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Perera Accessibility in Publishing

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This presentation was provided by Chandi Perera of Typefi during the NISO event, XML For Standards Publishing, held on Monday, April 24, 2017 in Washington DC.

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Perera Accessibility in Publishing

  1. 1. Automation for print, online and mobile © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com Accessibility in Publishing Chandi Perera
  2. 2. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Introduction to accessibility + Why accessibility is important + Publishing standards on accessibility + Practical examples of accessible content + Q&A Agenda
  3. 3. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Accessibility enables everyone—regardless of disability or special needs—to read, hear, and interact with content. + The goal of accessibility is to create an inclusive society for people with visual, auditory, physical, or cognitive disabilities. + Accessibility is best represented when its features are considered as an important part of the design & development process. What is accessibility?
  4. 4. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com – Stevie Wonder (2016 Grammys) “I just want to say, before saying the winner, that we need to make every single thing accessible to every single person with a disability.”
  5. 5. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Visual – blindness, low vision, color blindness, photosensitive seizures + Auditory – deafness, hearing impairments + Physical – paralysis, tremors, repetitive strain injury (RSI), muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, stroke + Cognitive – includes a diverse range of users who perceive and process information differently or with greater difficulty + Some users may have multiple disabilities (e.g. a deaf-blind) Accessibility is for the end user
  6. 6. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Almost everyone will be temporarily or permanently impaired at some point in life, and those who survive to old age will experience increasing difficulties in functioning + 10% of the world's population, 650 million people live with some form of disability + About 65% of all people who are visually impaired are aged 50 and older including a affluent ageing population with + Over 50 age group comprises about 20% of the world's population ad is growing + Over 90% of all published materials cannot be read by blind or print-disabled people – World Blind Union + Ethical duty for a publisher to make content accessible + Legal and regulatory requirement to make content accessible Accessibility is important
  7. 7. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities “To promote the design, development, production and distribution of accessible information and communications technologies and systems at an early stage, so that these technologies and systems become accessible at minimum cost.” - Article 9, Accessibility Accessibility is a human right
  8. 8. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – Ratifications/Accessions: 173 – Signatories*: 160 + Optional Protocol – Ratification/Accessions: 92 – Signatories*: 92 Accessibility is a global standard
  9. 9. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Also known as Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works by Visually Impaired Persons and Persons with Print Disabilities. + Is a treaty on copyright allowing for copyright exceptions to facilitate the creation of accessible versions of books and other copyrighted works for visually impaired persons. + Eighty-eight countries signed the treaty and 26 countries have ratified. Treaty came in to effect on 30 September 2016. Marrakesh VIP Treaty
  10. 10. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Europe – European Accessibility Act + UK – Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) + US – Section 508 of Rehabilitation Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 225 of the Telecommunications Act. + Australia – Disability Discrimination Act National legislation
  11. 11. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com What Makes a Document Accessible?
  12. 12. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Coherent and consistent writing improves accessibility + Correct semantic structure + Alternative text for figures + Proper identification of language + Resizable text + Proper colour and contrast Key accessibility features
  13. 13. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com Accessible Formats
  14. 14. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Print + HTML + EPUB + DAISY + PDF/UA Accessible formats
  15. 15. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + The Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) provides a set of guidelines on how to design print publications for better accessibility. + Use high-contrast colours for text and background + Printed material is most readable in black and white + Keep your text large, preferably between 12 and 18 points depending on the font + Avoid complicated or decorative fonts + Use a matte or non-glossy finish to cut down on glare Print
  16. 16. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + WCAG 2.0 defines 3 levels of compliance + Level A: For Level A conformance (the minimum level of conformance), the Web page satisfies all the Level A Success Criteria, or a conforming alternate version is provided. + Level AA: For Level AA conformance, the Web page satisfies all the Level A and Level AA Success Criteria, or a Level AA conforming alternate version is provided. + Level AAA: For Level AAA conformance, the Web page satisfies all the Level A, Level AA and Level AAA Success Criteria, or a Level AAA conforming alternate version is provided. HTML
  17. 17. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Digital Accessible Information System + Developed, maintained and promoted by the international DAISY Consortium + ANSI/NISO Z39.86 Specifications for the Digital Talking Book + Does not preserve layout + Still widely used + DIASY 4 and EPUB 3 is the same standard. DAISY
  18. 18. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + An EPUB file is a ZIP archive that contains a website including HTML files, images, CSS style sheets, and other assets. + Read using a range of devices and programs + EPUB has been widely adopted as the format for eBooks + Accessibility has been built into the EPUB 3 standard + Harmonization between EPUB and DAISY standards + Many EPUB readers lack accessibility features EPUB
  19. 19. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Also known as Tagged PDF or PDF/UA + The document structure is indicated by tags to allow screen readers to successfully navigate the content on the document + Reading order is clear and easy to follow + Tables are used to create a tabular structure (not tabs or spaces) + Descriptive (alternative text) is available for all graphics and links + Preserves layout so people with or without a disability can read it PDF/UA
  20. 20. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0 (1999) + Section 508 [of the US Rehabilitation Act] (1998) + Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 (2008) (ISO/IEC 40500:2012) + ISO 14289-1:2014 – PDF/UA (Universal Accessibility) + Large Print & Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines + DAISY ANSI/NISO Z39.86 + EPUB 3 (2014) Standards on accessibility
  21. 21. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com Implementing Accessibility
  22. 22. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Decide on your level of conformance and make sure it is realistic + One single format cannot meet all your accessibility and usability needs + Consider producing many outputs as long as it is at “at minimum cost” + Some accessibility (A) is better than no accessibility Conclusions
  23. 23. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Understanding WCAG 2.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/Overview.html + Understanding Conformance http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/conformance.html + Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-WCAG20-20060427/Overview.html – Appendix B: Checklist (Non-Normative) Additional information
  24. 24. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com + Clear Print Accessibility Guidelines – CNIB http://www.cnib.ca/en/services/resources/Clearprint/Documents/CNIB%2 0Clear%20Print%20Guide.pdf + World Report on Disability http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report/en/ + Marrakech VIP Treaty http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/marrakesh/ Additional information
  25. 25. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com Q&A
  26. 26. © 2016 Typefi Systems Pty Ltd and its licensors. All rights reserved. Australia . USA . UK . Netherlands . typefi.com cperera@typefi.com

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