Addressing Behaviour That Challenges Mike Blamires
The quality first modelSource: behaviour and attendance national strategies
The Elton Report (1989) Discipline in Schools London: Her Majestys Stationery Office 1989 http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/elton/elton00a.html• From the selected recommendations• a) Choose two that you consider to be of key importance• b) choose one that is of least importance Ignore recommendations less than 4 and remember to turn the page at some point
Harnessing Rewards and SanctionsThe results of the 2012 NFER survey showedthat a range of strategies were used byrespondents to manage pupil behaviour.Those used most often included praisingdesired behaviour; having a system to followthrough with sanctions; and using a rewardsystem (NFER, 2012,).Videos: Rewards Sanctions
What rewards and sanctions have you seen or used?How effective were they?Were they used selectively and/or consistently?Is it more important to be consistent or selective?
Trainees talking about their experiences and strategiesBehaviour2Learn.co.uk
• I recently read the ‘Checklist Manifesto’ by Atul Gawande, a surgeon who was concerned that so many patients seemed to suffer serious complications in the days after their operation.• He realised that many of these problems were caused by operating staff failing to follow basic procedures.• For example, a surgeon failing to wash his hands could cause an infection, or failing to account for all the swabs used in the process could lead to one being left in the patient’s body. Gawande developed a checklist to be read out before each operation to ensure that all of the simple, but essential procedures were followed.• The outcome was a marked decrease in the number of patients becoming seriously ill or dying after surgery. I took the idea of a checklist and adapted it to help schools to improve behaviour. My list is a menu of ideas from which schools can develop their own checklist.
The checklist in use• Woodend Park School on their behaviour checklist• Whitehall Infants on their behaviour checklist
The Steer ReportSteering The Right Course: Primary
Soft skills for hard schoolsAt classroom level:• the timetable being an inaccurate guide to academic time usage;• the presence of inconsistency, including some high-quality teaching;• the possession of low expectations;• an emphasis on supervision and routines;• low levels of teacher–pupil interaction about work;• the pupils perceiving their teachers as not caring, praising, etc.;• the presence of high noise levels and lots of non-work-related movement;• the use of negative feedback from teachers.Which soft skills might you employ to tackle these challenges ..and how?
The 9 Key Strategies (?) Clarity of what is expected negotiation/conflict (Choice) Strategy 6:Strategy 1: Predictability / Novelty level of work (Complexity) Strategy 7:Strategy 2: Feedback (Rewards & Sanctions) ModalityStrategy 3: Strategy 8: Interaction/ group work Language demand Strategy 9:Strategy 4: Available time for tasksStrategy 5:
Can we learn from past lessons? Adlerian Approaches to behaviour in Classrooms
Adlerian or Individual Psychology was developed by Alfred Alder in 1911 after his split withFreud. Its tenets are optimistic in that people are unique,social decision making beings whose thoughts andactions have a purpose and goals. Each person is part ofa social setting with a capacity to decide and choose.
The well adjusted child, Dreikurs, 1972has a sense of self worth Is willing to sharehas a feeling of belonging is honesthas socially acceptable goals puts forth genuine effortis able to meet the needs of a situationthinks in terms of “we” rather than “I”assumes responsibilityis interested in othersrespects the rights of others co-operates with othersencourages othersis courageous
Discipline, the media and political influence It is worth considering the “Individual Psychology”approach to the promotion of discipline as thedevelopment of personal responsibility where parents,teachers apply the skills of encouragement, consistencyand the use of natural and logical consequences so thatthe child can “respond correctly to the demands of sociallife”.
Dinkemeyer and Dreikurs (1963) autocratic methods suggest that “traditional methods of influencing childrencome from an autocratic past where reward andpunishment were the effective means of influencing andstimulating subordinates and promoting conformity to thedemands of authorities like parents and teachers”
Dinkemeyer and Dreikurs (1963) on democratic methods suggest a move from autocratic methods to democraticmethods of child guidance that encourages choice andresponsibility and further suggest that democraticrelationships are at the heart of effective behaviourtraining which is based on encouragement, a respect fororder through clear expectations and the experience ofnatural consequences for misbehaviour, and theavoidance of conflict.
(Driekurs, 1971) cited in Chew P 53 on rewards “Rewards usually are given by someone in asuperior role to someone in an inferior positionwhich is not a mutually respectful stance. Theyare often used as bribes which in the end teachesthat nothing worthwhile is given freely. Rewardsgiven by parents often come back to haunt themwhen children refuse to do anything unless theyreceive a tangible reward. The focus is removedfrom internal controls to external one.”
Intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards Extrinsic rewards do play a important role in socialorganisations including schools where they reinforcewhole school policy on behaviour. Chew (1998) asksthat “if children are taught that every thing worth doingmust be compensated, when are they to learn and feelthe value of giving and helping?” (p 53)
On Punishment The current guidance refers to sanctions rather thanpunishment although the need for punishment has anenduring appeal in the media for pupils at risk ofexclusion. E.g. Parsons (2003) Chew states that “Ventinganger and making children “pay” for their misbehaviour isshort sighted, selfish way to handle problem situations.When punished, children learn to go underground withtheir behaviour, if not choosing to directly challenge theauthority figure.” P 53
“Good Discipline” “builds within the child the courage to function effectively”, (Dinkmeyer, 1965) using natural and logical consequences which enable the child to see her responsibilities to her family and social group. Encouragement and discouragement are key concepts for Adlerians as they impact of the child’s courage to take responsibility for aspects of their life.
“The courageous person” “The courageous person can look at a situation, a task or event in terms of possible actions and solutions rather than potential threats or dangersTherefore he can move without hesitation persist withoutslackening and proceed without withdrawing” P32
Praise versus encouragement This distinction is closely related to natural and logicalconsequences. Encouragement helps to build the selfconfidence of the child so that they can handle difficulty.The aim is to develop internal rather than externalmotivation by focussing on effort and improvementtowards a goal rather than the achievement of the goalper se. From an Adlerian perspective, praise teaches achild to conform,
Natural & Logical ConsequencesNatural consequences represent reality for the child withno interference from adults. This would include a childgetting cold because they did not put on their coast whenthey went out to play. Logical consequences are thosewhich follow a violation of a social order or tacit rules forco-operation within society. This could include the childforgetting to take lunch money or losing a fellow pupil’spossession.
Logical ConsequencesLogical consequences are concerned with the childlocating the choices to be made instead of relying onadults around them to come up with the solutions.Dinkemeyer (1989)However, when adults dominate this issue children rarelylearn the power of their own choices. If the “logical”consequence is contrived by the adult and not related tothe misbehaviour, then the aims of the adult maybecome suspect so that power and control are the issuerather than the correction of the problem.
Successful BehaviourDreikurs (1971) states that a child must come tounderstand why he behaves as he does, how thisbehaviour affects others, how it is “successful” behaviourfrom the child’s point of view and how appropriatebehaviour can gain him more acceptance..The selection of a logical consequence also depends agreat deal upon the goal of the child as well as hismethod of obtaining it.
Discipline and Dignity (1988), Curwin and Mendler..suggest that consequences work best in the classroomwhen they are clear, specific and spelled out ahead oftime because predictability is important in helpingstudents choose behaviour.
Fair is not always equalChew suggests that having a range of alternative consequences gives the teacher discretion in matching consequences to situations. This may lead to the accusation of being unfair in applying different consequences for the same misbehaviour which Chew addresses with the “Fair is not always equal” This principle does acknowledge that different people have different needs so that fair not equal treatment can be appropriate.
Encouraging Children to Learn Dinkmeyer & Driekurs (1976)A focus on purpose rather than cause.All behaviour is purposive. Behaviour has a social meaning. Individuals are not merely at the mercy of drives or impulses… …nor does heredity or environment force a particular direction.Both are used as a stimulus for personal interpretation (biased apperception) with a regular pattern of response becoming a lifestyle.The individual’s aim is significance and belonging.
Four Mistaken Goals for Behaviour1) Attention2) Power3) Revenge4) Inadequacy
• Adler, A. (1930) The Education of the Child• New York Greenburg Publisher Inc•• Adler, A. Ed (1930) Guiding the Child: On the Principles of Individual Psychology• New York Greenburg Publisher Inc•• Adler, A. (1963) The Problem Child• New York: Capricorn Books•• Dinkmeyer, D. & Dreikurs, R. (2000) Encouraging Children to Learn• New York: Brunner Routledge•• Dreikurs, R., Casell, P. & Dreikurs-Ferguson, E. (2004) Discipline Without Tears : How To Reduce Conflict And Establish Co- Operation In The Classroom• New York: Wiley•• Dreikurs, R., Grunwald, B.B., & Pepper, F.C. (1998) Maintaining Sanity in the Classroom: Classroom Management Techniques 2nd Edition• Florence KY: Accelerated Development: Taylor and Francis•• Logan. P. & Richardson,(2006) Report of the Working Group on Student Behaviour• London National Education Research Forum (NERF)•• Rogers. B. (2000) Cracking The Hard Class: Strategies for Managing the Harder than Average Class• London Paul Chapman Publishing: Sage•• Rogers. B. (2000) Cracking The Hard Class: Strategies for Managing the Harder than Average Class• London Paul Chapman Publishing: Sage•• Rogers. B. (2000) Classroom Behaviour• London Paul Chapman Publishing: Sage•• Spencer. H (1861) Education• Paris