What	  Is	  In,	  What	  Is	  Out,	  	     and	  What	  Do	  We	  Do	  About	  It?	  	  Developing	  Recommended	  Prac2ce...
About	  	    Non-­‐profit	  industry	  trade	  associa2on	  accredited	  	     by	  ANSI	    Mission	  of	  developing	  ...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)        27% Libraries/Library                  38% Publishers/Publishing...
Data Publishing                  5
Large	  Scale	  Data-­‐Driven	  Science	  Increasingly, scientificbreakthroughs will bepowered by advancedcomputing capabi...
Science	  data	  isn’t	  what	  it	  used	  to	  be	  Image: Walters Art Museum   Image: Domenico, Caron, Davis, et al.   ...
“Standards” versus “standards”NISO develops “Capital S” Standards  –  Officially designated Z39.XX standards or at ISO  – ...
Supplemental  Materials               9
Short commentary – Medscape           Medscape Minute                              10
Procedural Training      Single Incision Wagon Wheel Phaco from      British Journal of Ophthalmology                     ...
OECD Data Sets for Analysis       Single Incision Wagon Wheel Phaco from       British Journal of Ophthalmology           ...
Supplemental Materials are nothing new                                         13
Truly nothing new, indeed•  An earlier example of supplemental materials   from the Royal Society of Chemistry•  A templat...
Different reactions to the problem•  Due to growth in supplemental material, Cell took steps to   exert some control over ...
We all want our own                      18
NISO/NFAIS Working Group                           21
DefinitionsIntegral Content•  Supplemental Material that is essential for   the full understanding of the work by the   ge...
Definitions (2)Additional Content•  Supplemental Material that provides additional,   relevant, and useful expansion of th...
Definitions (3)Related Content•  Is a separate entity and is referenced within   the text in similar fashion to other cite...
Determining whether Supplemental Material          is Integral or Additional      is the purview of the Journal.          ...
Content types: Integral, Additional, Related                                               27
Some draft business guidelines                   Integral content                   Additional contentSelecting /        A...
Some draft business guidelines               Integral content                  Additional contentPreserving     Preserve a...
Technical PracticeNot recommend specific formats for theSupplemental Materials files themselves•  Rules for assigning pers...
Recommended Minimal Metadata•  Persistent identifier (e.g., DOI) for Supplemental Materials,   either for the entire set o...
Supporting documentation•  A non-normative DTD to express the   metadata Recommendations in much greater   detail•  A tag ...
Status•  Online Supplemental Journal Article   Materials, Part A: Business Policies and   Practices (NISO RP-15-201x) rele...
Business Information SubgroupLinda Beebe, American Psychological Association – Co-chairMarie McVeigh, Thomson Reuters – Co...
Technical Issues SubgroupDave Martinsen, American Chemical         Deborah Lapeyre, Mulberry    Society -- Co-Chair       ...
Data Citation                37
We all know what a citation looks like? Right?                                                 38
But what about citing a data set?Source: Citations for SEER Databases                                       Source: Intern...
40
CODATA Group on Data Citation•  Approved by the CODATA 27th General Assembly in Cape   Town in October, 2010TASKS   –  Sur...
Issues Requiring AttentionTechnical                        Sustainability•  Metadata Standards                            ...
NAS / BRDI Meeting in Berkeley•  Two-day meeting in Berkeley, CA on data citation   issues in August 2011•  Covered topics...
Milestones•  Compiled a significant bibliography of 200+   references•  Conducted a survey for repository   managers, publ...
Who benefits from data citation?•  Researchers creating data (Credit)•  Scientists who use/reuse data (Advancement   of Sc...
Standards for Data: Work areas?Many potential areas for work in sharing of scientific data including:•  Author/Contributor...
Source: XKCD               47
Other Initiatives & Links•    CODATA/ICSTI – Task Group on Data Citation Standards and Practices•    DataCite – datacite.o...
More references•  Cell: Marcus, E., Cell, 2009, 139(1), 11,   http://10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.021•  Journal of Neuroscience:...
More references•  Medscape Minute   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390703/•  Single Incision Wagon Wheel Pha...
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation
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NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation

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  • A great deal has been written of late about the growing prevalence of data, data analysis and data sharing in science. This is just one of those works, but one I highly recommend, edited by Tony Hey, who is head of Microsoft Research, and others – its available freely online and worth the time to go though.
  • And as science has changed, so too have the ways in which scholarship is communicated and distributed. Increasingly paper is no longer the main medium of distributing findings. Most academic journals have already moved online and many are ceasing print publication altogether. Increasingly, the limitations of physical distribution are also falling away. We are no longer tied simply to text or static images. Science can be communicated in moving images, data visualizations, programs, and even datasets themselves, which can be separately analyzed, reprocessed and reused.
  • So I’m going to talk about two projects of the many, many, many initiatives that are underway related to data that I and NISO are directly involved in related to data and data management. The first is data citation.
  • Connie Morella, former congresswoman and former ambassador to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. She spoke at an ANSI’s World Standards Day awards dinner in 2006, when she received ANSI’s Ronald H. Brown Standards Leadership Award. During her speech she said, “Standards are like toothbrushes. Everybody wants one but nobody wants to use anybody else’s.”
  • Specific thanks to Linda Beebe,American Psychological Association (APA) and Marie McVeigh (primary), Thomson Reuters for chairing Business Subgroup and to Dave Martinsen (American Chemical Society) and Sasha Schwarzman (OSA The Optical Society) for co-chairing the Technical Subgroup
  • So I’m going to talk about two projects of the many, many, many initiatives that are underway related to data that I and NISO are directly involved in related to data and data management. The first is data citation.
  • CODATA = International Council for Science (ICSU) : Committee on Data for Science and Technology –
  • Each community is doing its own things, for its own reasons to support their own needs. This isn’t wrong. It’s completely understandable. However, it will increasingly cause problems when we start talking about Machines talking to Machines and interoperability, which is how access to data can be so valuable. Sure a human might be able to decipher the differences between biology and ecology, population science from voting results. However, computers can’t. Just as one example, we can’t do anything if we don’t have the right metadata. Data tables are filled with figures that are just numbers. Without context, a 22 is as useless a figure as as 356,000, when one is tons and one is grams.
  • NISO Webinar: What is In, What is Out, and What Do We Do About it? on Handling Supplemental Materials and Data Citation

    1. 1. What  Is  In,  What  Is  Out,     and  What  Do  We  Do  About  It?    Developing  Recommended  Prac2ces  on  Handling  Supplemental  Materials   and  Data  Cita2on Todd Carpenter   Executive Director, NISO November 9, 2012 With  thanks  due  to  Sasha  Schawarzman  (OSA),     David  Mar?nsen  (ACS)  and  Linda  Beebe  (APA)  
    2. 2. About      Non-­‐profit  industry  trade  associa2on  accredited     by  ANSI    Mission  of  developing  and  maintaining  technical   standards  related  to  informa2on,  documenta2on,   discovery  and  distribu2on  of  published  materials  and   media    Volunteer  driven  organiza2on:  400+  contributors   spread  out  across  the  world    Responsible  for  standards  like  ISSN,  DOI,  Dublin  Core   metadata,  DAISY  digital  talking  books,  OpenURL,   MARC  records,  and  ISBN  (indirectly)   2
    3. 3. National Information Standards Organization (NISO) 27% Libraries/Library 38% Publishers/Publishing Organizations Organizations 60 LSA Members (non-voting) ANSI ISO Other SDOs 35% Library Systems Suppliers, Publishing Vendors & Intermediaries 3
    4. 4. Data Publishing 5
    5. 5. Large  Scale  Data-­‐Driven  Science  Increasingly, scientificbreakthroughs will bepowered by advancedcomputing capabilities thathelp researchersmanipulate and exploremassive datasets. 6
    6. 6. Science  data  isn’t  what  it  used  to  be  Image: Walters Art Museum Image: Domenico, Caron, Davis, et al. 7
    7. 7. “Standards” versus “standards”NISO develops “Capital S” Standards –  Officially designated Z39.XX standards or at ISO –  Accredited by ANSI or ISO –  De Jure “Force of Law” standards (national/ international)NISO also develops lower-threshold consensus projects: Recommended Practices –  Simpler process, faster to develop –  When it’s too early to formally standardize –  Helps to shape industry practice 8
    8. 8. Supplemental Materials 9
    9. 9. Short commentary – Medscape Medscape Minute 10
    10. 10. Procedural Training Single Incision Wagon Wheel Phaco from British Journal of Ophthalmology 11
    11. 11. OECD Data Sets for Analysis Single Incision Wagon Wheel Phaco from British Journal of Ophthalmology 12
    12. 12. Supplemental Materials are nothing new 13
    13. 13. Truly nothing new, indeed•  An earlier example of supplemental materials from the Royal Society of Chemistry•  A template for a physical device was included as supplemental material 1843.•  Plates 1-6 of that article were not paginated; the reader would cut out the template on each page, and connect them to create a working light polarization device 14
    14. 14. Different reactions to the problem•  Due to growth in supplemental material, Cell took steps to exert some control over what could be submitted as supplemental material.•  Journal of Neuroscience decided to stop accepting supplemental materials for publication with their journal articles starting in 2011.•  The Journal of Experimental Medicine made the decision to accept only “essential supporting information” 16
    15. 15. We all want our own 18
    16. 16. NISO/NFAIS Working Group 21
    17. 17. DefinitionsIntegral Content•  Supplemental Material that is essential for the full understanding of the work by the general scientist or reader in the journal’s discipline, but is placed outside the article for technical, business, or logistical reasons. 23
    18. 18. Definitions (2)Additional Content•  Supplemental Material that provides additional, relevant, and useful expansion of the article in the form of text, tables, figures, multimedia, or data, and that may aid any reader to achieve work through added detail and context. Additional Content will expand the reader’s understanding of the subject area, but is not essential to the understanding of the article. 24
    19. 19. Definitions (3)Related Content•  Is a separate entity and is referenced within the text in similar fashion to other cited references. 25
    20. 20. Determining whether Supplemental Material is Integral or Additional is the purview of the Journal. 26
    21. 21. Content types: Integral, Additional, Related 27
    22. 22. Some draft business guidelines Integral content Additional contentSelecting / At the same level as core May not be reviewed at thePeer reviewing article same levelCopyediting At the same level as core May not be edited at the same article. Should be noted if not level. If so, should be notedReferencing Cite/link at the same level as Provide in-text citation andwithin article table or fig. No ref. list entry, link at the appropriate point in for this content is part of article text, rather than at the endCiting from Not to be cited separately. Cite Can be cited separatelyother pubs article as a wholeReferences Integrate references into the Keep references separatewithin sup. mat. ref. list of the core article from the core article ref. list 28
    23. 23. Some draft business guidelines Integral content Additional contentPreserving Preserve at the same level as Take preservation into the core article consideration when accepting Provide the same metadata If uncertain about preservation, markup have author submit to a trusted repository and link to it Include in migration plansIntellectual Treat rights in the same Determination of rights forproperty manner as the rights for the Additional content may differ andrights core article should be transparent to users Anyone who has access to online article should also have access to Integral content 29
    24. 24. Technical PracticeNot recommend specific formats for theSupplemental Materials files themselves•  Rules for assigning persistent identifiers•  Metadata to ID the supplemental materials•  Metadata to match the journal with supplemental materials and vice-versa•  Metadata to describe journal article package•  Preservation of supplemental materials 31
    25. 25. Recommended Minimal Metadata•  Persistent identifier (e.g., DOI) for Supplemental Materials, either for the entire set or for each individual object•  Persistent identifier (e.g., DOI) for the article•  Relationship type of the Supplemental Materials to the article (Integral, Additional, or Both)•  Descriptive metadata for the Supplemental Materials, such as a title or summary•  File name of, or an external link to, Supplemental Material files•  File format(s) of the Supplemental Materials files 32
    26. 26. Supporting documentation•  A non-normative DTD to express the metadata Recommendations in much greater detail•  A tag library that serves as an easy guide to the DTD•  Several examples of metadata markup using the non-normative DTD 33
    27. 27. Status•  Online Supplemental Journal Article Materials, Part A: Business Policies and Practices (NISO RP-15-201x) released for public comment on January 31, 2012•  Part B: Technical Recommendations released for public comment on August 6, 2012•  Finalizing response to comments received•  Final report due in early 2013 34
    28. 28. Business Information SubgroupLinda Beebe, American Psychological Association – Co-chairMarie McVeigh, Thomson Reuters – Co-chairAnnette Flanagin, JAMA and Archives JournalsDavid Gillikin, National Library of MedicineBruce Kiesel, Thomson ReutersAmy Kirchhoff, ITHAKABonnie Lawlor, NFAISAlison Loudon, American Institute of PhysicsSkip Maier, APA JournalsEefke Smit, International Association of STM PublishersScott Virkler, Elsevier 35
    29. 29. Technical Issues SubgroupDave Martinsen, American Chemical Deborah Lapeyre, Mulberry Society -- Co-Chair Technologies, Inc.Sasha Schwarzman, American Andrea Laue, HighWire Press Geophysical Union (AGU) -- Co-Chair John Meyer, ITHAKAIJsbrand Jan Aalbersberg, Elsevier Dharitri Misra, National Library ofJeffrey Beck, NCBI, National Library of Medicine Medicine Nancy Murray, ITHAKAKen Beauchamp, American Society for Ira Polans, IEEE Clinical Investigation Craig Rodkin, Association of ComputingMichael Esman, National Agricultural Machinery Library Kathleen Sheedy, AmericanChuck Koscher, CrossRef Psychological AssociationJohn Kunze, California Digital Library Amy Stout, Massachusetts Institute ofKathy Kwan, NCBI, National Library of Technology Medicine 36
    30. 30. Data Citation 37
    31. 31. We all know what a citation looks like? Right? 38
    32. 32. But what about citing a data set?Source: Citations for SEER Databases Source: International Polar Year Source: Global Land Cover Facility Source: The Economist Source: ICPSR 39
    33. 33. 40
    34. 34. CODATA Group on Data Citation•  Approved by the CODATA 27th General Assembly in Cape Town in October, 2010TASKS –  Survey existing literature and existing data citation initiatives. –  Obtain input from stakeholders in library, academic, publishing, and research communities. –  Hold at least one meeting and a workshop to help establish a solid foundation of the state of the art and practices in this area. –  Work with the ISO and major regional and national standards organizations to develop formal data citation standards and good practices. 41
    35. 35. Issues Requiring AttentionTechnical Sustainability•  Metadata Standards IdentifiersScientific •  DOI, PURL, ARC•  Publication and peer review Legal/IntellectualInstitutional Property Rights•  Promotion & Tenure •  Accessibility and reuse rights•  Reward infrastructure Socio-culturalFinancial •  Culture of citing data•  Infrastructure support •  Proper attribution 42
    36. 36. NAS / BRDI Meeting in Berkeley•  Two-day meeting in Berkeley, CA on data citation issues in August 2011•  Covered topics critical to data citation –  Administration -- Legal –  Publishing -- Policy –  Identification -- Promotion & Tenure –  Funding support -- Provenance –  Standards -- TechnicalNational Academies report just published: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13564 43
    37. 37. Milestones•  Compiled a significant bibliography of 200+ references•  Conducted a survey for repository managers, publishers, and funding organizations. –  More than 60 narrative responses•  Meeting in Copenhagen in June 2012•  2nd meeting in Taipei in October 2012•  Draft report near completion•  Final report in spring 2013 44
    38. 38. Who benefits from data citation?•  Researchers creating data (Credit)•  Scientists who use/reuse data (Advancement of Science)•  Funders who support data creation (Assessment of results)•  Publishers focused on data-based science (Completeness of the scientific record) 45
    39. 39. Standards for Data: Work areas?Many potential areas for work in sharing of scientific data including:•  Author/Contributor disambiguation & other issues•  Data Equivalence – How does one know that this thing and that are equivalent (i.e., contain same data)?•  Systemic metadata What is the form of this information?   What are its structural components?•  Archival issues Storage, physical level, but also migration issues•  Bibliographic information for discovery, delivery and reuse•  Rights issues – Ownership, recognition, sharing, privacy 46
    40. 40. Source: XKCD 47
    41. 41. Other Initiatives & Links•  CODATA/ICSTI – Task Group on Data Citation Standards and Practices•  DataCite – datacite.org•  NISO/NFAIS Group on Supplemental Journal Materials•  National Academies Board on Research Data and Information –  For Attribution: Developing Data Attribution and Citation Practices and Standards in Berkely, CA. August 2011•  Cite Datasets and Link to Publications by Digital Curation Centre•  ORCID - about.orcid.org•  International Standard Name ID – www.isni.org•  ScienceCommons - Scholar’s Copyright Project•  International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) –  Multimedia Search and Retrieval, and Interactive Journal Articles Projects•  Dublin Core Metadata Initiative - Science and Metadata Community•  DataNet projects funded by NSF, launched in 2009•  NISO/OAI ResourceSync project funded by Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 48
    42. 42. More references•  Cell: Marcus, E., Cell, 2009, 139(1), 11, http://10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.021•  Journal of Neuroscience: Maunsell, J., Announcement Regarding Supplemental Material, J. Neurosci., 2010, 30(32), 10599-10600, 11 August 2010.•  Journal of Experimental Medicine: Borowski, C., Enough is Enough, J. Exp. Med., 2011, 208(7), 1337, 6 June 2011, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20111061•  Biophysical Journal: Author Guidelines: Supporting Material, June 21, 2011, http://download.cell.com/images/edimages/Biophys/ Supporting_Material.pdf•  National Geographic: Songs of the Humpback Whale, January 1979 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/radiox/humpback/ hw_archive.html 49•  RSC 1843 Supplemental Material: Leesen, H.B., XCI. Observations on the
    43. 43. More references•  Medscape Minute http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390703/•  Single Incision Wagon Wheel Phaco British Journal of Ophthalmology, September 26, 2008 http://bjo.bmj.com/content/suppl/2008/09/26/bjo.2008.141010.DC1/muqitfast.mov•  National Geographic: Songs of the Humpback Whale, January 1979 http://www.nationalgeographic.com/radiox/humpback/hw_archive.html•  RSC 1843 Supplemental Material: Leesen, H.B., XCI. Observations on the circular polarization of light by transmission through fluids, Mem. Proc. Chem. Soc., 1843, 2, 26-45, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/MP8430200026. See http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/DigitalArchive/InteractivePlates.asp 50

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