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A Tablet Research: Changes in Teachers’ General Digital Competences and Mobile-usage Competences

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The emerge of the mobile technologies in education is confirmed by both international (Clarke et al., 2014; Fabian–Maclean, 2013; Marés, 2012) and Hungarian researches (Abonyi-Toth – Turcsanyi-Szabo, 2015; Kis-Toth – Borbas – Karpati, 2014; Racsko – Herzog, 2015). Accordingly more and more tablets – which supports one-to-one (1:1) computing – can be found in Hungarian schools thanks to initiatives of different multinational companies and governmental IT tenders (see KK Szakmai Tanévnyitó, 2018). It is no use of mentioning that teachers have a key role in the application of mobile technology and tablets. As ChanLin (2017) mentions, the teachers’ pedagogical and technological knowledge and attitude of tablet usage is a dynamic process which is influenced by many conditions. The emerge of tablets in education will be mainly based on the teachers’ experiences whether they see advantages of the devices or not (Churchill, Fox & King, 2012).
Our research took place in one of the school districts of Budapest (Hungary), where we measured the general digital competences and the mobile-usage competences of the teachers (N=29, nine primary schools) with DigComp framework and with our self-developed online questionnaire. In the research PPC research design was used with an experimental (tablet-user) group and a control (non-tablet-user) group. We hypothesized that after the four-month-long research period both (H1) the general digital competences and also (H2) the mobile-usage competences of the teachers would change. After processing the data, the results are the following: in the case of teachers’ general digital competences we did not find any statistically significant changes between the results of the pre-test and post-test. However, we found positive changes in the mobile-usage competence but only within the experimental group. Paired t-test shows development in “general device usage” (M: from 3,41 to 3,84; t(17)=-2,45, p=0,025), „file and folder management” (M: from 3,1to 3,57; t(17)=-3,3, p=0,004), „multimedia” (M: from 2,48 to 2,95; t(17)=-3,4, p=0,003), together with „educational usage” (M: from 1,62 to 1,83; t(17)=-3,43, p=0,03).

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A Tablet Research: Changes in Teachers’ General Digital Competences and Mobile-usage Competences

  1. 1. A TABLET RESEARCH: CHANGES IN TEACHERS’ GENERAL DIGITAL COMPETENCES AND MOBILE-USAGE COMPETENCES Balazs Czekman University of Debrecen, PhD student Kispesti Puskas Ferenc primary school, Hungary
  2. 2. EMERGE OF TABLETS IN EDUCATION  Tablets appear in educational context (2010) – new educational technology device (Marés, 2012), 1:1 access  Large-scale tablet initiatives in many countries (see also Czékmán, 2019; Tamim et al., 2015)  Initiatives in Hungary: EKF Inistitute of Media Informatics, CSR programs of multinational companies (DIA, 2016; Herzog & Racsko, 2016; Rimanyi, 2015;)  IT public procurement: Central Hungarian region in 2017/2018, 7500 tablet (KK Szakmai Tanévnyitó, 2018)  most of the tablets are from this procurement Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  3. 3. TABLETS AND TEACHERS  International results: many governmental-led initiatives failed: lack of proper pedagogical, technological and infrastructural background (e.g. Bruyckere, 2017; Michels, 2013; Trucano, 2015)  National results: tablets are easy to use for general purposes, but educational usage is troublesome (Kis-Toth, Borbas & Karpati, 2014)  Professional development and continuous mentoring are indispensable during the integration and implementation of new technological devices (Karpati et al., 2014)  Important to see if teachers of tablet-user schools are prepared for educational usage of the tablets, and if their digital competences change due to the use of tablets. Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  4. 4. DETAILS OF THE RESEARCH  About the research  „Tablet supported learning environment in primary schools” (PhD research)  Aim of the research:  Measure the general digital competences and the mobile-usage competences of the teachers.  Methodology: PPC research design  Data gathering instruments: DigComp (IKER) questionnaire, self-developed questionnaire  Data gathering: pretest: January 2019; posttest: June 2019 Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  5. 5. SAMPLE N % Years in teaching Younger than 29 1 3,4 2 30-39 yrs 3 10,3 13,3 40-49 yrs 6 20,7 20,7 50-59 yrs 18 62,1 32,4 Over 60 1 3,4 41 Total 29 100,0 27,3 227  Teachers (N=29; nexp: 19; ncont: 10) nine primary school from one school district in Budapest (Hungary) Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  6. 6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS, HYPOTHESES  K1: What level of general digital and mobile-usage competences do teachers have?  H1: The majority of the teachers are on the first two levels of DigComp framework.  H2: Amongst the different fields of teachers’ mobil-usage competence, educational purposes have the lowest score.  K2: Is there any statistically significant difference in the teachers’ general digital competences and the mobile-usage competences between the pretest and posttest?  H3: The general digital competences and the mobile-usage competences of the experimental group would be better than the control group. Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  7. 7. GENERAL DIGITAL COMP. (TOTAL SAMPLE) PRETEST POSTTEST LVL1 LVL2 LVL3 LVL4 COMPETENCE AREAS LVL1 LVL2 LVL3 LVL4 7 14 6 0 Information and data literacy 6 15 7 1 10 13 4 0 Communication and collaboration 9 10 8 2 13 11 2 1 Digital content creation 15 11 3 0 18 6 3 0 Problem solving 15 12 2 0 15 9 3 0 Safety 13 13 2 0 Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  8. 8. GENERAL DIGITAL COMP. (TWO GROUPS) CONTROL GROUP EXPERIM. GROUP COMPETENCE AREAS PRETEST POSTTEST PRETEST POSTTEST Information and data literacy 1,78 2,11 2,06 2,06 Communication and collaboration 1,78 2,33 1,78 2,00 Digital content creation 1,33 1,33 1,83 1,67 Problem solving 1,22 1,33 1,56 1,61 Safety 1,44 1,67 1,61 1,67 Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  9. 9. MOBILE COMP. – PRETEST (TOTAL SAMPLE) 1,60 2,48 2,54 3,92 3,10 3,48 Educational usage Advanced level Multimedia Internet, online comm. File- and folder management General device handling Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  10. 10. MOBILE COMP. – DIFFERENCE (TOTAL SAMPLE) 3,48 3,75 3,10* 3,44* 3,92 4,00 2,54* 2,98* 2,48 2,64 1,60* 1,82* General device handling File- and folder management Internet, online comm. Multimedia Advanced level Educational usage pretest; posttest Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  11. 11. MOBILE COMP. – DIFFERENCE (TWO GROUPS) -0,07 0,43* 0,08 0,48* -0,12 0,19 0,41 0,46* 0,26 0,11 0,25 0,21* General device handling File- and folder management Internet, online comm. Multimedia Advanced level Educational usage control group; experimental group Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  12. 12. MOBILE COMP. (EXPERIMENTAL GROUP) GENERAL DEVICE HANDLING PRETEST POSTTEST Switch on/off, screen unlock 4,06 4,72* Change of basic settings 3,89 4,00 Launch applications, exit from applications 3,78 4,06 Change between running tasks 3,50 3,78 Close running tasks one by one or all at once 3,83 3,89 Install and remove of applications 2,78 3,78* Using wireless connections 2,89 3,78* Using GPS 2,74 4,72 TOTAL 3,41 3,84 * Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  13. 13. FILE- AND FOLDER MANAGEMENT PRETEST POSTTEST Connecting mobile device to desktop PC or laptop 2,72 3,50* Copy and move files, folders from other devices (desktop PC, laptop) 3,17 3,83* Sending and receiving files from other mobile devices via bluetooth 2,83 3,17 Copy and move files, folders within the device 3,28 3,67 Creating folders 3,44 3,67 Renaming files 3,50 3,89 Copy data to memory card from memory card 2,72 3,28* TOTAL 3,09 3,57* Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  14. 14. MULTIMEDIA PRETEST POSTTEST Photo shooting 4,06 4,22 Video recording 3,72 3,94 Sound recording 2,78 3,78* Photo captioning 1,78 2,83* Resize photos 2,78 3,11 Crop pictures 2,56 3,11 Simple video editing from images 1,61 1,94 Video editing from moving images 1,56 1,89 Complex video editing with transitions and effects 1,50 1,67 TOTAL 2,48 2,95* Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL USAGE PRETEST POSTTEST Softwares for making interactive exercises 2,28 2,94* Presentation softwares 3,00 3,00 Mindmap softwares 1,39 1,83* Wordcloud softwares 1,61 1,89 Online collaboration 1,17 1,11 Online drives 2,33 2,56 Learning management systems 1,78 1,89 Online notes (eg. OneNote) 1,50 1,61 QR-code making softwares 1,17 1,56 Augmented reality softwares (AR) 1,17 1,11 Virtual Reality (VR) softwares 1,07 1,07 Digital storytelling 1,06 1,06 Subject related softwares 2,17 2,56 GPS softwares 1,06 1,33 TOTAL 1,62 1,83* Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  16. 16. SUMMARY  H1: The majority of the teachers were on the first two levels of DigComp framework.  H2: Mobile-usage competence: internet, online communication and general device handling had the highest; educational usage had the lowest score.  H3: In the case of teachers’ general digital competences we did not find any statistically significant changes. We found positive changes in the mobile-usage competence (general device usage, file and folder management, multimedia, educational usage) within the experimental group. Today – Tomorrow Conference, Budapest, 20-21. November, 2019
  17. 17. Bruyckere, P. (2017). A story about iPad-schools in the Netherlands. https://theeconomyofmeaning.com/2017/11/13/a-story-about-ipad-schools-in-the-netherlands/ (Letöltés: 2018. március 15.) Digital Identity Agency Magyarország (DIA) (2016b): (2016b). A Hipersuli Program szakmai monitoringja - második riport. https://bit.ly/2t5fCaP (Letöltés: 2018. május 17.) Digital Identity Agency Magyarország (DIA). (2016a). A Hipersuli Program szakmai monitoringja - első riport. https://bit.ly/2gX52hZ (Letöltés: 2018. május 17.) Herzog, C. & Racsko, R. (2016). Táblagép az osztályteremben. Az új tanulási környezettel kapcsolatos tanári tapasztalatok. Iskolakultúra, 26(10), 3–22. Kárpáti, A. (2014). Tanári szerepek az informatizált iskolában. Iskolakultúra, 24.(3.), 3-13. Keleblsberg Központ (KK) (2018): Szakmai tanévnyitó 2018. A Klebelsberg Központ legfontosabb feladatai és fejlesztései. https://bit.ly/2YnFwor [Hozzáférés: 2019.03.25.] Kis-Tóth L. - Borbás L. - Kárpáti A. (2014): Táblagépek alkalmazása az oktatásban: tanári tapasztalatok. In.: Iskolakultúra, (24. évf.) 9. sz. 50-71. Marés, L. (2012). Tablets in education. Opportunities and challenges in one-to-one programs. http://bit.ly/25SrBoT (Letöltés: 2016. április 10.) Michels, P. (2013). The High Cost of iPad-mania in Public Schools. https://www.texasobserver.org/run-school-ipad- program/ (Letöltés: 2018. március 15.) Rimányi, Z. (2015). Digitális hátizsákkal az iskolában. Új Köznevelés, 71(5–6), 34-36. Tamim, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Pickup, D., Bernard, R. M. & El Saadi, L. (2015). Tablets for Teaching and Learning. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. http://bit.ly/2xch5fI (Letöltés: 2017. október 21.) Trucano, M. (2015). Tablets in education. https://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/category/tags/tablets (Letöltés: 2018. március 15.)
  18. 18. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! Balazs Czekman balazs.czekman@gmail.com edumobil.hu puskas.kispest.hu

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