Addressing Behaviour that ChallengesMorning workshop9.30 – 12.00 12th September 2012Aims: 1) To increase awareness of the theory, policy and practice regarding difficult behaviour in the school and classroom 2) To understand the context for difficult behaviour and begin to develop positive approaches that ensure children are safe and they can develop social, emotional and educational knowledge that will help them and others. 3) To gain confidence in working as part of a whole school teamThe Elton Report (1989) Discipline in SchoolsLondon: Her Majestys Stationery Office 1989http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/elton/elton00a.htmlFrom the summaryPress comments have tended to concentrate on attacks by pupils on teachers. Our evidence indicates thatattacks are rare in schools in England and Wales. We also find that teachers do not see attacks as their majorproblem. Few teachers in our survey reported physical aggression towards themselves. Most of these did notrate it as the most difficult behaviour with which they had to deal. Teachers in our survey were most concernedabout the cumulative effects of disruption to their lessons caused by relatively trivial but persistentmisbehaviour.Pupils:23 We draw attention to evidence indicating that pupils tend to behave more responsibly if they are givenresponsibilities. We recommend that schools should create opportunities for pupils of all ages to take onappropriate responsibilities, and that they should recognise pupils non-academic achievements. We welcomethe governments support for the development of records of achievement, work experience and compactswith employers as means of promoting a sense of responsibility among pupils.More recently:According to Ofsted inspection data, the majority of schools have Good or Outstanding levels ofbehaviour. As at December 2011, 92.3% of all schools in England were judged Good or Outstandingfor standards of behaviour. A further 7.5% were judged Satisfactory and less than one per cent (0.3%) were judged Inadequate(Ofsted, 2012).• There is some variation by school type, where 93.9% of primary schools, 84.4% of secondaryschools, 92.9% of special schools and 83.2% of Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) were judged by Ofsted tohave Good or Outstanding standards of behaviour.• There is mixed evidence on the extent of poor behaviour reported by teachers. Surveys of teachersshow that pupils are mainly regarded as behaving well, with around 70% reporting good behaviour(NFER, 2012, forthcoming; NFER, 2008; Wilson et al, 2007; COI, 2005). However, another earliersurvey showed 69% of members of the National Union of Teachers (NUT) reported experiencingdisruptive behaviour weekly or more frequently (Neill, 2001)DfE (2012) Pupil behaviour in schools in Englandhttps://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/publicationDetail/Page1/DFE-RR218
Some Recommendation from EltonR1 Teachers and their trainers should recognise and apply the principles of good classroommanagement. (T; TT; 3.28)R2 Initial teacher training establishments should give full weight to the personal qualitiesrequired for effective classroom management, particularly the potential ability to relate wellto children, when selecting applicants. (TT; 3.32)R3.1 Initial teacher training establishments should encourage students to undertake a periodof pupillage, or other work with children, before starting their courses. (TT; 3.34)R4.1 all courses should contain compulsory and clearly identifiable elements dealing inspecific and practical terms with group management skills; (TT; GT; 3.37)R4.2 these elements should aim to enhance students skills in relating to pupils by increasingtheir understanding of group behaviour and the techniques available to manage it; (TT; GT;3.37)R20 In making all major management decisions, headteachers should consider their likelyeffects upon the commitment and morale of teachers and pupils. (HT; 4.37)R21 Headteachers and teachers should, in consultation with governors, develop whole schoolbehaviour policies which are clearly understood by pupils, parents and other school staff. (T;HT; GS; 4.51)R22 Schools should ensure that their rules are derived from the principles underlying theirbehaviour policies and are consistent with them. (T; HT; GS; 4.55)R23 Schools should strike a healthy balance between rewards and punishments. Both shouldbe clearly specified. (T; HT; GS; 4.56)R24 Pupils should learn from experience to expect fair and consistently applied punishmentsfor bad behaviour which make the distinction between serious and minor offences apparent.(T; HT; 4.57)R25 Headteachers and teachers should ensure that rules are applied consistently by allmembers of staff, but that there is flexibility in the use of punishments to take account ofindividual circumstances. (T; HT; 4.58)R26 Headteachers and teachers should avoid the punishment of whole groups. (T; HT; 4.59)R27 Headteachers and teachers should avoid punishments which humiliate pupils. (T; HT;4.60)R28 Headteachers and staff should:R28.1 be alert to signs of bullying and racial harassment; (T; HT; S; 4.66)
R28.2 deal firmly with all such behaviour; (T; HT; S; 4.66)R28.3 take action based on clear rules which are backed by appropriate sanctions andsystems to protect and support victims. (T; HT; S; 4.66)R32 Schools should not use rigid streaming arrangements to group their pupils by ability.They should take full account of the implications for pupil behaviour when reviewing theirarrangements for grouping pupils. (T; HT; 4.84)R33 Schools should:R33.1 distribute their teaching and other resources equitably across the ability range; (T; HT;4.85)R33.2 provide a range of rewards accessible to pupils of all abilities. (T; HT; 4.85)R34 Schools should make full use of off-site learning as a means of motivating their pupils.(T; HT; 4.87)R91 Teachers should recognise the potential for injustice and the practical dangers ofstereotyping certain kinds of pupils as troublemakers. (T; HT; 6.64)R92 Teachers should guard against misinterpreting non-verbal signals and speech patterns ofpupils from different cultural backgrounds. (T; HT; 6.65)R93 Teachers should avoid modelling any kind of insulting or discriminating behaviour. (T;HT; 6.66)There is evidence to suggest that individuals who display problematic behaviour inchildhood or adolescence, for example through having a conduct disorder, are morelikely to have few, or no, educational qualifications in later life (Richards et al, 2009;Colman et al, 2009).DfE (2012) Pupil behaviour in schools in EnglandDFEThe results of the 2012 NFER survey showed that a range of strategies were used byrespondents to manage pupil behaviour. Those used most often included praisingdesired behaviour; having a system to follow through with sanctions; and using a rewardsystem (NFER, 2012,).•
Key strategies identified in the literature for effective classroommanagementDfE (2012) Pupil behaviour in schools in EnglandDFEDiscuss with peers: What examples have you seen or used – how effective were thereand how consistently were they applied?include: providing structure through teacher directed activity and classroom designestablishing clear rules and expectations (whether for individuals or the whole class); reinforcing positive behaviour and providing consequences for negative behaviour (e.g.removing rewards or tokens; withholding attention if pupils are exhibiting undesiredbehaviours;removing pupils from environments that reinforce negative behaviours);providing specific feedback and establishing high-quality teacher relationships.Using a combination of strategies is also a theme of the literature (Simonsen et al, 2008; Stage and Quiroz, 1997; Swinson and Knight, 2007; Marzanoand Marzano, 2003; Painta and Stuhlman, 2004; Thomas et al, 2011).
Schools Facing Challenging Circumstances (SFCC)Some schools operate in circumstances that, for one reason or another, can presentchallenges not faced by all schools. Among the schools facing challenging circumstancesare those:• serving areas of severe socio-economic disadvantage• with a high proportion of pupils with special educational needs (SEN)• whose pupils have low prior attainment, poor motivation and low self-esteem• with a high proportion of transient pupils, and• where many of the pupils speak languages other than English.As far back at 1996 the National Commission of Education noted that the successfulschools facing challenging circumstances share the following characteristics:a leadership stance that embodies (in its leadership team) and builds a team approach; a vision of success couched in academic terms that includes a view of how to improve; the careful use of targets; the improvement of the physical environment; possessing common expectations about behaviour and success; an investment in good relations with parents and the community.Conversely,: the characteristics of less successful or ineffective schools have been shown ina review by (Potter et al, 2002) to be:At whole-school, including leadership, level: · a lack of the competences needed to improve; · an unwillingness to accept evidence of failure; · the blaming of others—pupils, parents, LEA …; · a fear of change and of outsiders who embody it; · being controlled by change rather than in control of it; · the presence of dysfunctional relationships, with cliques; · possession of goals that are not plausible or relevant; · a lack of academic focus, with principals who take no interest in curriculum and attainment; · being passive about recruitment and training; · the absence of longitudinal databases on pupils’ progress; · valid improvement strategies being adopted but not carried through; · the governing body may be passive, lack knowledge and have factions (may be political or ethnic).· At classroom level:· the timetable being an inaccurate guide to academic time usage;
· the presence of inconsistency, including some high-quality teaching;· the possession of low expectations;· an emphasis on supervision and routines;· low levels of teacher–pupil interaction about work;· the pupils perceiving their teachers as not caring, praising, etc.;· the presence of high noise levels and lots of non-work-related movement;· the use of negative feedback from teachers.In these ‘ineffective’ schools, problems may be mutually reinforcing: since the agencies ofeffective change are synergistic (Hopkins & Harris 1997). This resource places an emphasison the soft skills that can avoid, overcome or ameliorate these difficulties.Reference:Potter, D., Reynolds, D, & Chapman, C.(2002) School Improvement for Schools FacingChallengingCircumstances: a review of research and practice School Leadership &Management,Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 243–256, 2002The range of ‘soft-skills’ likely to utilised by teachers seeking to engagepreviously reluctant learners is extensive. Amongst them are:Collaborative approaches People SkillsInterpersonal Skills Personality DevelopmentRapport Building and Networking Personal Grooming/dressRespecting Others Attitude and Skill BuildingEmotional well-being/Resilience DelegationInnovation and Creativity Managing transition and changeLeadership FairnessManagement Skills Problem Solving and Decision MakingKnowledge of ‘self’ Train the TrainerMotivation Interviewing SkillsStress Management Intuition and insightCommunication Skills Presentation SkillsClarity of Expression HumourTeam Building MeditationAssertive Skills Coping SkillsTime Management Anger ManagementSelf Management Goal SettingConflict Resolution Memory EnhancementNegotiating Skills
Where there is inconsistency in schools, children are more likely to push the boundaries. If a pupil thinks there is a chance that the school will forget about the detention he has been given, then he is unlikely to bother to turn up. If he gets away with it, the threat of detention will be no deterrent in the future. Often it is doing the simple things that can make a difference with behaviour. For example, the teacher who takes the time to meet and greet pupils at the door will find they come in happier and ready to learn. I recently read the ‘Checklist Manifesto’ by Atul Gawande, a surgeon who was concerned that so many patients seemed to suffer serious complications in the days after their operation. He realised that many of these problems were caused by operating staff failing to follow basic procedures. For example, a surgeon failing to wash his hands could cause an infection, or failing to account for all the swabs used in the process could lead to onebeing left in the patient’s body. Gawande developed a checklist to be read out before each operationto ensure that all of the simple, but essential procedures were followed. The outcome was a markeddecrease in the number of patients becoming seriously ill or dying after surgery. I took the idea of achecklist and adapted it to help schools to improve behaviour. My list is a menu of ideas from whichschools can develop their own checklist.Charlie Taylor (2011) “getting the simple things right”DFEYou tube resources and case studieshttp://www.education.gov.uk/schools/pupilsupport/behaviour/a00199342/getting-the-simple-things-right-charlie-taylors-behaviour-checklists
Behaviour checklist for teachersClassroomKnow the names and roles of any adults in class.Meet and greet pupils when they come into the classroom.Display rules in the class - and ensure that the pupils and staff know what they are.Display the tariff of sanctions in class.Have a system in place to follow through with all sanctions.Display the tariff of rewards in class.Have a system in place to follow through with all rewards.Have a visual timetable on the wall.Follow the school behaviour policy.PupilsKnow the names of children.Have a plan for children who are likely to misbehave.Ensure other adults in the class know the plan.Understand pupils’ special needs.TeachingEnsure that all resources are prepared in advance.Praise the behaviour you want to see more of.Praise children doing the right thing more than criticising those who are doing the wrongthing (parallel praise).Differentiate.Stay calm.Have clear routines for transitions and for stopping the class.Teach children the class routines.ParentsGive feedback to parents about their child’s behaviour - let them know about the good daysas well as the bad ones.
Whitehall Infant School Eg Behaviour Checklist for TeachersCarpet places and lining up order.Pupil profiles and sensitive information sheets inside cupboarddoor. Staff aware.Golden rules displayed, using children’s pictures.Behaviour steps displayed and referred to. Behaviour slipscompleted for step 2+.Parallel praise – praise good behaviour rather than highlightingnegative behaviour.Visual timetable.Reward system in place which children and staff useconsistently.Planning displayed, resources prepared, LSAs planned for.‘Attention Grabber’ used consistently for children’s behaviourSmooth transitions – group by group between tables, carpet,lining up.
ReferencesDCSF (2009) Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL). London: DCSFSome Relevant VideosBehaviour2LearnTrainees talk about their experiences and strategieshttp://www.behaviour2learn.co.uk/info/50/videos/19/behaviour_and_attendance_at_lynncroft_primary_schoolTeachers TV on sanctionshttp://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Sanctions-6084779/Showing Them Whos Bosshttp://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Showing-Them-Who-s-Boss-6083051/Body Language for Engaging and Motivatinghttp://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Body-Language-for-Engaging-and-Motivating-6064011/Rewardshttp://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Rewards-6084780/Friendly but firmhttp://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/Friendly-But-Firm-6083047/Need for structure (secondary)http://www.tes.co.uk/teaching-resource/The-Need-for-Structure-6082819 /The working atmosphere in the classroom: a ten-level scalehttp://www.behaviour2learn.co.uk/info/50/videos/4/a_range_of_videos_on_behaviour/4How To Maintain Classroom Discipline (1947)http://www.behaviour2learn.co.uk/info/50/videos/4/a_range_of_videos_on_behaviour/3