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Construction and maintenance of prawn farms

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Construction and maintenance of prawn farms

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Construction and maintenance of prawn farms

  1. 1. Construction and Maintenance of Prawn Farms By Balwant Singh Dheeraj Shukla balwantsingh1642@gmail.com
  2. 2. Requirements and Characteristics of Prawn Farm • A good hatchery site should also have the following characteristics: 1) A secure power supply which is not subject to lengthy power outages. An on-site emergency generator is essential for any hatchery where the scale of investment warrants it. 2) Good all-weather road access for incoming materials and outgoing post-larvae and prawns. 3) Access to professional biological assistance from government or other sources.
  3. 3. Cont…… 4) Land, of an area appropriate to the scale of the hatchery, with good access to seawater and freshwater supplies. The cost of pumping water supplies to a site elevated high above sea level is an important factor in the economics of the project. 5) A climate which will maintain water in the optimum range of 28o -30o C without costly environmental manipulation. 6) Access to food supplies for larvae, adults and brooders. 7) A high level of technical and managerial skills.
  4. 4. FARM FACILITIES • A freshwater prawn farm is very similar to a freshwater fish farm. • Freshwater prawns are stocked into concrete and earthen reservoirs, ponds, irrigation ditches, cages, pens and into natural waters. • Cage and pen culture is experimental, while the production from irrigation ditches is low; stocking into natural waters and reservoirs is not strictly prawn farming.
  5. 5. Cont….. • Hatchery design will depend on the scale of production desired, the characteristics of the site (such as topography, climate, etc.), the type of building materials obtainable locally and the finance available. • A complete hatchery design for freshwater prawns is simple to construct and operate in sequence.
  6. 6. Fresh Water Prawn Farming Concepts • Fresh Water Prawn Culture are grown in earthen ponds located in coastal areas of countries with tropical and subtropical climates. • Ponds are filled with freshwater, Prawn is reproduced and raised in captivity are stocked into the ponds and are ready for harvest in 90 to 120 days.
  7. 7. Prawn hatchery • The hatchery building is usually associated with the nursery tanks and grow-out ponds in terms of water supply and other requirements. • A freshwater prawn hatchery produces PL for growing out in ponds and for sale to other prawn grow-out enterprises.
  8. 8. Farming of Fresh Water Prawn • Fresh Water Culture are depend upon following things: 1) Location of farm 2) Farm Permits 3) Farming Strategies 4) Pond Construction 5) Crop Species & Feeding 6) Stocking 7) Management 8) Harvesting
  9. 9. Farm Location 1) A study of the potential market for the product and careful selection of suitable sites for prawn culture, whether it be for the larval (hatchery) or grow-out phases, is an essential prerequisite for successful farming. 2) Farm constructed near of fresh water body. 3) Road access, power supply, communication facilities and emergency generator are all essential components to run the equipment and operating systems in the hatchery.
  10. 10. Farm Permits • Construction permits from Corps of Engineers • Aquaculture Permits from state • Local permits
  11. 11. Farming Strategies • Extensive – Large ponds – Low stocking densities – Little management or investment • Semi-Intensive – Falls in between the two extreme of intensive and extensive • Intensive – Smaller ponds – Aeration – High stocking densities – Feeding
  12. 12. Water quality • Freshwater from a river, stream or lake, rainwater, or groundwater can be used. • Hardness (as CaCO3) should be in the range 50– 100 ppm. • Seawater is needed to mix with the freshwater to produce brackish water for the larvae. • The seawater is disinfected with 10 ppm of calcium hypochlorite and stored for at least a week before use.
  13. 13. Water Quality for Grow out Ponds • Temperature: > 68F • Salinity: 0.5 - 35 ppt • Dissolved Oxygen: > 5 ppm • pH: 7.0 – 8.3 • Unionized Ammonia: < 0.01 ppm • Nitrite: < 1.0 ppm • Nitrate: < 60 ppm
  14. 14. Pond Construction • Ponds range in size from 1-10 acres • 4-7 feet deep • Gentle bottom slope • Well maintained level
  15. 15. Pond Design • 1 to 25 acre in size • Silt soil • Good water source • Rectangular in shape
  16. 16. Pond Preparation
  17. 17. Hatchery components • Some of the basic hatchery components and equipment are: 1) Building to house the larval rearing space 2) Hatch tanks 1000 L 3) Larval rearing tanks (LRTs) 4) Holding tanks 1000 L for PL, also used for brood stock holding 5) Nursery tank 5000 L for PL (optional) ………
  18. 18. Cont…… 6) Freshwater storage tank 7) Saltwater storage tank 8) Mixed water storage tank 9) Water pump management 10) Plastic buckets, basins, containers 11) Equipment for packing and transport of PL 12) Feed and chemicals 13) Ponds (200–400 m2) for rearing and maintaining adult prawns for breeding
  19. 19. Management • Fertilize ponds prior to stocking • Feed good quality prawn feed –35% protein –3-5% bwt per day • Provide aeration when necessary
  20. 20. Harvesting• Harvest in October month • Drain and seine pond net • Direct market or sell to processor • Store after dry
  21. 21. Prawn Harvesting in River & Pond Push nets
  22. 22. Commonly Cultured Marine Shrimp • Penaeus merguiensis – Banana prawn • Penaeus indicus – Indian prawn • Penaeus japonicus - Kuruma prawn • Penaeus duorarum – Atlantic pink shrimp • Penaeus aztecus – Atlantic brown shrimp • Penaeus setiferous – Atlantic white shrimp • Litopenaeus vannamei – Pacific white shrimp • Penaeus monodon – Black tiger prawn
  23. 23. Brood stock • The adult male and female prawns chosen for breeding are called brood stock. • On average, 500–1000 prawns (male and female) need to be kept as brood stock. • Berried females 10–12 cm long usually carry about 10,000–30,000 eggs each and 40 g females, 35 g males. • Brood stock are usually reared in ponds, starting with an initial stocking density of 4–5 PL/m2. of pond area and reducing to 2/m2 at adult size.
  24. 24. Growth to maturity • The PL grow to maturity within 4–7 months in freshwater ponds. • The PL grow to maturity is depending on temperature, food and environmental conditions. • The maturity stages of females and male can be determined by external examination of the ovary, and testis.
  25. 25. Feeding brood stock • An example of a pellet feed formulated for brood stock feeding should roughly consist of: 1)Protein - 40% 2)Fat - 10% 3)Carbohydrate - 33% 4)Ash - 09% 5)Fiber - 08% 6)Gross energy - 04.3 kcal/g (18 kJ/g)
  26. 26. Hatch tank management • Berried females ready for spawning should not be disturbed and should be kept secluded in the hatch tanks. • Start with 500 L freshwater in a 1000 L hatch tank, and stock a maximum of 3–4 berried females. • Keep the temperature at 25°–30°C and pH 7.0–7.3 until the eggs hatch. • Tank water should be kept clean and free of dirt and debris through regular water changes and bottom-siphoning
  27. 27. FACTORS ENCOURAGING PRAWN FARMING EXPANSION • Compatible with agriculture • Small farmers can practice in their own land • No interference with mangrove or environment • Can be normally grown in salinity up to 8 ppt • Large suitable areas all over the country
  28. 28. PRAWN FARMING REDUCING POVERTY More than 80% of the farms less an acre and handled by small farmers. Large numbers of mono-crop low-yielding paddies now converted into farms producing high priced prawn and fish in rotation with paddy . Pond embankments grow vegetables and fruits fetching extra income and providing better nutrition.
  29. 29. SOME CURRENT PROBLEMS • Culture mostly dependent on rain water; no assured perennial water supply or drainage network. • Available commercial feeds are either of inadequate quality or are too expensive. • Poor nursery practices. • Declining wild brood-stock population due to over-fishing.

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