Solid state fermentation - Brief introduction

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Upon the evolution brought about in the fermentation technology resulted out into various methodologies for optimization of the product yield by economical consumption of the substrates. Eventually, these ventures led for the development of technologies classified into as Submerged and Solid State technologies and the latter one being the concept of interest whose detailed view will be provided in the following presentation

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Solid state fermentation - Brief introduction

  1. 1. Department of Biotechnology The Oxford College of Engineering Bangalore. Presented byBalganesh.K 1OX06BT002
  2. 2.  Abstract  Introduction  Review  Conclusions  Bibliography
  3. 3.  Upon the evolution brought about in the fermentation technology resulted out into various methodologies for optimization of the product yield by economical consumption of the substrates. Eventually, these ventures led for the development of technologies classified into as Submerged and Solid State technologies and the latter one being the concept of interest whose detailed view will be provided in the following presentation.
  4. 4. Solid-state (substrate) fermentation (SSF) : defined as the fermentation process occurring in the absence or near-absence of free water under controlled conditions.  Exactly, Contrasting to the Submerged-state of fermentation.  Examples of products include industrial enzymes, fuels and nutrient enriched animal feeds. 
  5. 5. Advantages of SSF over submerged culture: Higher volumetric productivity Lower energy requirements Might be easier to meet aeration requirements Resembles the natural habitat of some fungi and bacteria  Easier downstream processing.  Less Effluent Generation.  Simple to work on.    
  6. 6. However, Selection of suitable strain for SSF is mainly governed by various factors in particular upon the nature of the substrate and environmental conditions.  And strain selection determines the type of process to be employed and also the economic viability of the process. 
  7. 7.  The technology of SSF is being used for various potent applications which include –  Production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products.  Bioprocesses such as bioleaching, bio-beneficiation, bioremediation, bio-pulping, etc.  Utilization of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and valueaddition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised residues. And the application will be dealt in detail in the upcoming slides.
  8. 8. SSF processes generally employ a natural raw material as carbon and energy source , an inert material as solid matrix, which requires supplementing a nutrient solution containing necessary nutrients as well as a carbon source.  Solid substrate (matrix), however, must contain enough moisture to enhance of aw of the organism employed. 
  9. 9. The Typical process characteristics of experimental SSF are as follows:
  10. 10. Substrate Selection - key aspect of SSF.  Solid material (non-soluble) :physical support and source of nutrients. Could be a naturally occurring solid substrate such as agricultural crops, agro-industrial residues or inert support .  Not to combine the role of support and substrate but rather reproduce the conditions of low water activity and high oxygen transference by using a nutritionally inert material soaked with a nutrient solution. 
  11. 11. Coming to the Reactor aspects for SSF technology • limited knowledge regarding design and operation of Large-scale SSF bioreactors.  Difficulties - mass transfer and heat removal.  The low moisture and poor thermal conductivity of the substrate – possible constraints.  The reactor system shown above is a 5L prototype for SSF cultures – “Terrafors”.
  12. 12. The SSF bioreactors -Classified in two groups:  Agitation systems and Static reactors. Rotating drums, Packed-bed Gas-solid Trays bioreactor Fluidized beds, Rocking drums, Horizontal paddle mixer. Figure – Showing a typical Trays bioreactor. 
  13. 13. Applications of SSF  As described before , Solid State fermentation is being employed in various fields ranging from pharmacology to bioremediation, covering various aspects of biodiversity conservation.  Each of the application will be dealt in brief in the following slides.
  14. 14. Production of Industrial Enzymes Ideally, almost all the known microbial enzymes can be produced under SSF systems.  Enzymes of industrial importance, like proteases, cellulases, ligninases, xylanases, pectinases, amylases, glucoamylases, inulinases, phytases, tannases, phenolic acid esterases, microbial rennets, aryl-alcohol oxidases, oligosaccharide oxidases, tannin acyl hydrolase, a -L-arabinofuranosidase, etc. using SSF systems 
  15. 15. Production of Bio pesticides  The infamous Bacillus thurengenesis (Bt)’s Cry protein can be produced in large scale inorder to address the issues of pest attacks-yield damage.  This Biocide bacterium can be obtained by fermentation, either in liquid or semi-solid substrates found to act against Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) in corn.
  16. 16. Production of Renewable Energies  Renewable energies referring to the Biogas production by utilizing the biomass from plant and animal sources when subjected to anaerobic fermentation by the microbial flora, results in generation of biogas which can be effectively utilized for running gas turbines, and fuel cells.
  17. 17.  The 3A-Biogas concept has brought a revolution in the waste management concept  and has resulted in generation of energy which adds upto the treatment of existing biogas plants as well.
  18. 18. In Bioleaching:  The recovery of metals from low grade black shale ore was attempted by employing microbial samples using different organic wastes as substrates.  Maximum recovery of metals such as copper , cobalt , zinc and other metals is possible by continuous SSF.  Media components containing glucose (standard medium) and molasses etc., used as substrate.
  19. 19. In Bioremediation  The discovery that certain microorganisms, living within our avid environment, can actually degrade various toxic components like hydrocarbons, oil spillage etc, has made possible the utilization of biological methods for the treatment of these toxicants.  A biosurfactant accelerates the process of degradation of pollutant composites. A biosurfactant produced through fermentation subjected for bioremediation yields better results when compared to chemical remediation.
  20. 20.  From all the information obtained we can conclude that SSF systems are many-fold more than in SmF systems. Although the reasons for this are not clear, this fact is kept in mind while developing novel bioreactors for enzyme production in SSF systems. It is hoped that enzyme production processes based on SSF systems will be the technologies of the future. Genetically improved strains, suitable for SSF processes, would play an important role in this.
  21. 21.        Solid state fermentation for the production of industrial enzymes Ashok Pandey*, P. Selvakumar**, Carlos R. Soccol* and Poonam Nigam† Solid-state fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi to control fall armyworm in maize, Deise Maria Fontana Capalbo* Embrapa Meio Ambiente ,C.P. 69, CEP: 13820 000 ,Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Brasil Perspectives of Solid State Fermentation for Production of Food Enzymes 1Cristobal Noe Aguilar, et al., Department of Food Research, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, 25280, Saltillo, Coahuila Mexico Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Biotechnology Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, O9340, Mexico, D.F. B. BALKAN and F. ERTAN: Production of a-Amylase from P. chrysogenum, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (4) 439–442 (2007) Assessment of Energy for Sustainable Development: A Case Study Vivek Khambalkar, Assistant Professor, Department of Nonconventional Energy Sources and Electrical Engineering, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola MS India. 3A-biogas :Three step fermentation of solid state biowaste for biogas production and sanitation DI Oliver Schmidt, Müller Abfallprojekte GmbH / Austria, Project Co-ordinator . Budapest ,16-17 October 2003 Bioleaching of copper, cobalt and zinc from black shale by Penicillium notatum, Fozia Anjum1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti1
  22. 22. Thank you….

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