The ecological fallacy occurs when you make conclusions about individuals based only on analyses of group dataAn exception fallacy is sort of the reverse of the ecological fallacy. It occurs when you reach a group conclusion on the basis of exceptional cases.
Investigating inclusive curriculum in higher education
• Will depend on themeaning of the term?• Different modelsrepresent different valuesand agendasFactors contributing to inclusiveeducationPhoto used under UK open government licence
The complexity of educational InclusionThe term is open to confusion i.e.1. It is about learning in the same place on the same curriculum as others(Bailey,1998)2. Tomlinson‟s(1997) view that it is not necessarily about being in thesame place and curriculum3. Booth & Ainscow‟s view that it is not a state at all but an unendingprocess of increasing participation4. Thomas‟s view that it about accepting all children5. Sebba & Sachdev‟s view that it about schools responding andrestructuring their provision6. Florien‟s view that opportunity to participate in inclusion is about activeinvolvement and choice and not something done to the disabled(Lunt & Norwich,1999)
Two Research Fallacies•The ecological fallacy occurs when you makeconclusions about individuals based only onanalyses of group data•An exception fallacy is sort of the reverse of theecological fallacy. It occurs when you reach agroup conclusion on the basis of exceptionalcases.
Confusion and Conflation ?“It is important that thedistinction between morespecific disability and broaderall encompassing meaning arenot blurred.Different disadvantagedgroups can have distinctidentities related to their socialand personal conditions andeven may have multipleidentities.”Lunt & Norwich 1999Photo used under UK open government licence
Universal Design for Learning(UDL)• is an educational framework based on researchin the learning sciences, including cognitiveneuroscience, that guides the development offlexible learning environments that canaccommodate individual learning differences.
Curriculum,• as defined in the UDL literature, has four parts:instructional goals, methods, materials, andassessments.• UDL is intended to increase access to learningby reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, andorganizational barriers to learning, as well asother obstacles. UDL principles also lendthemselves to implementing inclusionarypractices in the classroom.
UDL framework:• Multiple means of representation to givelearners various ways of acquiring informationand knowledge,• Multiple means of expression to provide learnersalternatives for demonstrating what they know,and• Multiple means of engagement to tap intolearners interests, challenge them appropriately,and motivate them to learn.
Potential Sources• Beyond Prejudice: Inclusive learning in practice from the Learning and Skills Development Agencyoffers strategic and practical pointers for the provision of an inclusive learning environment.• DEMOS: Online Materials For Staff Disability Awareness (2002) is an online resource aimed atacademic staff, and examines the issues faced by disabled students in higher education.Modification of examination and assessment arrangments are also discussed.• Engineering Subject Centre Guide to Working with Disabled Students (2nd Edition June 2005)includes practical ideas and case studies.• Premia resource base awareness and development materials are for everyone involved in makingthe research environment more accessible for disabled students.• SCIPS (Strategies for the Creation of Inclusive Programmes of Study) database providesinformation to support academic staff in improving access to the curriculum for disabled students.• SENDA compliance in Higher Education: an audit and guidance tool to accessible practice withinthe framework of teaching and learning 2002, including a useful section on assessment.• Teachability (2000) offers information and resources for academic staff to help in the provision ofan accessible curriculum.• Techdis has relevant resources and references, including a database of information and productsto assist disabled students and staff.• University of Bristol Access Unit provides fact sheets for supporting disabled students.• University of Wolverhampton - Learning, teaching and assessment: good practice guides for staffteaching d/Deaf students in art, design and communication and in science and engineering.
CategoriesFoucault‟s toolboxSurveillance Subject &PowerRelationshipsArchaeology Genealogy EthicsThephenomenaunder scrutinyThe exerciseof controlpossibly theinverse of„ethics‟The discourse– thestatementsthat stand fortruthThe exerciseof power at amicro levelWays in whichindividualsacquire newforms ofactivity
CategoriesCriteria for evaluating models and approachesParadigm Aims Concepts andPremisesViewpoint onthe individualConcept ofdifficulty,disaffectionand/ordisabilityView ofDiversityStakeholderViewpoint
LearningpracticeLearningas doingcommunityLearningas belongingmeaningLearningas experienceidentityLearningas becomingComponents of a social model of learning (Etienne Wenger 1997)
agendaEvidence clusters around these areas;• Social Skills, Social Understanding, Self efficacycoupled with values and a sense of purpose• Good housing and recreational facilities• Educational Institutions that support highexpectations and have a structures that supportpositive behaviour and values• Parents and community that support the aims ofeducation
Risk factors are those that render andindividual more likely to developproblems in the face of adversityRutter 2000Protective factors are those that act toprotect an individual from developing aproblem even in the face of adversity orrisk factorsClarke & Clarke 2000Family Factors: violence, abuse, neglect,discordant family relationships, being ayoung person who is being looked afteroutside the family, parental psychiatricillness, inconsistent or unclear discipline,parental criminality, death and loss, rejectionby parents;Family Factors: supportive relationshipswith adults, small family size, materialresources such as adequate family income,clear and consistent discipline, support foreducationSocial Factors: poverty, economic crises,deprivation, homelessness, rejection bypeers, being a member of a deviant peergroup;Social Factors: access to good educationalfacilities, wider support network, range offacilities available, positive policies in schoolfor behaviour and attitudes, effective anti-bullying policies, good liaison between schooland local communitiesFactors in the child: low intelligence,chronic physical illness, hyperactivity, braindamage, communication difficulties,deafness, high alcohol use, drugs andsubstance abuse, academic failure,premature / under age sexual activity.Factors in the child: a sense of mastery,participation in activities, sports and outsideinterests, being a member of a non-deviantpeer group, even temperament, positive selfesteem and intelligence or good social skills,religious affiliation
Dilemmas of differenceIf you treat someonedifferently they may loseout...but if you treat them thesame they may also loseoutClark, Dyson & Millward (1998)Photo used under UK open government licence
Dilemmas of Inclusion in In HigherEducationDeclaring a need or a difference or conforming to perceptions ofexpected normsEntry requirements versus inclusive ethosAppropriateness of Assessment and personalisation (quality) offeedback versus the pressure of numbers and turn around timeOvercoming barriers to learning versus traditions of assessment andprofessional requirements applied by external gate keepers to aprofession.