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Prevention of water Borne Diseases- Basavaraj Patil


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Prevention of water Borne Diseases- Basavaraj Patil

  1. 1. Even if by the year 2015 the proportion of people who are unable toreach or to afford safe drinking water is halved, between 34 and 76million people, mostly children, will die from preventable water-bornediseasesTHE FUTURE
  2. 2. GLOBALGovernmentsCommunitiesIndividuals
  3. 3. • Standardized surveillance of water-bornedisease outbreaks• Guidelines must be established forinvestigating and reporting water-bornediseasesGLOBALSURVEILLANCE
  5. 5. • Misuse and lack of maintenance are the two main reasons whydrainage structures are often associated with environmental healthproblems.• Due to lack of adequate domestic water supplies and sanitationfacilities, drainage canals or drainage water treatment and disposalfacilities are often misused for washing, drinking and uncontrolleddisposal of human excreta or other waste by the poorest and, thus,most vulnerable social groups.• In this way, drainage water contributes todisease transmission.DRAINAGE WATERMANAGEMENT
  6. 6. • Proper use and maintenance of water supply andsanitation systems.• Discourage the use of sanitation facilities that are notproperly maintained to prevent entry of pathogens backinto the environment through leakage.• Proper maintenance of pumps and wells.• Pipes and taps should always be kept clean.• Regular check for the water pipes for leaks and cracks.MONITORING THEWATER SUPPLY
  7. 7. CHLORINATION ATWATER SOURCESLiquid ChlorineSolid Chlorine Gas Chlorine
  8. 8. Potable WaterTanker SpecificationsLicense of theTankersMonitoring of theTanker WaterSET A POLICY FOR THE USE OFTANKER WATER
  9. 9. • Define Health Parameter :Total Coliform, Fecal ColiformTurbidity, pH, Residual Chlorine,• Prepare a testing lab• Design Municipal Monitoring Programs for monitoringWater source,Main ReservoirNetworkMonitor the hot spots in the networkWATER QUALITYMONITORING
  11. 11. The Ministry of Health should work closely with the Ministry ofEducation• To develop a health education (health communication)component targeted at school children,• Devise and communicate appropriate health messages.• Health education models can be jointly developed, tested,implemented and evaluated for various age groups.• Research programs in universities and colleges can be encouraged toinclude components that produce information of direct importance(e.g. vector biology and control, case management) or indirectimportance (e.g. improved water supply, educational interventions topromote community sanitation, waste characterization studies)…..ROLE OF MINISTRY OFEDUCATION
  12. 12. • The Ministry of Environment can help the Ministry of Healthcollect data and information on ecosystems and habitats in oraround cities at high risk of dengue, malaria and other mosquitoborne diseases• Data and information on local geology and climate, land usages,forest cover, surface waters, and human populations are useful inplanning control measures for specific ecosystems and habitats,determining the beneficial and adverse impacts ofvarious control tactics (chemical, environmental andbiological).ROLE OF MINISTRY OFENVIRONMENT
  15. 15. HEALTH EDUCATIONProviding education on good sanitation and personalhygiene,especially hand-washingHigher education and training in water related issuesImprovement in Habitation and Changing hygienebehaviorEducation regarding causes of water borne diseases andmode of spread of diseases
  16. 16. At home, the water should beBoiled,Filtered,OR other methods and necessarysteps taken to ensure that it is freefrom MicroorganismsHOUSEHOLD HYGIENE Cistern Cleaning and disinfection
  17. 17. • Improving the quality of drinking water at source, atthe tap, or in the storage vessel• Increasing the quantity of water available. This allowsbetter hygiene and can thus prevent disease transmissionfrom contaminated hands, food, or household utensils.ADEQUATE AND CLEANWATER SUPPLY• Ensuring uninterrupted provision of safedrinking water is the most important preventivemeasure to be implemented, in order to reduce therisk of outbreaks of water-borne diseases.
  18. 18. Interrupting the routes of transmission of the diseasesDisposing of organic and animal wastes properly to avoidflies Proper Disposal of Human Feces will reduce the numberof cases Infected individuals (and domestic animals) should betreated with medicine to reduce disease transmission.Waste Water Collection and TreatmentCONTROL OF SPREAD
  19. 19. Good food hygiene (food is a significant breeding groundfor pathogens).Washing food prior to cooking and Cooking food for longenough at a sufficiently high temperature are bothimportant to kill harmful bacteria.Protecting food from flies interrupts the feces-flies-foodroute (at a household level).SAFE FOODPREPARATION
  20. 20. • The use vaccines for water borne diseases for massimmunization is not recommended.• In case of an outbreak, consider immunization ofcontacts e.g. Hepatitis A outbreaks• The use of immunoglobulin is not recommended.• Vaccination of high-risk groups, such as personsinvolved in themanagement of drinking water, waste water or sewagemight be considered.• Vaccination against Hepatitis A and Other Water Diseasefor persons at risk, e.g. travellers visiting areas where thedisease is common.VACCINATION
  21. 21. Create Disaster-Preparedness Programs and Early WarningSystems.Improve water treatment and sanitation.Keep infectious disease control programs active and efficient.Promote tap-water quality regulation and monitoring.Improve surveillance on a local, national, international and globallevel.Enforce high standards of hygiene.LONG TERM MEASURES
  22. 22. • Notification of outbreaks is correctly done at the best bydoctors• Prevention and control measures to that particularlocality can be suggested by health workers as theyunderstand the scenario better than outsiders• Doctors should take up the research voluntarily for thebetter understanding of endemic diseases• Doctors should trained for management of water bornediseases at the community level.• Doctor should also voluntarily take steps to preventdiseases, not just treating affected individuals.ROLE OF PHYSICIAN AND OTHERHEALTH WORKER
  23. 23. Information directed at the community at large is bestachieved through the mass media, such as television, radioand newspapers.Therefore, the body responsible for information,communication and the mass media should be approachedto coordinate the release of messages on the prevention andcontrol of water borne diseases developed by public healthspecialists.ROLE OF MEDIA
  24. 24. • NGOs can play an important role in promotingcommunity participation and implementing environmentalmanagement for water borne diseases• This will most often involve health education, sourcereduction, and housing improvement related to vectorcontrol.• Community NGOs may be informal neighborhoodgroups or formal private voluntary organizations, serviceclubs, churches or other religious groups, orenvironmental and social action groups.ROLE OF N.G.O.S
  25. 25. • Avoid contacting soil that may be contaminated with humanfeces.• Do not defecate outdoors.• Dispose diapers properly• When traveling to countries where sanitation and hygiene arepoor, avoid water or food that may be contaminated.• Wash, peel or cook all raw vegetables and fruits before eating.PERSONAL HYGIENE• Hand washing — this is the most vital component of personalhygiene in disease prevention. .Hands should be washed with soapafter defecation and after cleaning and disposing of an infant’sfeces or after handling any contaminated material• Infected individuals (and domestic animals) should be treated withmedicine to reduce disease transmission.
  26. 26. • Guidelines for drinking water quality criteria and standards (10M)• Sanitary well (5M)• Water borne diseases and their prevention (5M)• Purification of water on large scale (5M)• Chlorination of water (5M)• Purification of water in small scale (5M)• Role of residual chlorine in drinking water (5M)• Bacteriological standards of drinking water (5M)• Disinfection of well in an epidemic (5M)• Safe and wholesome water (3M)• Break-point Chlorination (3M)• Super-chlorination (3M)• WHO water quality standards (3M)FREQUENTLY ASKEDQUESTIONS
  27. 27. • Diseases transmitted by faeco-oral route. Strategy for control of Hep A(10M)• Epidemiology and control measures for Dengue. (10M)• Factors responsible for resurgence of malaria. (10M)• Epidemiology and control of Malaria in India. (10M)• Steps in investigation of an outbreak of food poisoning.(10M)• Prevention and containment of Hep A. (5M)• Control of typhoid carriers. (5M)• Anti-typhoid vaccine. (5M)• Primary prevention of moebiasis. (5M)• ORS. (5M)• Carriers of cholera. (3M)• Dynamics of typhoid fever transmission. (3M)
  28. 28. • K. Park’s textbook Preventive and Social medicine 22nd edition.• Preventative Measures Against Water-Born Disease & TheRole of Municipalities in Prevention – Majeda Alwaneh• Diseases produced by water- Melody Muleana & Ana Galiana• INTERNET: Wikipedia• Companion for MBBS III/I by Dr. Singi Yatiraj for questionsREFERENCES