CREATIVIDAD, CULTURA
Y
EDUCACIÓN
UNIVERSIDAD
DE
LAS
TUNAS, JUINO
27
TH -JULIO
1
ST 2013
M
ike
Blam
ires &
Andrew
Peterson
...
¿Qué es la creatividad?
El Consejo Nacional de Educación Cultural y Creativa (NACCE,
1999) ofreció una definición de creat...
What is creativity?
National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (NACCE, 1999;
provided a definition of ...
¿ Por qué la creatividad es importante?
La educación es vista como la cultivadora del talento requerido
para las industria...
Why is Creativity Important?` `
Education is seen as a nurturer of talent required for the
creative industries of the UK.
...
Creatividad & Cultura
Un cambio desde teorías que priorizan la creatividad como una propiedad
psicológica individual hacia...
Creativity & Culture
A shift from theories which prioritise creativity as an individual psychological
property to those wh...
Seis Mitos acerca de la Creatividad
Los seis mitos identificados por Sharp tienen que ver con la
suposición de que:
(i)la ...
Six Myths about Creativity
The sixth myths identified by Sharp are the assumptions that:
(i)creativity is confined to arts...
¿ La necesidad de la creatividad?
Según la definición de ‘información’ aportada por Gregory
Bateson (1973): ‘la informació...
The need for creativity?
Building upon the definition of ‘information’ by Gregory Bateson (1973) as
‘information is a diff...
La creatividad en la Educación
La verdadera naturaleza de la creatividad en la educación permanece ambigua.
Hastaque punto...
Creativity in Education
The very nature of creativity in education remains ambiguous. To what
extent creativity in primary...
Creatividad & aprendizaje
El Informe de Educación Primaria (2009: 489) ofreció un punto de vista acerca de la
creatividad ...
Creativity & Learning
The CPR (2009: 489) provided an elaboration of this process, acknowledging
creativity within cultura...
Creatividad & Enseñanza
(i) La creatividad depende de la pedagogía y, como tal, (ii) diferentes
pedagogías dentro de difer...
Desarrollar la creatividad
Sternberg (2006: 87-88) la creatividad depende de ‘seis recursos distintos
pero interrelacionad...
Desarrollar la Creatividad
En “Creatividad : encuéntrala y
promuévela” la QCA (2005) sugirió que es
posible identificar cu...
Enhancing Creativity
In Creativity: find it, promote it,
the QCA (2005) suggested that it
is possible to identify when pup...
Las interrogantes relacionadas con la evaluación no son
insignificantes para los profesores que buscan desarrollar
la crea...
Questions relating to assessment are not insignificant for
teachers seeking to develop creativity in pupils; indeed they
a...
¿ Cómo evaluar la creatividad?
Ferrari, et al. (2009: 2) propone una serie de requisitos para la creatividad y la
innovaci...
How to Assess Creativity?
Ferrari, et al. (2009: 2) proposes a series of requisites for creativity and
innovation in schoo...
Sources
References
Alexander, R. (2009). Children, Their world, Their education: Final Report and Recommendations of the C...
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A paper presented at the International Workshop on Community and Rural Development held at the University of Las Tunas, Cuba in June 2013.

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Creatividad, Cultura y Educación: Creativity, Culture and Education: for COMUR 2013

  1. 1. CREATIVIDAD, CULTURA Y EDUCACIÓN UNIVERSIDAD DE LAS TUNAS, JUINO 27 TH -JULIO 1 ST 2013 M ike Blam ires & Andrew Peterson m b1@cant.ac.uk
  2. 2. ¿Qué es la creatividad? El Consejo Nacional de Educación Cultural y Creativa (NACCE, 1999) ofreció una definición de creatividad que podría ser y ha sido utilizada por los pedagogos. Esta identifica 4 características del proceso creativo. Primero, la creatividad siempre involucra el pensar y el comportarse imaginativamente. Segundo, que esta actividad imaginativa tiene, por sobre todas las cosas, un propósito: es decir, esta dirigida hacia el logro de un objetivo. Tercero, que el proceso creativo debe generar un producto original. Cuarto, el resultado debe ser válido con respecto al objetivo. Un elemento importante de esta definición es que esta contextualiza a la creatividad dentro de una actividad dirigida hacia un propósito, es decir, hacer que sea significativa dentro del contexto.
  3. 3. What is creativity? National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (NACCE, 1999; provided a definition of creativity that could be, and has been, harnessed by educationalists. This identified four characteristics of creative processes. First, that they always involve thinking or behaving imaginatively. Second, that this imaginative activity is, overall, purposeful: that is, it is directed to achieving an objective. Third, that creative processes must generate something original. Fourth, that the outcome must be of value in relation to the objective. An important element of this definition is that it anchors creativity within purposeful activity that is, in turn, given meaning from coming within a given domain
  4. 4. ¿ Por qué la creatividad es importante? La educación es vista como la cultivadora del talento requerido para las industrias creativas del Reino Unido. De manera similar, el informe acerca del “Próximo Gen” de NESTA ha planteado que las escuelas necesitan cambiar su enseñanza en TIC con el objetivo de apoyar las industrias creativas de producción de videojuegos y efectos de cine (Livingstone & Hope, 2011 p 1). La Política Educativa de Capacitación de la Unión Europea para el 2020, (2012) ha reforzado este punto de vista de enfatizar en la innovación como un objetivo educativo común.
  5. 5. Why is Creativity Important?` ` Education is seen as a nurturer of talent required for the creative industries of the UK. Similarly, the ‘Next Gen’ report of NESTA has stated that schools would need to change their teaching of ICT in order to support the creative industries of console game production and film effects (Livingstone & Hope, 2011 p 1). EU Educational and Training 2020 Policy (2012) has reinforced this view in its emphasis on innovation as a core educational objective. ` `
  6. 6. Creatividad & Cultura Un cambio desde teorías que priorizan la creatividad como una propiedad psicológica individual hacia aquellas que, además del desarrollo cognitivo del niño prestan atención al contexto social, en el cual la creatividad puede desarrollarse. Con respecto a esto, estudios realizados por catedráticos Británicos prominentes en el tema han enfatizado en que los espacios abiertos, exploratorios y colaborativos son esenciales para facilitar la creatividad. (Jeffrey and Craft, 2004; Cremin et al., 2006).
  7. 7. Creativity & Culture A shift from theories which prioritise creativity as an individual psychological property to those which, in addition to the cognitive development of the child, pay attention to the social and contextual environment in which creativity can flourish. In this regard, studies by a range of influential scholars on creativity in England have placed a strong emphasis on open, exploratory and collaborative spaces as essential to enabling creativity (Jeffrey and Craft, 2004; Cremin et al., 2006).
  8. 8. Seis Mitos acerca de la Creatividad Los seis mitos identificados por Sharp tienen que ver con la suposición de que: (i)la creatividad esta confinada al arte y la cultura, llevando a la subestimación del papel y la significación de la creatividad en campos como el diseño, la tecnología, la ingenieria y la ciencia; (ii) que la transferencia del conocimiento de un campo a otro no es problemática; (iii) que la creatividad es sinónimo de diversión; (iv) que la creatividad es un rasgo de élite, restringido a muy pocos individuos dotados de talento; (v) que la educación para la creatividad puede ser proporcionada a través del juego no estructurado y la actividad sin ayuda; y (vi) que la creatividad no requiere de altos conocimientos por parte del sujeto.
  9. 9. Six Myths about Creativity The sixth myths identified by Sharp are the assumptions that: (i)creativity is confined to arts and culture, leading to the under-recognition of the role and significance of creativity in fields such as design, technology, engineering and science; (ii) that knowledge transfer across domains is unproblematic; (iii) that creativity equals fun; (iv) that creativity is an elite trait, restricted to a few very talented individuals; (v) that education for creativity can be provided through unstructured play and unsupported activity; and (vi) that creativity does not require a high level of subject knowledge..
  10. 10. ¿ La necesidad de la creatividad? Según la definición de ‘información’ aportada por Gregory Bateson (1973): ‘la información es una diferencia que hace la diferencia’, se puede argumentar que la creatividad trata acerca de la identificación y explotación de la diferencia para facilitar la innovación exitosa. `
  11. 11. The need for creativity? Building upon the definition of ‘information’ by Gregory Bateson (1973) as ‘information is a difference that makes a difference’, it might be argued that creativity is about identifying and then harnessing difference to enable successful innovation. `
  12. 12. La creatividad en la Educación La verdadera naturaleza de la creatividad en la educación permanece ambigua. Hastaque punto la creatividad en la Educación Primaria se concibe como una sociedad creativa, como lo opuesto a simplemente valorar y fomentar las ideas de los niños en contextos múltiples, es algo que no está claro. Hasta que punto se valora la creatividad colectiva y colaborativa como algo contrapuesto al modelo individualizado, no está claro tampoco, de manera similar, aun existe confusión entre los términos ‘ enseñanza creativa’, ‘enseñanza para la creatividad’ y ‘ aprendizaje creativo’.
  13. 13. Creativity in Education The very nature of creativity in education remains ambiguous. To what extent creativity in primary education is conceived of as involving creative partnerships, as opposed simply to valuing and nourishing children’s ideas in multiple contexts, is not clear. To what extent collective or collaborative creativity is valued as against individualised models is also unclear, similarly there are still slippages in language between ‘creative teaching’, ‘teaching for creativity’ and ‘creative learning’.
  14. 14. Creatividad & aprendizaje El Informe de Educación Primaria (2009: 489) ofreció un punto de vista acerca de la creatividad dentro del discurso cultural, mientras que enfatizaba en el papel activo del aprendiz. “La creatividad no se entiende solo como la exposición a empresas artísticas e imaginativas, sino también como el contribuir a la calidad y capacidad del pensamiento del niño y a su perseverancia y habilidades de resolución de problemas... A los niños se les ve ahora como aprendices capaces y competentes, si se les proporciona el eentorno social y lingüístico adecuado y su enseñanza involucra, estimula y reta su entendimiento.”
  15. 15. Creativity & Learning The CPR (2009: 489) provided an elaboration of this process, acknowledging creativity within cultural parlance whilst emphasising the active role of the learner: Creativity is understood not only in terms of exposure to artistic and imaginative endeavour but as contributing to the quality and capacity of children’s thinking and to their perseverance and problem solving abilities... children are now viewed as competent and capable learners, given the right linguistic and social environment and teaching which engages, stimulates and challenges their understanding.
  16. 16. Creatividad & Enseñanza (i) La creatividad depende de la pedagogía y, como tal, (ii) diferentes pedagogías dentro de diferentes campos pueden promover o frenar la creatividad. (i) creativity is dependent upon pedagogy and, as such, (ii) different pedagogies within different subject domains may foster or hinder creativity.
  17. 17. Desarrollar la creatividad Sternberg (2006: 87-88) la creatividad depende de ‘seis recursos distintos pero interrelacionados: habilidades intelectuales, conocimiento, estilos de pensamiento, personalidad, motivacion y entorno’. Sternberg (2006: 87-88) creativity is dependent on ‘six distinct but inter- related resources: intellectual abilities, knowledge, styles of thinking, personality, motivation and environment’. .
  18. 18. Desarrollar la Creatividad En “Creatividad : encuéntrala y promuévela” la QCA (2005) sugirió que es posible identificar cuando los aprendices están pensando y comportándose creativamente en clase a través del siguiente modelo: Según “El aprendizaje: los Enfoques creativos que aumentan los niveles de desempeño,” Ofsted (2010: p 3) la motivación de los aprendices, el progreso y el logro en las escuelas primarias y secundarias se perfeccionan a través de enfoques creati vos de aprendizaje , tales como: Hacer preguntas y exigir mayor grado de dificultad; Establecer conecciones y ver relaciones; Predecir lo que puede ser; Explorar ideas, mantener opciones abiertas; Reflejar pensamiento crítico con respecto a ideas, acciones y resultados. •estimular a los aprendices con experiencias memorables y actividad práctica; •Permitir que los aprendices hagan preguntas, exploren y confronten las ideas; •Animar a los aprendices a pensar creativamente; y •Ayudar a los aprendices a reflexionar acerca de su aprendizaje y evaluarlo
  19. 19. Enhancing Creativity In Creativity: find it, promote it, the QCA (2005) suggested that it is possible to identify when pupils are thinking and behaving creatively in the classroom by using the following framework: in Learning: Creative Approaches that Raise Standards, Ofsted (2010: p 3) pupils’ motivation, progress and attainment in primary and secondary schools are improved by creative approaches to learning such as questioning and challenging; making connections and seeing relationships; envisaging what might be; exploring ideas, keeping options open; reflecting critically on ideas, actions and outcomes stimulating pupils with memorable experiences and practical activity; allowing pupils to question, explore and challenge ideas; encouraging pupils to think creatively; and supporting pupils to reflect on and evaluate their learning
  20. 20. Las interrogantes relacionadas con la evaluación no son insignificantes para los profesores que buscan desarrollar la creatividad en los estudiantes ; en realidad son cruciales. ... La creatividad no se puede desarrollar sin alguna forma de contenido. De hecho, la creatividad require contenido – en términos de conocimientos y habilidades – para proporcionarle un propósito o desafío y nuevos valores. ¿ Por qué evaluar la creatividad?
  21. 21. Questions relating to assessment are not insignificant for teachers seeking to develop creativity in pupils; indeed they are crucial. ... creativity cannot occur without some form of content. Indeed, creativity requires content – in terms of knowledge and skills – to provide it with a purpose or challenge, and to add or to gain value. Why Assess Creativity?
  22. 22. ¿ Cómo evaluar la creatividad? Ferrari, et al. (2009: 2) propone una serie de requisitos para la creatividad y la innovación en las escuelas. A estos factores se les ha denominado facilitadores y son las cirscuntancias o mecanismos de ayuda que hacen que la creatividad y la innovación puedan desarrollarse. Estos son: • Evaluación: actividades para animar a los estudiantes a beneficiarse de lo que han aprendido. juntos con el objetivo de enfatizar en el progreso futuro más que en la comparación competitiva. • Cultura: donde los intereses y las opiniones de los estudiantes son bienvenidos. • Currículo: el que establece un equilibrio entre la flexibilidad y lo preestablecido . • Habilidades individuales: en la manera en que reconoce que existe un mínimo nivel de conocimiento. • Profesores; tienen una función vital en promover o frenar la creatividad . • Tecnología:estimula formas alternativas de crear conocimiento y establecer significados. • Herramientas: espacios, recursos y redes de trabajo, con el objetivo de proporcionar oportunidades de interacción real o virtual y estructuras para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje.
  23. 23. How to Assess Creativity? Ferrari, et al. (2009: 2) proposes a series of requisites for creativity and innovation in schools. These factors have been called enablers and are the circumstances or support mechanisms that make creativity and innovation more likely to thrive. These are: ‘assessment; activities to encourage learners to benefit from what that have learned together in order to highlight future progress rather than emphasis competitive comparison culture; where students' ideas, interests and opinions are welcome.’ curriculum; which balances prescription and flexibility. individual skills; in a way which recognises that there is a minimum threshold of knowledge teachers; have a vital role in the kindling or stifling of creativity technology, stimulating alternative ways of fashioning knowledge creation and meaning making tools; space, resources and networks, in order to provide virtual and real interactive opportunities and structures for learning and teaching
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