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NISO Virtual Conference: The Eternal To-Do List: Making Ebooks work in Libraries

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June 17, 2015
NISO Virtual Conference: The Eternal To-Do List: Making Ebooks work in Libraries

Keynote Address: E-Books: Promise into Practice
Suzanne M. Ward, Professor and Head of Collection Management, Purdue University Libraries

Published in: Education
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NISO Virtual Conference: The Eternal To-Do List: Making Ebooks work in Libraries

  1. 1. E-Books: Promise into Practice Suzanne M. Ward Head, Collection Management Purdue University Libraries West Lafayette, IN
  2. 2. Outline • Understanding the past … – Print collection development – Use studies in academic libraries • … to manage the present … – Book collections in transition – Patron-driven acquisitions • … and shape the future. – User-centric collection development – E-book potential • Q & A 2
  3. 3. Traditional Collection Development Definition of a library: – Acquire – Organize – Provide access 3
  4. 4. Librarian as Selector • Knowledge of user population • Education, training, experience • Managed the budget 4
  5. 5. Just-in-Case collection development 5
  6. 6. Use studies “Some behavioral patterns of library users: The 80/20 rule.” ~ Richard Trueswell, 1969 6
  7. 7. Ownership vs. Access Interlibrary Loan 7
  8. 8. Interlibrary Loan: the theory Traditional view: Arcane technical reports in obscure languages 8
  9. 9. Interlibrary Loan: the reality “The overwhelming preponderance of recently published material was obvious.” “Some of this could and should be bought either instead of, or in addition to, borrowing.” ~ Michael Roberts and Kenneth J. Cameron, 1984 9
  10. 10. ILL/Book Purchase: Early Efforts • Buy selected books after librarian review • Buy if less than borrowing cost • Buy if ILL request fails • Buy if requested multiple times 10
  11. 11. ILL/Book Purchase Model • Planned & comprehensive • Criteria-driven program • Budgeted • Sustained • Assessed 11
  12. 12. Early Implementer: Bucknell • Started in 1990 • Bought selected books requested through ILL • Assessment: Successful – Acceptable turnaround time – Reasonable average cost – Inter-unit cooperation with acquisitions – High subsequent circulation rate ~ Jennifer Perdue and James A. Van Fleet, 1999 12
  13. 13. Late 1990’s • ARL ILL cost study – $18.35 (borrower) – $ 9.48 (lender) • Amazon.com – Discounted price – In-stock information – Shipping time – Rapid delivery 13
  14. 14. Traditional ILL book loan • Borrow book • A few weeks’ use • Return book NEWIDEA: • Buy book • A few weeks’ use • Keep book 14
  15. 15. Proposed ILL Book Purchase Model • Establish acquisition parameters • Allocate funds • Purchase book from online bookseller • Lend to ILL patron • Catalog returned book for library ASSUMPTION: A book that one patron needs will also be useful to others. 15
  16. 16. 2000: Purdue Implements Books on Demand Criteria for ILL book purchases – Published in the last 5 years – Scholarly – Up to $100 ($150) – In English – Delivery within a week 16
  17. 17. A rose by any other name … • Patron-driven acquisitions = PDA • Demand-driven acquisitions = DDA 17
  18. 18. Assessment 18 A Decade of Books on Demand (2000-2009) 9,572 books (about $350,000) Average cost: about $38 5-8% of total monographs added/year
  19. 19. What kinds of books? 19 University presses Academic presses Popular presses University presses 49% Academic presses 38% Popular/Mass market presses 13%
  20. 20. How do they circulate? Better than normal. 2000-2009 BoD books: total Circulation CONTROL books Number of books 9,327 141,112 Number of Circulations 38,389 340,121 Average Circulation 4.116 2.410 20
  21. 21. Circulation Comparison: 2000-2009 • Shelf Sitters • Books on Demand – 9,327 / 1,722 – 18.5% • Librarian-selected – 141,112 / 46,996 – 33.3% 21
  22. 22. Just-in-Time collection development • Patrons happy with program • Turnaround time acceptable • Project adds relevant titles to collection, especially interdisciplinary titles • Not as effective for sci/tech titles • Subsequent circulation rates justify acquisition 22
  23. 23. Why is understanding print PDA important in an e-book world? • Print books are still with us • Patrons are good at requesting books that – Are appropriate – Fill collection gaps – Indicate new areas of interest – Are used again 23
  24. 24. Print books • Proven product • Lost, mis-shelved, stolen • One book, one user • Shelved in one place • Damaged, worn out • Heavy 24
  25. 25. E-Books: plus • Don’t need shelf space • 24/7 access • Multiple user access (sometimes) • Fast delivery, instant access • Environmentally correct • Bonus features (sometimes) • Searchable • Downloadable 25
  26. 26. E-Books: minus • May be more expensive than print • Some people prefer print • Broken links • Printing/downloading limits • Potential of vanishing titles/content (subscription) • Reading device issues • Some content may be missing • Resource sharing limitations • Not all titles are available in e-versions 26
  27. 27. Acquiring e-books • Single purchases • Buy e-book packages • Subscribe to e-book plan • Develop e-book PDA program 27
  28. 28. Current environment Transition Hybrid How long? 28
  29. 29. E-books are here to stay Librarians’ challenge: 1. Buy the best mix of print / electronic 2. Buy the best mix of e-titles for the best price 3. Let patrons’ use drive at least some of the purchase choices 29
  30. 30. E-Book PDA Model • Flexible, customizable • Librarian-defined subject profile with vendor • Records in catalog – Initial load + updates – “Rent” / short-term loans – Buy if used past a certain point 30
  31. 31. E-Book PDA profile • Build from established profile • De-dup titles already purchased • Drop e-book package publishers • Limit by type / treatment, e.g., test prep, how to, reading level, fiction 31
  32. 32. Purdue’s PDA plan • 11,000 initial title load, 2009+ (3/11) – Drop previously purchased titles – Drop e-book package publishers • 100-200 new titles per week • 3 short-term loans before purchase 32
  33. 33. Example: Auto-purchase after the third short-term loan (STL) • Browse = up to 5 minutes without downloading or printing (free) • STL = downloading, printing, etc. OR 5+ minutes • STL cost: usually about 10% of list price • Auto-purchase = list price • True cost of purchased e-book: 3 STLs + list price = 130% of list price 33
  34. 34. PDA Value/Cost: 3/11-2/14 34
  35. 35. Purdue Costs, March 2011-Feb 2014 35
  36. 36. Autopurchases 3/11-2/14 (use through 8/14) 36
  37. 37. Advantages of e-book PDA • Librarians set collection profile • Immediate access to a large selection of titles • Pay only for what is used • Seamless updates and acquisitions 37
  38. 38. Disadvantages of e-book PDA • Some patrons prefer print • Many titles not available as e-books • Vendor restrictions (printing, downloading) • Resource sharing concerns 38
  39. 39. The future ….. • Print & electronic books co-exist, ratios change – Patron preference – Publisher changes • Librarians’ role – macro – micro – middle (autopilot) 39
  40. 40. Innovation, part 1: tendency to make the new thing look like the old thing 40
  41. 41. Which one is the horseless carriage? 41
  42. 42. The promise of e-books • Print • Electronic 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. What if ….. ? • Princeton University Press, March 2014. • Print – English – Spanish • EBL, ebrary, EBSCOhost, JSTOR • Kindle (text & audio) • MP3 CD 44
  45. 45. Possible features? • Color • Animation • Interactive • Links • Filters 45
  46. 46. Innovation, part 2: the iterative approach 46
  47. 47. New concepts 47
  48. 48. What’s involved? • New ways of …. • … conceptualizing • … writing • … book production • … pricing • … interacting 48
  49. 49. Who’s involved? • Authors • Publishers • Third-party suppliers • Librarians • Users – Faculty – Students – Casual reader 49
  50. 50. Whither e-books? 50
  51. 51. Questions? 51

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