Corporate Communication, Coordination and Cooperation

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Lectures by Prof. Dr. Susanne Robra-Bissantz at Summer School, TU Braunschweig, Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Abteilung Informationsmanagement (wi2). July 2009.

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Corporate Communication, Coordination and Cooperation

  1. 1. CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS SUSANNE ROBRA-BISSANTZ, GERALD FRICKE AND OTHERS... Susanne Robra-Bissantz 1
  2. 2. What is Corporate Communications? Susanne Robra-Bissantz 2
  3. 3. CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS Newsletters eCommerce Web Banners internal Communications external Communications employee newsletter Bills Marketing Communications blogs advertising campaign forums Advertising Public Relations press release Susanne Robra-Bissantz 3
  4. 4. “Corporate communication has an impact on corporate success!“ “The impact of the sum of communication activities is often less then the sum of the impacts of single communication activities!“ “Active design of corporate communication helps to fulfill corporate goals.“ “Corporate communication is a management task.“ ”Active design of corporate communication includes the design of messages as well as the concept of media appliance!“ Susanne Robra-Bissantz 4
  5. 5. 1 Corporate Communications: Overview 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 3 Corporate Communications 2.0 4 Brand Management 2.0 5 Internal Communication 2.0 6 Social Media Marketing and CSR 2.0 7 Internet Marketing Susanne Robra-Bissantz 5
  6. 6. 1 Corporate Communications: Overview 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 3 Corporate Communications 2.0 4 Brand Management 2.0 5 Internal Communication 2.0 6 Social Media Marketing and CSR 2.0 7 Internet Marketing Susanne Robra-Bissantz 6
  7. 7. 1 Public Relations 2 „Marketing Communication“ 4 external Communication 3 internal Communikation „Integrated View“: consistent and authentic picture of the company, common communication concept Susanne Robra-Bissantz 7
  8. 8. COMMUNICATION CONCEPT Main Goal Goals for Target groups Goals for Communication Forms Goals Communication Strategy Strategies for Communication Forms Strategies for Communication Instruments Strategies Internal (Company, Employee) External (Competitiors, Customers…) Macro (Society, Law …) Susanne Robra-Bissantz 8
  9. 9. COMMUNICATION SITUATION Macro situations Macro situations = company‘s situation Politics Technology Company‘s internal External situations situation External situations company employee Type of Working Suppliers Customers tasks situation Internal situations Internal situations company employee Competitors Communication Company‘s partners Company‘s Society Legal practice external macro situation situation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 9
  10. 10. GOALS OF CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS Susanne Robra-Bissantz 10
  11. 11. GOALS OF CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS High Relevance for Target Group Potentially important Characteristic Important Characteristic Quality Innovation Social Responsibility Innovation Social Responsibility Weaknesses Strengths Personal Care Flexibility Not important Characteristic Potentially important Characteristic Objective Position Low Relevance for Target Group Subjective Position Objective Position of competitors Wished Position Subjective Position of competitors Susanne Robra-Bissantz 11
  12. 12. CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS: STRATEGIES Personality Strategy Partnerstrategy Competitive Strategy Strategies for communication forms external Marketing- internal Public Relations Communications communications communications Communication Advertising Corporate Blog Newsletter type Strategies for communication instruments Susanne Robra-Bissantz 12
  13. 13. PERSONALITY STRATEGY Is characteristic important for the customer? Is characteristic a strength? Potential of Characteristic Is objective position different from wished for position? subordinate CSP Innovation CSP Quality Common Starting Flexibility Points Social Responsibility of Communication Personal Care No CSP ? Is communication important because subjective position is Relevance of Communication different from objective? Is communication able to transport the characteristic? Robra-Bissantz Susanne 13
  14. 14. DECISIONS IN COMPETITIVE STRATEGY Differentiation or Cost Leadership?   Is communication a competitive advantage of the company?   Is media usage a competitive advantage of the company?   Can communication support competitive advantages of the company? Susanne Robra-Bissantz 14
  15. 15. DECISIONS IN COMMUNICATION PARTNER STRATEGY Differentiated Marketstrategy?   Can communication support the differentiated treatment of customer groups?   How can communication lead to different images for different shareholders, like customers, press, employees, science etc.?   Selection of important communication partners?   Decision about CSPs for different communication partners Susanne Robra-Bissantz 15
  16. 16. FINAL TEST OF FIT Communication forms FIT? Communication partner Marketing PR ext. comm. CSP: CSP: CSP: ? 1. 1. ... 1. ... Customer: 2. 2. 2. wished CSP Science: wished CSP ... ... Susanne Robra-Bissantz 16
  17. 17. 1 Corporate Communications: Overview 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 3 Corporate Communications 2.0 4 Brand Management 2.0 5 Internal Communication 2.0 6 Social Media Marketing and CSR 2.0 7 Internet Marketing Susanne Robra-Bissantz 17
  18. 18. ELECTRONIC BUSINESS ACTIVITY Information Transaction Collaboration E-Business Partners Susanne Robra-Bissantz 18
  19. 19. CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS AND E-BUSINESS STRATEGY Business Technologies E-Business Strategy Susanne Robra-Bissantz 19
  20. 20. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 20
  21. 21. COMMUNICATION, COORDINATION AND COOPERATION Communication means exchanging information between partners – often supported by electronic media. Coordination refers to the “fine tuning” of single activities between two partners. This is necessary if there are interdependencies between several systems. (e.g. personnel, departments, companies). Cooperation is the co-action of several systems having a common goal. I I Communication Activities to “fine tune“ + + Activities to “fine tune” Interdependencies Effort + Coordination + Effort Cooperation Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 21
  22. 22. COMMUNICATION, COORDINATION, AND COOPERATION SYSTEMS Exchange of Exchange Exchange of Fine Tuning Fine Tuning services of information services Communication System, e.g. fax etc. Coordination System, e.g. Workflow-Management-System Cooperation System, e.g. Group-Decision-Support-System, Interorganisation System Susanne Robra-Bissantz 22
  23. 23. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 2.1 Communication Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 23
  24. 24. DEFINITION OF TERMS: COMMUNICATION Communication describes the transmission of information from a sender to a recipient. Susanne Robra-Bissantz 24
  25. 25. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 2.1 Communication Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 25
  26. 26. COMMUNICATION SITUATION E •  Number of partners E S E 1:1 1:N E E •  Function of partners Employee B2E Administration “business to employee“ Intranet B2A “business to administration“ B2B B2C “business to business“ “business to consumer“ Business partner Company Consumer Extranet Internet Susanne Robra-Bissantz 26
  27. 27. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 2.1 Communication Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 27
  28. 28. COMMUNICATION Susanne Robra-Bissantz 28
  29. 29. LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION I will drop by your place tomorrow at 2! Information Comprehension Pragmatics (intention, effect) promise? threat? Comprehension Semantics Messages 2? drop by? Transmission / comprehension Syntax Signs dialect? accent? Susanne Robra-Bissantz 29
  30. 30. LEVELS OF COMMUNICATION Information understanding Pragmatics Invitation (intention, effect) promise? threat? comprehension Semantics Messages Directions 2? drop by? transmission / comprehension Syntax Signs Line dialect, accent? Susanne Robra-Bissantz 30
  31. 31. COMMUNICATION MODEL - SHANNON-WEAVER Information Information Information delivery transmission reception Sender Receiver Mes- Mes- Encoding Signal Channel Signal Decoding sage sage Susanne Robra-Bissantz 31
  32. 32. EXTENDED COMMUNICATION MODEL Sender Receiver Information Information Information Information Information Information delivery delivery transmission transmission reception reception Informa- Informa- tion tion Mes- Mes- Encoding Encoding Signal Channel Signal Decoding sage Decoding sage Susanne Robra-Bissantz 32
  33. 33. CONTENTS OF A MESSAGE •  Kind of relationship •  Self portrayal •  Information •  Explanation •  Criticism •  Motivation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 33
  34. 34. ANATOMY OF A MESSAGE - SCHULZ VON THUN Mr. Smith, you don´t work too much! Mr. Smith works 6 instead of 8 hours a day. Factual content Relationship Self portrayal Mr. Smith and his boss Mr. Smiths boss is are not on good terms dissatisfied with his work. Appeal Reproach: Mr. Smith you have to show more dedication! Susanne Robra-Bissantz 34
  35. 35. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 2.1 Communication Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 35
  36. 36. MECHANISM OF COMMUNICATION   Transmission or on demand communication,   Synchronous or asynchronous communication,   Standardized or individual contents,   Natural or planned control of communication,   … Susanne Robra-Bissantz 36
  37. 37. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation 2.1 Communication Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 37
  38. 38. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Media Person Person Computer Person Person WWW Person EDI Computer Computer Computer Susanne Robra-Bissantz 38
  39. 39. MEDIA CHOICE FROM A BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE EDI Extranet E-Mail Resources for system implementation high low Frequency of communication high low Proportion of unstructured communication low high Security of communication high low Constancy of relationship high low Data volume high low Standardization of data high low Importance of flexible access low high Susanne Robra-Bissantz 39
  40. 40. MULTICHANNEL MANAGEMENT - MEDIA CHARACTERISTICS Characteristic Perception Information flow Presentation Address Medium optical acoust ical direc- interactiv e dynamic static individual mass tional Mailings x x x x x Telephone x x x x x x Printmedia x x x x Radio x x x x TV x x x x x Internet x x x x x x x x Susanne Robra-Bissantz 40
  41. 41. TASK ORIENTED COMMUNICATION MODEL Task oriented Speed Accuracy demands Complexity Confidentiality Comfort documented low high Degree of task structuring Telephone very suitable Face-to-face Face-to-face Letter, Fax Fax, Voice Mail Suitability suitable Video Telephone, Data E-Mail telephone Visual phone communication not suitable Textual Fax Speech Letter communication E-Mail communication Susanne Robra-Bissantz 41
  42. 42. MULTICHANNEL BUSINESS: TRANSACTION PROCESS Susanne Robra-Bissantz 42
  43. 43. MULTICHANNEL BUSINESS Products Produkte Standardised securities business Parts of credit business Property management Standardised Businesses with high Monetary transactions savings and investment - - demand of consulting (e. g. business loans to purchase property) Communication needs Anforderungen an den Kommunikationsprozess important Speed/comfort not important low Complexity high high Degree of task structuring low Distribution channels Vertriebskonzept Customer Self Service Semi personal Personal human-computer- concepts communication via branch interaction (passive and active) or sales force Susanne Robra-Bissantz 43
  44. 44. DEMAND ORIENTED MODEL OF MEDIA CHOICE Communication Theory A Message consists of its factual content, its intention and relational aspects Theoretical Explanatory e. g. Model Marketing Theory Media usage is a two-stage process of demand for communication services Decision Theory Media usage is a decision with goals, alternatives and situations Theory of critical mass systems The use of telecommunication systems faces barriers of usage Susanne Robra-Bissantz 44
  45. 45. EXPLANATORY MODEL OF MEDIA CHOICE OBJECT SUBJECT Cause of Communication Communication Media communication need situation application Media Relevant media Selected medium Suitability Decision Susanne Robra-Bissantz 45
  46. 46. MEDIA CHOICE IN STRUCTURED / UNSTRUCTURED COMMUNICATION Structured communication Fixed message •  Regularly •  Decisions made by management •  always to the same message Cause for message Information to be communicated Cause of communication Problem Business •  Decisions made by employee operations Variable message •  different messages depending on individual employee Unstructured communication Susanne Robra-Bissantz 46
  47. 47. EMPIRICAL RESULTS: SUITABILITY OF MEDIA Letter Variety Contact Transaction communication communication 5 Negotiation communication E-mail 4 Fax Dialogue communication 3 Security 5 EDI/ Data communication 2 4 3 Telephone 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 Speed Susanne Robra-Bissantz 47
  48. 48. EMPIRICAL RESULTS: MEDIA USAGE 100% 80% MM EDI 60% Data c. E-Mail 40% Letter Fax 20% Phone 0% Contact Dialogue Negotiation Transaction Bureaucratic Susanne Robra-Bissantz 48
  49. 49. MEDIA RICHNESS Media Richness Medium Face-to-face-dialogue Over complication Video communication Telephone Voice mail Computer conference Telefax Electronic mail Oversimplification Letter / Document Complexity / equivocality of communication task Susanne Robra-Bissantz 49
  50. 50. CONTENTS OF A MESSAGE •  Kind of relationship •  Self portrayal •  Information •  Explanation •  Criticism •  Motivation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 50
  51. 51. SUITABILITY OF MEDIA IN TERMS OF INTENTION Transmit Contents Have Intentions Act Inform Explain Motivate Conclude Reach understanding Visual Telephone phone Multimedia E-Mail document Fax Letter Impress emotionally Susanne Robra-Bissantz 51
  52. 52. SUMMARY: COMMUNICATION Situations: Different ways to communicate: - Depending on the number of partners (1:1; 1:N; N:N) - Depending on the function of the partners (B2B; B2C; …) - Depending on structured and unstructured information Tasks: - Transmission of information (signals, signs and syntax) - Delivery of information (messages, semantics and pragmatics) - Reception of information (Understanding: Transmission/ comprehension; dialect? accent?) -> Communication models Mechanisms: - Transmission or on demand communication - Synchronous or asynchronous communication - Standardized or individual contents - Natural or planned control of communication, Systems: Face-to-face-dialogue, video communication, telephone, voice mail, computer conference, telefax, e-mail, letter/document -> Media Richness: Use different systems for effective communication Susanne Robra-Bissantz 52
  53. 53. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 53
  54. 54. DEFINITION OF TERMS: COORDINATION Coordination describes the “fine tuning” of single activities and is needed if interdependencies exist between activities of several systems (e.g. people, departments, companies). Susanne Robra-Bissantz 54
  55. 55. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 55
  56. 56. COORDINATION SITUATION - GOALS Common goals Example: Members of a corporate network execute sales orders. COOPERATION Different goals Example: Supplier sells goods also to other companies. Susanne Robra-Bissantz 56
  57. 57. PROCESS DEPENDENCIES e r1 Direct C on sum dependency Indirect Supplier dependency on supplier Direct dependency Cons ume r2 Susanne Robra-Bissantz 57
  58. 58. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 58
  59. 59. WHAT DOES COORDINATION CONTAIN? Coordination tasks Examples Management of B2C relationships Flow control und assessment •  Management of chronological Notification, process control, tracking / tracing dependence •  Transfer management Temporary stock keeping, Just-in-Time concept •  Management of usability Standardisation, interface definition Management of shared resources Allocation Task assignment as special case for the (Computer-based) group decision or discussion employee or organisation seen as resource Management of simultaneous events (Computer-based) time management Management of task decompositions and Modularity techniques, group decision task combinations. Susanne Robra-Bissantz 59
  60. 60. COORDINATION PLAN Selection and specification of a suitable coordination mechanism Strategic Mechanism used in particular business cases Operational Susanne Robra-Bissantz 60
  61. 61. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 61
  62. 62. COORDINATION MECHANISM Coordination Direct Indirect Heterarchy Hierarchy Reliance Principles, values, and standards Susanne Robra-Bissantz 62
  63. 63. GENERAL COORDINATION MECHANISMS Commercial Coordination Market mechanism Hierarchical mechanism Coordination tool: Coordination tool: price adjustment Indirect Basic principle: Coordination Basic principle: competition power Reliance Principles and values Susanne Robra-Bissantz 63
  64. 64. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems 2.3 Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 64
  65. 65. ELECTRONIC HIERARCHIES Communication via EDI Order Steering Order Delivery company Delivery A D Order Delivery Order B C Susanne Robra-Bissantz 65
  66. 66. CENTRAL AND LOCAL SUPPORT OF MARKET MECHANISMS Supplier Supplier EM- EM- EM- Mechanism Mechanism Mechanism Communication network Internet EM-Mechanism EM- EM- EM- Mechanism Mechanism Mechanism Intermediary and customer Intermediary and customer Susanne Robra-Bissantz 66
  67. 67. EXAMPLE COORDINATION TOOL: DOODLE.COM www.doodle.com Susanne Robra-Bissantz 67
  68. 68. SUMMARY: COORDINATION Situations: - Common goals vs. different goals (highest price – lowest price) - Process dependency: direct or indirect Tasks: - Management of B2C/B2B/… relationships - Management of shared resources - Task assignment as special case for the employee or organization seen as resource - Management of simultaneous events - Management of task decompositions and task combinations Mechanisms: - Direct Coordination (Heterarchy and hierarchy) - Indirect Coordination (Reliance, Principles/Values/Standards) Systems: - Electronic hierarchies - Central and local Support of Market Mechanisms Susanne Robra-Bissantz 68
  69. 69. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems Susanne Robra-Bissantz 69
  70. 70. DEFINITION OF TERMS: COOPERATION Cooperation describes •  mutual support in tasks •  work-sharing accomplishment of tasks with common goals. Susanne Robra-Bissantz 70
  71. 71. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems Susanne Robra-Bissantz 71
  72. 72. COOPERATION SITUATION Shared Goals Example: Members of a corporate network process a sales order COOPERATION Mutual Collaboration Support Susanne Robra-Bissantz 72
  73. 73. COOPERATION AND PARTNERS Number of partners: Vertical cooperation Customers two – more Competitors Company Complementors Direction of cooperation Horizontal cooperation horizontal Number of stages in the Suppliers value creation process: vertical diagonal two – more Susanne Robra-Bissantz 73
  74. 74. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems Susanne Robra-Bissantz 74
  75. 75. COOPERATION PLAN General agreements, controlling Strategic Projects, Orders, etc. Operational Susanne Robra-Bissantz 75
  76. 76. TASKS IN COOPERATION   Strategic and operational cooperation (see coordination)   Organization of general agreements and controlling   Common goals   Mutual support   Common achievements   Operational cooperation for single orders or in projects   Examples for combined manufacturing processes:   Order taking   Order allocation   Order monitoring Susanne Robra-Bissantz 76
  77. 77. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems Susanne Robra-Bissantz 77
  78. 78. COOPERATION MECHANISM Coordination mechanism Hierarchical mechanism & Market mechanism Instruction Common Price Plans/ Regulations goals Move to the hierarchy Move to the market Move to the middle New cooperation mechanisms - in order to build a closer linkage with market mechanisms (e.g. trust, bilateral investment) Susanne Robra-Bissantz 78
  79. 79. GENERAL COORDINATION MECHANISMS Coordination in business Market mechanism Hybrid mechanism Hierarchical mechanism Instruments: Price Instruments: Market and Instruments: Instructions hierarchical mechanisms, trust, same standards Basic principle: Basic principle: Voluntary Basic principle: Competition cooperation in order to Power achieve a common goal – interdependency Susanne Robra-Bissantz 79
  80. 80. PROCESS OF ADAPTATION + + Communication process Interdependency Adaptation process Coordination process + + •  Creation of „connectivity“ •  General agreements and standards Susanne Robra-Bissantz 80
  81. 81. COMPARISON Market Cooperation Hierarchy Coordination Price Hybrid mechanism, relation, Authority, routine mechanism standards Time frame Short-run, one-off Medium term Long-run normative basis Contracts, property Complementary strengths Relationships to rights employees Conflict Negotiation Coordination of interests Control management Threat Opportunism Trade-off Inefficiency Relationship Precision, Mutual advantage Formal, bureaucratic suspiciousness Autonomy of Independence Dependence Dependence decision Level of Non-formalized Partially formalized Formalized formalization negotiation Level of integration Unrelated relations Investment based on High level of relationship, mutual integration adaptation Flexibility High Medium Low Susanne Robra-Bissantz 81
  82. 82. 2 Theory: Communication, Coordination and Cooperation 2.1 Communication 2.2 Coordination 2.3 Cooperation Situations Tasks Mechanisms Systems Susanne Robra-Bissantz 82
  83. 83. SYSTEMS FOR COOPERATION Systems for Systems for Communications Coordination Systems for Cooperation Susanne Robra-Bissantz 83
  84. 84. COOPERATION PLATFORMS www.inhaus-zentrum.de Susanne Robra-Bissantz 84
  85. 85. SUMMARY: COOPERATION Situations: - Coordination with shared goals (mutual support or collaboration) - Direction of cooperation (horizontal, vertical, diagonal) Tasks: - Strategic and operational cooperation - Organization of general agreements and controlling (common goals, mutual support, common achievements) - Operational cooperation for single orders or in projects - Combined manufacturing process Mechanisms: - Communication Mechanisms - Coordination Mechanisms Systems: - Systems for communication - Systems for coordination Susanne Robra-Bissantz 85
  86. 86. TEST YOURSELF •  Describe the levels of e-business: communication, coordination and cooperation and tie them together •  How can you describe structured and unstructured information and how to deal with? •  How to use media in multichannel business? •  Describe the levels of communication in terms of pragmatics, semantics and syntax. •  Describe the communication model of Shannon-Weaver and the task oriented communication model and describe the differences. •  Specify the different communication systems. How can they be used effectively? •  Give an example of a coordination situation with different goals. •  Give some examples of coordination tasks. •  Doodle.com is a typical coordination tool. How can it support cooperation? •  Define the term cooperation •  A company cooperates with different partners of the value chain. Name and describe the different kinds of cooperation. Give examples. •  Describe in your own words the process of adaptation. What does „creation of connectivity“ and „general agreements and standards“ mean in this context. Susanne Robra-Bissantz 86
  87. 87. CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS SUSANNE ROBRA-BISSANTZ, GERALD FRICKE AND OTHERS... Susanne Robra-Bissantz 87

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