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Dental Fluorosis

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dental fluorosis

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Dental Fluorosis

  1. 1. Dental fluorosis
  2. 2. Fluorosis : is a cosmetic condition that affects the teeth. It’s caused by overexposure to fluoride during the first eight years of life. This is the time when most permanent teeth are being formed .
  3. 3. • Structurally, an increase in fluoride intake results in an increase in degree and extent of porosity of the enamel. • the enamel changes described may be a result of a fluoride damage of secretory ameloblasts • This can either be due to a fluoride-induced change in composition of enamel matrix, or be a result of a disturbance of the cellular processes during enamel maturation.
  4. 4. • Mottled enamel is a condition indicates the fluorosis characterized by minute white flecks, or yellow or brown spots or areas, scattered irregularly or streaked over the surface of a tooth • It is scored according to a method described by Al alousi’ et al as follow: • Type A:white areas less than 2mm • Type B:white areas more than 2mm • Type C:brown areas less than 2mm • Type D:brown areas less than 2mm • Type E:horizontal white lines • Type F:horizontal brown lines
  5. 5. Smooth, glossy, pale creamy-white, translucent surface Normal
  6. 6. questionable ranging from a few white flecks to occasional white spots
  7. 7. Very mild Small opaque, paper white areas scattered irregularly over the tooth but not involving as much as 25% of the tooth surface.
  8. 8. Mild The white opaque areas in the enamel of the teeth are more extensive but do not involve as much as 50% of the tooth
  9. 9. moderate All enamel surfaces of the teeth are affected, and the surfaces subject to attrition show wear. Brown stain is frequently a disfiguring feature
  10. 10. Severe All enamel surfaces are affected , discrete or confluent pitting. Brown stains are widespread and teeth often present a corroded-like appearance
  11. 11. Although the enamel defect caused by dental fluorosis is permanent, the tooth discoloration that fluorosis causes can be reduced, and sometimes eliminated, through cosmetic treatment
  12. 12. 1. microabrasion (conservative removal of the outer most layer of enamel) followed by teeth whitening can make the brown discoloration less apparent.
  13. 13. 2. Bonding, which coats the tooth with a hard resin that bonds to the enamel
  14. 14. 3. Crowns
  15. 15. 4. Veneers, which are custom-made shells that cover the front of the teeth to improve their appearance
  16. 16. • To prevents the fluorosis the fluoridation of drinking water shouldn’t exceed the normal range (0.7- 1.2) ppm • Fluoride supplements should only prescribed for children living in non fluoridated areas. • Use only acceptable amount of toothpaste for children under 6 years
  17. 17. It’s also important to monitor the child’s use of fluoridated toothpaste. It’s important to teach the child to spit out the toothpaste after brushing instead of swallowing it. To encourage spitting, avoid toothpastes containing flavors that children may be likely to swallow.
  18. 18. 1) http://www.webmd.com/children/fluorosis-symptoms-causes-treatments 2) Fluoride action network/ http://fluoridealert.org/issues/fluorosis 3) Clinical and structural features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of dental fluorosis, M. JOOST LARSENEuropean Journal of Oral Sciences 4) Wael S Alalousi , B.D.S.,M.D.Sc. /methods for a survey of the oral health of secondary schools in iraq / the iraqi journal of dental research 5) American dental association 6) http://www.webmd.com/children/fluorosis-symptoms-causes-treatments 7) American dental association/fluoridation facts 2005/dr.herschel horowitz

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