic change has been a key driver of livestock developments in the north for the past 200 years, breeding promises even greater returns in the south today since it enables livestock farmers get out of poverty. At the moment, the world’s livestock gene pool is shrinking and extinction of any breed or population means the loss of its adaptive attributes which are under control of many interacting genes. “With better and more appropriate breeds and species of farm animals, many of the 600 million plus livestock keepers in poor countries will be able to produce more milk, meat and eggs for the fast-growing global livestock markets thus pulling themselves out from poverty,” the International Livestock Research Institute’s Director General Dr. Carlos Sere observes. A man conducts artificial insemination on a cow. Photo: Accelerated Genetics According to him, sustainable breeding strategies that conserve local breeds can bring about higher is contributing to the reduction of livelihoods smallholder milk production now than ever options for the poor. before. Of the more than 7,600 breeds recorded by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), New market incentives 190 have become extinct in the past 15 years and a Addressing an international livestock conference further 1,500 are considered at risk of extinction. in Nairobi, September 2009, Dr. Sere revealed FAO estimates that 60 breeds of cattle, pigs, that the existing new market incentives are horses, goats and poultry have been lost over the presenting opportunities and challenges alike for last five years. developing countries.“Rising prices are driving more indiscriminate cross breeding, which is Of particular concern are the high rates of loss of leading to the extinction of tropical breeds, as indigenous breeds in developing countries, which, well as to poorly performing second and third coupled with inadequate programmes for the generation cross bred animals,” he pointed out use and management of these genetic resources, and observed that new science based breeding BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 13
  14. 14. TECHNOLOGY with farmers. He noted that new global trends in prices of livestock products are opening up opportunities for African small holder farmers. Giving the example of Kenya where 80% of milk is produced by small-scale farmers who own 6.7 million dairy cattle, he pointed that adoption of better breeding techniques would results in better adopted cattle in light of ongoing climate change. Presently, Kenya is exporting milk powder to neighbouring countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, markets that have huge potential for expansion. The achievements made in exploring these Pastoralist cattle in Garissa, Kenya. Photo: ALIN markets so far have been the result of increasing collaboration between farmers and relevant government departments on one hand and technologies and policies that are now in place the establishment of private milk processing will raise smallholder dairy yields in sustainable companies. ways while conserving valuable local cattle breeds. A biotechnology expert and a former head of biotechnology at ILRI, Dr. Ed Rege, at the Sere notes that the new science same meeting, advised scientists to evaluate based breeding technologies and and introduce the short, small and muscular hump-less West African N’dama breed of cattle policies that are now in place will in tsetse infested areas in East Africa. This is raise smallholder dairy yields in due to that fact that the breed, which is kept by sustainable ways while conserving farmers in free range village production systems across 20 countries in West and Central Africa, valuable local cattle breeds has developed resistance to the deadly diseases transmitted by tsetse fly. He also called for more widespread rearing of the Boran breed as opposed to other breeds in Africa due to its potential for high beef production. About the Author Paul Sandys is a correspondent who writes on Rege challenged scientists to provide farmers agriculture and livestock. He is based in Nairobi, Kenya. with good cows adding that the use of Artificial Email: dsjabris@gmail.com Insemination (AI), that has been underutilized lately, should be encouraged in providing appropriate breeding materials. “High demand for breeding females can be met through the use of AI, but only with more private sector participation,” he added. He recommended that implementation of new agricultural ideas in future need to take a “bottom up” approach to ensure emerging best practices are developed in consultation 14 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  15. 15. LIVESTOCK: POLICY ISSUES Pastoralism shifts in policy making By Jonathan Davies and Guyo M. Roba Pastoralism provides a living for between 100 and 200 million households, from the Asian steppes to the Andes. But misguided policies are undermining its sustainability. Baobab asks how governments can best strengthen the governance of pastoral systems and find more equitable ways to include pastoralists in policy making. Land tenure and joint management prove crucial to the answer. P astoralism, the extensive production of livestock in rangelands, is carried out in climatically extreme environments where other forms of food production are unviable. Providing a livelihood for between 100 and 200 million households, it is practiced from the Asian steppes to the Andes and from the mountainous regions of Western Europe to the African savannah. In total, its activities cover a quarter of the earth’s land surface. As well as generating food and incomes, these rangelands provide many vital, Camels - handy animals for pastoralists. Photo: Jonathan Davis and valuable, ecosystem services such as water supply and carbon sequestration: services that are being degraded through misguided rangeland Securing land tenure in Garba Tula investments and policies. This past decade however has seen a promising Although some countries now officially recognize shift by several governments to recognize and the value of pastoralism, negative perceptions regulate access and tenure rights over pastoral still pervade. Pastoral policies are either non- resources. Improvements have been made in existent or, where they do exist, are barely Niger (1993), Mali (2001) and Burkina Faso enforced. Establishing communal land tenure is (2002). Mongolian government policy now crucial because it creates pastoral rights of access, supports communal land tenure through placing provides opportunities for individuals to seek greater control of natural resources in the hands optimal ways of exploiting available resources, and of customary institutions [see box]. Benefits facilitates changes in resource equity. However, have impacted both pastoral livelihoods and the the common property regime, which allows conservation of herders’ rangeland environments. pastoralists to sustainably manage vast areas of Against this backdrop, it is important to identify land, is undermined by laws and policies that and support processes that can help strengthen promote the individualization of land tenure. As a the governance of pastoral systems, as well as local result, dry-season grazing reserves have been lost, land use and the environment. Pastoral societies livestock mobility has been restricted, land tenure also need to find more equitable ways of including has been rendered insecure and land degradation pastoralists in the policy-making processes, as has increased, undermining the sustainability of well as in the design of technologies and the the pastoral livelihood system. make-up of the customary institutions that shape BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 15
  16. 16. LIVESTOCK: POLICY ISSUES livestock production systems and environmental are poorly accountable to local communities governance. who in turn are poorly informed of their rights. Contrary to popular perception, trust land is In Garba Tula in northern Kenya, weak land not government land and it can provide a strong tenure was identified as one of the key obstacles form of tenure if the community understands in the bid to improve the livelihoods of the both its rights and the legal mechanisms to assert region’s 40,000 predominantly Boran pastoralists. them. Garba Tula residents now document their Garba Tula, an area extending over around customary laws and are encouraging the County 10,000km2, has extraordinary biodiversity, Council to adopt them as by-laws. This will also but the full potential to conserve it was not being met, and people and their livelihoods were threatened by wildlife. In an initiative that emerged from meetings held by community elders in 2007/8, a Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) approach was set up to strengthen tenure. Spearheaded by a Community Task Force and strengthened by expert-facilitated consultations, the community arrived at a common understanding of CBNRM as “a way to bring local people together to protect, conserve and manage their land, water, animals and plants so that they can use these natural resources to improve their lives, the lives of their A boy herding camels. Photo: Jonathan Davies provide a foundation for developing a range of investments that are compatible with pastoralism, such as mapping wildlife dispersal routes; residents are also interested in ecotourism. The Community Task Force is setting up a local trust to manage the process and the painstaking procedure of ensuring community and local government buy-in is supported by a number of development, conservation and wildlife agencies as well as government. Since the vast majority of Kenya’s drylands are legally trust land, the Garba Tula experience could set a precedent for securing land tenure in other areas. Mixed herds such as this one are common in East African range lands. Photo: Jonathan Davies Encouraging community engagement children and that of their grand children”. The Policies and institutions must empower strategy should improve the quality of people’s pastoralists to take part in policy-making that lives “economically, culturally and spiritually”. affects their livelihoods. This will also promote equitable access to resources, facilities and Land in Garba Tula is held in trust by the County services, and guarantee sustainable land use Council, but county councils generally exercise and environmental management. The right strict control over the allocation of land and pastoral policies will also aid the process of 16 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  17. 17. Published research on African pastoral systems has steadily overturned many of the misconceptions about pastoral systems, highlighting the importance of appropriate strategies to manage the variability of the climate in dryland environments. Effective management strategies will allow for diverse herds of variable size and keep them mobile. There are increasing opportunities for pastoralists to capitalize on environmental services such as the maintenance of pasture diversity, vegetation cover and biodiversity through ecotourism or through Payments for Environmental Services. The Kenyan example Reduced vegetation cover is a threat to livelihoods in dry lands. Photo: Jonathan Davis shows that even in Africa, where competition over public funds is tough and such schemes are poorly democratization and ensure improved governance supported, the situation can be changed through in pastoral areas. In addition to addressing issues community empowerment and government related to livestock production, health and accountability. marketing, pastoral policies should also tackle critical issues such as healthcare, education, land About the authors rights and women’s rights as well as governance, Jonathan Davies (jonathan.davies@iucn.org) and Guyo ethnicity and religion. An important lesson from M. Roba (guyo.roba@iucn.org) both work in Nairobi, Kenya, for the International Union for Conservation of Garba Tula is that the policy environment may Nature (IUCN). Davies is Regional Drylands Coordinator, be more supportive than imagined, and what is Roba is Programme Officer Drylands. missing might not be the policies so much as the capacity for taking advantage of them. Policies and institutions must empower pastoralists to take part in policy-making that affects their livelihoods. This will also promote equitable access to resources, facilities and services, and guarantee sustainable land use and environmental management. BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 17
  18. 18. STORK STORY Stork story It’s important for you to think of the future. Right now it is raining, but a time will come when there will be no rain. Then there will be no grass for your animals. I encourage you to cut grass, dry it and make hay, then store it away. Your cows and goats will feed on that when the rains stop Wow! I have learnt a lot PAAH! today! I’m going to cut Too much grass and dry it, just work! as OFISA said Aaagh! That’s too much work! I’m not going to do that! 18 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  19. 19. some months later... This life is hard! Why is this happening? It hasn’t rained for four months!! there’s no grass for my animals! Eh, Wangombe, No, they are your animals all doing well. I’m feeding are not dying? them on the hay I made. Just as oFISA advised us. I can give you some grass for your animals Ah, here she is! She had It’s always promised to come good to listen today to see how we and apply techni- are doing cal advice from ofisas! HAllo! I should have listened to you. My animals are all dying! BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 19
  20. 20. ON THE SUBJECT OF livestock Small-scale production A livelihoods perspective in Phalombe District - Malawi by Wellings Mwalabu P halombe is a district in the South Eastern In some circumstances the goats are allowed part of Malawi part of which lies below to graze freely in the community compounds. the Mulanje Mountain while the other Supplementary feeding is done through the part borders Lake Chilwa and Mozambique. The provision of maize bran mixed with salt. This is a majority of the people rely on subsistence farming. cheaper way of raising the goats since little time is Recently however, increasing population pressure spent caring for them. The system also promotes on land for farming is forcing more inhabitants to cross breeding with goats from other compounds. go into fishing for food and to earn a living. This could be advantageous to families that aim at increasing their animal vigour. While fish farming may be an alternative to crop farming for food, a sizeable population in Waruma Experience has it that one female goat will give community in Phalombe District has their own birth three times in 24 months. By the time the story to tell. They have for the past five years been goat gives birth for the third time the firstborn working with a church development organisation kid will have been mated. A mature fully grown in the name of Blantyre Synod to promote small- goat will fetch an average of $50. This is no small scale farming for food and household income achievement for a subsistence farmer. The money generation. The project targets vulnerable could buy three 50 kg bags of maize grain, which members of the community such as the elderly, is the staple food for this community. Village disabled, people living with HIV and AIDS and committees make arrangements for the first kid women. These categories of people generally have to be passed on to another deserving farmer in less energies or resources to work on farmland. a nearby community. In this way the process The church has supported them to raise goats, continues to benefit a wider community. local chicken and guinea fowl for food to improve their nutrition and generate income. Small-scale livestock development has also been linked to Integrated Aquaculture Agriculture How it is done (IAA). This allows livestock to grow and graze within fish pond areas. The goats and chicken Village committees identify eligible household droppings are thrown into the ponds that members who are given either of the livestock for eventually support the growth of small plants breeding. Those that get a goat are encouraged to under water (zooplanktons) that become feed for construct a goat house raised off the ground that fish. Fish is harvested every six months for food or allows goat droppings slip through to the ground. sale. This integration brings mutual dependency This reduces concentration of urine which may and maximizes farmer benefits. result in accumulation of diseases in the house. 20 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  21. 21. employment opportunities are limited households keeping a diversity of livestock stand better chances to increasing household income thereby mitigating hunger especially in the lean months of December through March. The raising of small-scale livestock is therefore one quick step towards achieving sustainable livelihoods for most vulnerable community members of the community. A farmer gives supplementary feed to his goats after free grazing-in the background raised goat kraal constructed from local materials; Blantyre Synod project - Malawi General advantages Small-scale livestock development can be achievable with little inputs yet more benefits for poor households. The droppings from goats and chickens make up a concentrated base of compost manure, which can improve the growth of various vegetation in the community homes including, Integrating livestock development into fish farming; Blantyre Synod project - Malawi nourishing fish ponds. The practice requires only small spaces and less labour yet the production becomes immensely large. Small stocks reproduce prolifically therefore the numbers increase very About the Author quickly. Wellings Mwalabu, Church of Central Africa Presbyterian Blantyre Synod, Malawi Email: wmwalabu@bsdc1.com A small holder farmer taking care of her turkeys; Blantyre Synod project-Malawi The practice allows a subsistence farmer to diversify his sources of income besides diversifying household diet. In a typical rural area where BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 21
  22. 22. FA R M E R S ’ H E A LT H Let’s talk about AIDS Capacity building for People Living with HIV and AIDS - a prerequisite in fighting stigma and discrimination. HIV and AIDS has become part and their limited awareness and knowledge about parcel of our lives. We all know their rights as well as absence of the appropriate advocacy skills. The district PLWHA network someone living with HIV and AIDS lacked the required resources needed to or has been infected or affected by mobilise the rest of the members resulting in a the condition. The agriculture sector communication gap, which consequently lead has also been affected by it and to the disregard of PLWHA views. They also therefore the need for harmonious lacked skills to effectively engage in lobbying and treatment of those infected. Below advocacy for their rights. Capacity building, therefore, became the necessary key tool for is a case study of how ACORD building up a strong network of PLWHA. Northern Uganda - Gulu has dealt with stigma and discrimination. Capacity building targeting PLWHA entailed skills building workshops on stigma and General Background discrimination; exchange visits to other networks People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) within the country for experience sharing; have a critical leadership role in challenging HIV provision of office space and equipment for the and AIDS related stigma and discrimination. To district PLWHA network, as well as facilitating effectively participate in processes that address representatives of the network to present their stigma and discrimination, it is vital that PLWHA views about their rights during various district, understand how stigma is manifested as well as be national and regional forums. These interventions equipped with the appropriate skills to challenge were the key capacity building entry points for it. Capacity building is central to this. PLWHA networks to engage with the district and other development agencies in order to This case study illustrates the important role advocate for their rights and entitlements. The that building the capacity of PLWHA played in capacity of members was also enhanced through a project that centered on addressing the rights close professional interaction with ACORD staff, of PLWHA, with a focus on HIV related stigma which, in part, contributed to the development of and discrimination. The one-year project was skills and confidence. implemented by Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development (ACORD) in Gulu Objectives district in collaboration with the Gulu District Network of PLWHA. Capacity building was carried out with the following strategic objectives: The PLWHA in Gulu District have long been facing perpetual neglect and discrimination. • Equipping PLWHA and local leaders with The Government as well as other development enough information about their rights in order agencies have excluded their needs from for them to effectively address HIV and AIDS development plans. This was, in part, due to related stigma and discrimination 22 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  23. 23. • Improve coordination and networking skills The skills building workshops were facilitated by for the PLWHA networks PLWHA who have knowledge and experience in lobbying and advocating for rights of PLWHA • Ensuring that all the other PLWHA (including as well as vast information on current debates members and non-members of the district and other processes at the national level. Some network) receive the required information of the facilitators were also selected from within from those who attend capacity building Gulu including staff from Ugandan Human workshops during community meetings Rights Commission (UHRC) and The Aids Organisation (TASO) as they were highly familiar • Ensuring that the PLWHA know what actions with issues of stigma and discrimination in the to take if and when their rights are violated local context. • Improving advocacy skills of PLWHA • Documentation of testimonies of PLWHA The skills building in order to share with others workshops focused on • Enabling members from different locations a wide range of issues within the district to meet and share experiences identified by the PLWHA Approach that related to their rights. In order to build capacity for PLWHA in Gulu district, ACORD started by organizing To further strengthen skills acquired during the a consultative meeting for the PLWHA district workshops, participants were then exposed to network executive so as to introduce the project experiences from other regions through review as well as assess the training needs. As part of meetings with the district network of PLWHA the consultative meeting, the research report in Mbarara Western Uganda. The Gulu district Understanding and Unraveling HIV Related network of PLWHA was also provided with office Stigma and Discrimination was presented and space within the ACORD premises which gave formed the basis for initiating the project. them an opportunity to be mentored and gain Using this process, the specific areas of focus skills in various areas through working closely and for PLWHA in Gulu district were identified regularly with the ACORD HIV and AIDS focal and formed the basis for the skills building officer. programmes. During the consultation, PLWHA also identified the participants for the workshops Factors that facilitated effective who included the PLWHA leaders at district level capacity building and the sub county political leaders. ACORD recognized that, as leaders, these participants Resource availability would be in position to effectively put in practice Sufficient human, logistical and financial resources the different skills acquired from the workshops. were the basic initial requirements used in the enhancement of capacity levels of PLWHA. With The skills building workshops focused on a sufficient support from the Ford Foundation, wide range of issues identified by the PLWHA ACORD was able to conduct the training that related to their rights. These included workshops and as well facilitate various processes understanding stigma and discrimination; rights that lead to the exposure the PLWHA to different of PLWHA as human rights; will writing and forums for experience sharing and learning and coordination and networking and advocacy. ultimately, skills building. BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 23
  24. 24. FA R M E R S ’ H E A LT H Access and availability of communication the trainings and provide all the necessary mediums and facilities information for the facilitator. ACORD HIV/ AIDS Team compiled guidelines on various Easy access and use of communication facilities aspects related to HIV and AIDS care and was and is a necessary factor to achieving support for PLWHA, which they used for effective capacity building. To achieve this radio PLWHA skills workshops. and telecommunications mediums were used to mobilize participants for the workshops. Drawing clear plans and holding regular Developing networks with the media (particularly radio - as this is the most efficient communication planning meetings medium) enhanced the frequency and ease of ACORD in Gulu held a number of consultative communication, which in turn enhanced capacity meetings with the PLWHA leadership and building. the local councilors that focused on assessing information needs. These events generated issues Selecting the right target Group related to HIV stigma and discrimination and Identifying and selecting the right target group were subsequently incorporated in the workshop that will have the capacity to absorb, fully utilize curriculum which facilitated a clear planning lessons learned. In this case, PLWHA were process and ensured effective implementation identified through consultative meetings and of the capacity building process amongst the were expected to give feedback to their colleagues targeted PLWHA district network. during community meetings and the local leaders who were to mobilize and sensitize the Use of competent training facilitators community. ACORD Gulu, in collaboration with Having competent facilitators who have the the district network, selected leaders of PLWHA relevant knowledge, experience and training skills from different associations in Gulu district and for the planned topics. ACORD used highly the sub county Chairpersons to participate in trained facilitators who were mainly PLWHA a workshop on stigma and discrimination. The (as they would identify greatest with those facing leaders developed an advocacy strategy and plan stigma and discrimination) who have adequate of action to be implemented in their respective training. constituencies. Monitoring progress Relevancy of skills training Establishing a strong monitoring framework Capacity building initiatives are likely to be more coordinated by PLWHA who are responsible for successful in situations where they are relevant conducting follow-ups to assess the effectiveness to the identified information needs of the target of the capacity building process. The district population – in this case, PLWHA. The PLWHA network, in collaboration with ACORD, held leaders in Gulu shared the information gaps quarterly review meetings for assessing progress during the skills building workshop. As a result, in the different PLWHA associations. The review subsequent workshops focused on identified meetings were utilized to identify challenges as information needs that led to more interest by well as plan for subsequent periods. the leaders and enhanced their desire to learn and share the taught information and skills. Outcomes of the capacity building processes Availability of Skills training materials • Through the workshops, PLWHA developed Developing short and well-designed manuals confidence to share their personal experiences or training materials and other Information by giving oral testimonies. These were Education and Communication (IEC) materials documented and developed into materials is important. These can act as a guide during on violation of rights of PLWHA, which 24 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010
  25. 25. will continue to be vital advocacy tools for this and played it on radio using spot messages the rights of PLWHA. The documented and, resulting from this, some PLWHA have testimonies are important for purposes of reported positive response from the responsible lobbying to policy makers in order to draw organizations. their attention to the needs of PLWHA and to the existing policy gaps leading to the violation • The PLWHA network has been equipped of rights of PLWHA. with knowledge, skills and information for coordination with other partners. They now have the confidence to lobby for all the necessary support from all service These events generated providers. They have managed, so far, issues related to HIV to get support from Northern Uganda Malaria AIDS and TB programme and, stigma and discrimination at sub county level; some of the groups have been lobbying and getting support. and were subsequently The network now works regularly and incorporated in the has developed partnerships with other organizations like National PLWHA workshop curriculum Forum (NAFOPHANU). • The district PLWHA network developed documentation and analytical skills. For instance, they were able to conduct a needs For more information contact: assessment and situation analysis of members Dennis Nduhura Program Manager ACORD HASAP with the objective of coordination and dennis.hasap@acord.or.ug improvement of service delivery. Jacinta Akwero Program Officer HIV/AIDS, ACORD Gulu • AIDS service providers in the district have acordgulu@yahoo.co.uk started using the PLWHA networks in the Abwola David Sunday sub county as their entry point for service Tech. Advisor HIV/AIDS ACORD, Gulu provision. sabwola@yahoo.co.uk • The engagement of the media in the workshops has scaled up information dissemination amongst the community about the project focusing on the roles of the PLWHA district and sub county networks. A lot of advocacy work has also been done through the involvement of the media in the capacity building workshops; e.g. the issue of nutritional support to PLWHA had been a very serious problem and some of the PLWHA names had been deleted from the beneficiary lists. During one of the capacity building workshops, the media recorded the message from PLWHA that had experienced BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010 25
  26. 26. TECHNICAL NOTE Small-scale Pig Farming for Income Generation in Lukwanga, Uganda By Ndugga Evaristo P ig farming in the rural areas is an important economic activity that can involve all members of the family and provide much needed income. A farmer from Lukwanga parish, Wakiso district of central Uganda shares experiences in small-scale pig farming and highlights the advantages, challenges and lessons learned. Pig Farming Methods Pig farming under a tree shade Farmers in Lukwanga have traditionally reared pigs through this simple technology. Pigs reared in a locally made piggery unit in Lukwanga ,Uganda. Photo: Ndugga Evaristo Method Select a tree with good canopy to shield the • Feeds are lost through trampling and animal(s) from direct sunlight. Tether the scattering by the animals. animal(s) under the tree and provide appropriate • It is difficult to tap the urine and dung for feed (zero grazing) and water on a regular basis. manure that can improve crop yields. In Lukwanga mango and jackfruit trees are well known for providing the best shade for pig Deck piggery rearing. A deck piggery for sheltering the animals is easy Advantages to construct using the following materials and method: The system is cheap and easily affordable to majority of farmers. Materials Challenges Nails and a hammer; a hoe; 10 poles and enough timber for fencing the deck; measuring tape and • It is difficult to maintain cleanliness especially string; polythene sheet for roofing the deck. during the rains. As a result worms infest the pigs and the farmer incurs the costs of Method treatment. • Choose a raised and gently sloping site where water can easily flow out • The pigs waste a lot of time searching the soil for worms and other insects; this distracts • To provide space for two pigs mark out an them from feeding and affects the yields. area measuring 5 feet by 8 feet 26 BAOBAB ISSUE 58, JULY 2010