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Managing E-Books for a Consortium


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Alan Darnell, Director, Scholars Portal, Ontario Consortium of University Libraries

Scholars Portal, an initiative of the Ontario Council of University Libraries, provides technology support for OCUL member libraries in many areas, including virtual reference, citation management services, numeric and geospatial data services, and digital content management. Two of the largest repositories of digitial content managed by Scholars Portal -- an E-Journal collection of 32M articles and an E-Book collection of close to 500,000 texts -- provide an interesting study through contrast of the unique and daunting challenges of managing e-book content. The presentation will look at issues related to consortial acquisition, local loading, metadata management, digital preservation, usage drivers, and student and faculty adoption of ebooks compared to ejournals.

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Managing E-Books for a Consortium

  1. 1. Managing  E-­‐Books  for  a  Consor0um   NISO  Forum:  The  E-­‐Book  Renaissance  Part  II   October  18-­‐19,  2012   Alan  Darnell   Director,  Scholars  Portal  
  2. 2. h2p://  
  3. 3. 420,00  FTE  h2p://  
  4. 4. Journals  and  Books  •  Journals  is  a  repository   •  Books  is  a  repository  of   of  over  26M  full  text   485,000  Mtles,  over   documents  from  11,400   125,000  current  and   journals  supplemented   close  to  360,000   by  arMcle  metadata   digiMzed  from  various   from  JSTOR  and  Project   Canadian  collecMons   MUSE,  bringing  total   parMcipaMng  in  the   citaMons  to  32.8M  and   Open  Content  Alliance   13,492  journals   •  Adding  about  50,000  •  Adding  about  1M   new  Mtles  each  year   arMcles  each  year  
  5. 5. Goals  •  Reduce  cost  through  collaboraMve  purchasing   and  shared  infrastructure  •  Aggregate  content  for  enhanced  discovery  •  Provide  for  long-­‐term  preservaMon  of  digital   resources  
  6. 6. Basic  Workflow  •  License  content  •  Secure  local  loading  and  preservaMon  rights  •  Transfer  metadata  and  full-­‐text  content  from   publisher  •  Develop  metadata  crosswalk  and  data  loader  •  Load  content,  capture  preservaMon  metadata,   and  perform  Q&A  •  Set  up  enMtlements  •  Distribute  metadata  to  SFX  and  Serials  SoluMons  •  Gather  and  report  staMsMcs  in  COUNTER  format  
  7. 7. Differences  •  How  content  is  purchased  •  How  metadata  and  content  is  supplied  •  Licenses  and  Access  controls  •  EnMtlement  management  •  PreservaMon  challenges  •  Usability  and  accessibility  issues  •  Discovery  and  use  
  8. 8. E-­‐Journal  Purchasing  Model  •  Big  deals  sMll  prevalent  •  Wide  buy-­‐in  from  all  the  OCUL   member  libraries  •  Deal  directly  with  publishers  
  9. 9. E-­‐Book  Purchasing   Big   Publisher   Scholars   Deals   Portal   Approval   YBP,   Aggregator   Plans   Ingram   Publisher   PDA/ Aggregator   Aggregator   DDA   Publisher   Publisher  
  10. 10. Ideal  E-­‐Book  World  •  Develop  relaMonship  with  wholesalers  such  as   YBP  to  integrate  purchasing  and  local  load   rights  into  current  approval  plans  •  Libraries  able  to  run  their  own  PDA  projects   with  hosted  content  
  11. 11. Supply  Journals   Books  •  Established  processes  to   •  DistribuMon  channels  are   feed  journal  content  to   sMll  immature  for  some   various  channels   smaller  presses    •  Direct  feeds  from   •  Intermediaries  are   publishers   common  (e.g  CoreSource)  •  High  volume,  small  data   •  Low  volume,  large  data   files,  fast  turnaround   files,  slower  turnaround  •  Standard  formats  (e.g.   •  Proprietary  formats  for   NLM/JATS  DTD)   XML  content  
  12. 12. E-­‐Journals  Licensing  •  Very  standard  license  model     –  OCUL  model  license  •  Perpetual  access  clauses  •  TransformaMon  rights  •  DRM  free  •  Unlimited  use  •  ILL  rights  
  13. 13. Ebook  Restric0ons   Full  Book   Chapter   Print  Limits   Copy  &   Watermarks   Concurrent   Downloads   Downloads   Paste   Users   Limits  Publisher   No   No   30pp   5pp   Yes   Unlimited  A  Publisher   Yes   Yes   No  limit   No   Not   2  users  B   required  Publisher   No   Yes   10%   No   Yes   Unlimited  C   3  year   embargo  
  14. 14. Ideal  E-­‐Book  World    -­‐  Agreement  on  standard  DRM  models  -­‐  DRM  expiraMon  -­‐  Eliminate  concurrent  use  restricMons  -­‐  ILL  allowed    
  15. 15. Metadata  and  IdenMfiers  Journals   Books  •  ArMcle  metadata  is   •  No  dominant  metadata   provided  as  XML   format  for  ebooks    •  Publishers  are  adopMng   –  ONIX  is  not  uniformly   NLM/JATS  DTD   used  •  DOIs  are  widely  used   •  DOIs  are  uncommon   (book  or  chapter  level)  •  ISSNs  are  generally   reliable   •  ISBNs  –  too  many  to  be   useful  for  matching  
  16. 16. Access  Controls  Journals   Books  •  Generally   •  EnMtlements  must  be   straighlorward;  can  be   handled  at  Mtle  level   managed  at  Mtle  and   (100,000  Mtles)   year  level  (12,000  Mtles)   –  Cherry-­‐picking  from   collecMons  is  common   •  Title  lists  are  great,  but   which  one  do  you  use?  
  17. 17. Ideal  E-­‐Book  World  •  Wider  use  of  ONIX  standard  and  open  source   tools  for  converMng  from  ONIX  to  MARC  •  Wider  use  of  unique  idenMfiers  such  as  DOIs   and  less  reliance  on  ISBN  •  Standardized  Mtle  list  format  (KBART)  and   authoritaMve  Mtle  lists  
  18. 18. PreservaMon  Journals   Books    •  Clear  license  language  on   •  DRM  restricMons  conflict   perpetual  access  and   with  preservaMon   transformaMon  rights   requirements   –  watermarks,  concurrent   use  •  Publishers  have  legal   authority  to  grant   •  E-­‐Book  content  does  not   transformaMon  rights   always  replicate  print   book  content   –  image  rights  
  19. 19. Ideal  E-­‐Book  World  •  DRM  free  versions  for  preservaMon  purposes  •  Clearer  language  around  perpetual  access  and   opMons  for  exercising  that  right  •  More  opMons  for  archiving  e-­‐books  
  20. 20. Accessibility  Journals  •  Most  ArMcle  PDFs,  though  not  tagged,  are  readable   with  screen  reading  sopware  •  Full  downloads  also  allow  for  ingest  into  Kurzweil  and   other  adapMve  technologies  
  21. 21. Accessibility  Books  •  Online  page  readers  with  no  embedded  text  are  invisible  •  Chapter  downloads  are  rarely  allowed  •  Full  book  downloads  use  encrypMon  that  make  use  difficult  •  Older  digiMzed  materials  can  be  difficult  to  read  with   adapMve  technologies  
  22. 22. Usability  •  CapabiliMes  differ  depending  on  DRM  restricMons  •  Poor  quality  scans  for  retrospecMve  material  and   rasterized  pages  for  online  readers  •  Inadequate  metadata  •  Limited  in-­‐book  searching  
  23. 23. Ideal  E-­‐Book  World  •  Move  away  from  online  readers  •  MulMple  downloadable  formats  for  different  uses  •  Support  downloads  in  simple  formats  such  as  PDF   and  ePUB  •  ePUB  3  and  the  promise  of  accessible  texts  
  24. 24. Discovery  Journals   Books  •  OpenURL  resolvers   •  Library  Catalogues  •  A-­‐Z  lists   –  Sourcing  MARC  records  is  an   –  Importance  of  being  present   issue   in  KBs   •  Not  present  in  discovery  •  Not  present  directly  in   layer  indexes  or  in  OpenURL   discovery  layer  indexes   KBs  •  Google  indexing  of   •  Google  indexing  of   metadata  but  not    full-­‐text   metadata  
  25. 25. Use  •  45,000  daily  visits   •  1,800  daily  visits  •  300  concurrent  users   •  30  concurrent  users  •  1M  arMcle  downloads   •  20,000  chapter   per  month   downloads;  500,000  •  COUNTER  staMsMcs   page  views  per  year  Visitor  flow:  vast  majority   Visitor  flow:  vast  majority  of  traffic  comes  from   of  traffic  comes  from  OpenURL  resolvers   library  catalogues  
  26. 26. Ideal  E-­‐book  World  •  More  effecMve  metadata  workflow  from   publisher  to  MARC  •  More  varied  channels  for  discovery  than  library   catalogue  •  More  sophisMcated  and  shared  understanding  of   ebook  use  leads  to  standard  measurements  
  27. 27. Steps  Forward  Purchasing  •  Secure  agreements  with  publishers  to  load  all   content  and  not  just  subscribed  content     –  support  for  PDAs,  faster  acMvaMon  for  Mtles  purchased   on  approval  plans  Licensing  •  Resist  DRM  encumbered  content  /  fewer  DRM   variaMons  •  Explore  models  for  ILL  lending  
  28. 28. Steps  Forward  Supply  •  ONIX  to  MARC  conversion  tools  •  KBART  for  Mtle  lists  and  enMtlement  informaMon  •  Encourage  use  of  DOIs  and  other  idenMfiers  Accessibility  and  Usability  •  Move  away  from  online  reading  •  MulMple  downloadable  formats  •  Move  to  ePUB3  
  29. 29. Steps  Forward  PreservaMon  •  Extend  preservaMon  pracMces  used  for  journals  to   ebooks  •  Ensure  licenses  include  transformaMon  rights  Discovery  and  Use  •  Create  packages  in  popular  KBs  to  enhance   discovery  •  Deal  with  rights  issues  related  to  indexing  in   discovery  systems  •  Understand  use  by  studying  analyMcs