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Inglis Preprints in Biology and Medicine

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This presentation was provided by John Inglis of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory during the NISO virtual conference, The Preprint: Integrating the Form into the Scholarly Ecosystem, held on February 14, 2018.

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Inglis Preprints in Biology and Medicine

  1. 1. Preprints in Biology and Medicine John Inglis Ph.D. Co-founder, bioRxiv and medRxiv Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory twitter @JohnRInglis inglis@cshl.edu NISO Webinar February 14, 2018
  2. 2. Preprint (n): a complete but unpublished manuscript yet to be certified by peer review, distributed by its author before or at submission to a journal Preprint server (n): a journal-independent mechanism for distributing preprints in a defined domain
  3. 3. bioRxiv: a server for life science preprints • Launched November 2013 • Covers all life sciences, clinical trials, epidemiology, and science communication and education • Hosted by HighWire Press • Operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
  4. 4. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York
  5. 5. Research at Cold Spring Harbor • 600 scientific staff • 50 research groups • Genetics • Cancer • Plant biology • Neuroscience • Genomics and bioinformatics • Quantitative biology
  6. 6. Education & communication at Cold Spring Harbor Conferences • 10,000 attendees yearly Teaching • Residential courses • Graduate school Publishing • 9 journals, 200 books
  7. 7. “It’s ridiculous I have to wait months to readapaper while it goes through peer review…let me decide formyself whether it’s any good” “Think how much time is wasted!” What biologists were saying in 2013 “I am writing agrantbut the paper is notgoing to be published by the time I submit. The solution is apre-print server that can be referenced” “Why isn’t there an arXiv for biology?”
  8. 8. bioRxiv: a server for life science preprints • Not-for-profit • Publisher-neutral • Free for authors and readers • No reader registration required • The largest repository of life science preprints • Supported by
  9. 9. Posting to bioRxiv: an author makes choices One subject category A description: new, confirmatory, or contradictory results A CC license (Zero, BY, BY-NC, BY-ND, BY-NC-ND) or reserve all rights
  10. 10. Posting to bioRxiv: manuscripts are screened 1. bioRxiv staff check for: • Appropriate scope • Plagiarism • Images of human subjects 2. Scientific and clinical affiliates check for: • Non-science • Appropriate article type • Human health implications
  11. 11. Abstracts displayed, papers downloadable Manuscript goes live within 24 hours of posting DOI and unique URL assigned Downloadable PDF (full-text XML coming soon) Updatable at any time: all versions remain available
  12. 12. Additional information is available Record of versions Metrics of usage Supplementary material/data Link to published version
  13. 13. Preprints on bioRxiv • 20,000 manuscripts • 29% revised • 116,000 authors • 7400 institutions • 104 countries • 44% USA • 12% UK • 6% Germany • 4% Canada • 4% France • 3% Australia • 2% China © Science AAS
  14. 14. Preprints on bioRxiv • 95% accepted • 95% “new” • 3% “confirmatory” • 2% “contradictory” • Papers in all subject categories including epidemiology and clinical trials © Science AAS
  15. 15. bioRxiv by subject category
  16. 16. Preprints by institution
  17. 17. Preprints posted by month
  18. 18. Preprint usage by month
  19. 19. Preprint discovery Preprint search Email alerts, RSS and twitter feeds
  20. 20. Integration with journal peer review AAAS American Association for Immunology American Physiological Society American Society for Biochemistry… American Society for Cell Biology American Society for Human Genetics American Society for Microbiology American Society for Plant Biology American Society of Pharmacology… Biophysical Society British Medical Journal Company of Biologists CSHL Press Dove Medical Press eLife Elsevier EMBO Press Endocrine Society FASEB Genetics Society of America International Union of Crystallographers Microbiology Society Life Science Alliance National Academy of Sciences Oxford University Press PeerJ Public Library of Science Rockefeller University Press Society for Neuroscience Springer Nature Wiley Blackwell 120 journals From 31 publishers • Author chooses to submit manuscript to a journal • “One click” submission of manuscript and metadata • Journal may request further information • If manuscript is declined, author can choose again • Available for EJP, Editorial Manager, Bench>Press; Scholar One soon
  21. 21. Preprint integration with journal peer review American Society for Microbiology BMJ CSHL Press Company of Biologists eLife EMBO Press OUP Public Library of Science 15 journals From 8 publishers • Journal offers author opportunity to post manuscript to bioRxiv on submission • Manuscript files and metadata transferred • Set up for EJP, Bench>Press, ReView but available for any manuscript handling system and collaborative writing environment • Requires customization for individual journals • If the transferring journal declines the manuscript, preprint can be submitted to another journal
  22. 22. Preprints have impact Citations: increasing Comments Journal clubs, commentaries: increasing 10% of all preprints 18% have altmetrics >20 Tweets Email/personal contact: frequent, extent unknown >115,000 per week
  23. 23. How bioRxiv preprints assist science and scientists • They are free to post and to read • They are read/downloaded • They prompt feedback, public and private • They permit evaluation of new findings without delay introduced by journal peer review • They can be published in journals • They are encouraged by funders including NIH • They are evidence of productivity • for early-career investigators
  24. 24. How bioRxiv preprints assist science and scientists • They may establish priority and insure against scooping • Results can be contradictory or confirmatory • They may be solicited for submission to journals • “Articles with a preprint received higher Altmetric scores and more citations than articles without preprints”
  25. 25. Preprint servers are appearing in many disciplines
  26. 26. “It’s ridiculous I have to wait months to read a paper while it goes through peer review…let me decide for myself whether it’s any good” “Think how much time is wasted!” What clinical scientists were saying in 2017 “I am writing a grant but the paper is not going to be published by the time I submit. The solution is a pre-print server that can be referenced” “Why isn’t there a bioRxiv for health sciences?”
  27. 27. medRxiv: a server for health science preprints • Coming soon • Founders: Harlan Krumholz and Joe Ross (Yale) and John Inglis and Richard Sever (CSH Laboratory) • Operated by CSH Laboratory • Advisory board of clinicians, editors, others • Founding and supporting organizations
  28. 28. medRxiv: a server for health science preprints • Modeled on bioRxiv conceptually and technologically • Hosted by HighWire Press • Not-for-profit • Free for authors and readers • Publisher-neutral • Specific screening criteria
  29. 29. medRxiv: goals and benefits • Rapid sharing of new information • To accelerate research, • To enhance collaboration • To reduce waste • To increase transparency • Make available less publishable outputs • Protocols • Technical reports • Quality innovations • White papers • To increase availability of clinical trials data • To integrate with peer review at journals
  30. 30. medRxiv: concerns and risks
  31. 31. medRxiv: concerns and risks
  32. 32. medRxiv: concerns and risks
  33. 33. medRxiv: concerns and risks • Harm to the public caused by wrong information, magnified by media • Persistent information in preprints may change drastically in peer review • Manipulation of channel by commercial interests • Undermining peer-reviewed medical journals as sources of new information • Undermining clinicaltrials.gov • Authors: will a paper be considered by journals if a version appears first on a preprint server?
  34. 34. medRxiv: mitigating concerns and risks • Disclaimers emphasising absence of peer review • “This manuscript is a preprint. What does this mean?” • For the public, journalists, health professionals • Watermarking/stamping on downloadable pdfs • Screening of all content by qualified professionals who apply defined criteria for acceptability
  35. 35. medRxiv: mitigating concerns and risks Manuscript acceptability criteria will include: • Authors must have academic/professional affiliations • Authors must have ORCIDs • Manuscripts must include conflict of interest statements • Manuscripts must document IRB approval or exemption • Clinical trial registration numbers required • No N=1 case reports • No reports that put the health of the public at potential risk • No opinion pieces, editorials, hypotheses, reviews
  36. 36. A preprint server: an information hub that co-exists with and complements journals Journals Meetings Blogs Confirmatory results Contradictory results Discussion Reproducibility Certification Discovery Crossref GoogleMeta
  37. 37. A preprint server: an information hub that co-exists with and complements journals and other assessmentsystems Journals Meetings Blogs Confirmatory results Contradictory results Discussion Reproducibility Certification Discovery Crossref GoogleMeta Peer Feedback APPRAISE PreReview PreLights MicroNow Peer Community In… ORACLE ?
  38. 38. Thank you! John Inglis inglis@cshl.edu @JohnRInglis

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