Organizational changes 5

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Organizational changes 5

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Organizational changes 5

  1. 1. 18-1 Chapter 18 Managing Organizational Change Management: A Skills Approach, 2/eManagement: A Skills Approach, 2/e by Phillip L. Hunsakerby Phillip L. Hunsaker
  2. 2. 18-2 Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives • Appreciate the Necessity of Managing Change • Recognize What Causes Change • Identify Targets for Change • Plan and Implement Change • Recognize and Overcome Resistance to Change • Lead the Planned Change Process
  3. 3. 18-3 Why is it Important to Adapt toWhy is it Important to Adapt to Change?Change? • Individuals, teams, or organizations that do not adapt to change in timely ways are unlikely to survive.
  4. 4. 18-4 Adapting to ChangeAdapting to Change • Individuals, teams and organizations that recognize the inevitability of change, learn to adapt to it, and attempt to manage it, will be the most successful.
  5. 5. 18-5 What is Change?What is Change? • Coping process of moving from a unsatisfactory present state to a desired state
  6. 6. 18-6 Reacting to ChangeReacting to Change • Unplanned • “Fire fighting”
  7. 7. 18-7 Planned ChangePlanned Change • Results from deliberate attempts by managers to improve organizational operations
  8. 8. 18-8 Unfreeze Change Refreeze Three Phases ofThree Phases of Planned ChangePlanned Change
  9. 9. 18-9 UnfreezingUnfreezing • Help people accept that change is needed because the existing situation is not adequate
  10. 10. 18-10 ChangingChanging • Involves rearranging of current work norms and relationships to meet new needs
  11. 11. 18-11 RefreezingRefreezing • Reinforces the changes made so that the new ways of behaving become stabilized
  12. 12. 18-12 Managing the Planned ChangeManaging the Planned Change ProcessProcess • Improving the organization’s ability to cope with unplanned changes that are thrust upon it • Modifying employee’s attitudes and behaviors to make them more effective contributors to the organization’s goals
  13. 13. 18-13 Steps in the Planned ChangeSteps in the Planned Change ProcessProcess Recognize the need for change Diagnose and plan change Manage the transition Measure results Maintain change
  14. 14. 18-14 Initiating the Planned ChangeInitiating the Planned Change ProcessProcess • Recognize the need for change • Diagnose and plan change • Formulate Goals • Determine stakeholders’ needs • Examine driving and restraining forces
  15. 15. 18-15 Force-Field AnalysisForce-Field Analysis • Process of analyzing the forces that drive change and the forces that restrain it
  16. 16. 18-16 Driving ForcesDriving Forces • Factors that push toward the new, more desirable status quo
  17. 17. 18-17 Restraining ForcesRestraining Forces • Factors that exert pressure to continue past behaviors or to resist new actions
  18. 18. 18-18 Force-Field Analysis ModelForce-Field Analysis Model Restraining Forces Driving Forces Quasi- Stationary Equilibrium
  19. 19. 18-19 Managing the Planned ChangeManaging the Planned Change ProcessProcess • Consider contingencies to determine the best interventions • Manage the transition • Measure results • Maintain change
  20. 20. 18-20 Targets for Organizational ChangeTargets for Organizational Change • Strategy – Develop new visions, missions, strategic plans • Structure – Add a new department or division, or consolidate two existing ones • People – Replace a person or change knowledge, skills, attitudes, or behaviors • Technology – upgrade a data processing system • Management –Encourage participation by those involved in solution of problems
  21. 21. 18-21 Reasons for Resistance toReasons for Resistance to ChangeChange • Selective Perception • Lack of Information • Fear of the Unknown • Habit • Resentment Toward the Initiator • Sub-Optimization • Structural Stability
  22. 22. 18-22 Overcoming Resistance toOvercoming Resistance to ChangeChange • Education and Communication • Participation and Involvement • Facilitation and Support • Negotiation and Agreement • Manipulation and Co-optation • Coercion • Promote Positive Attitudes Toward Change
  23. 23. 18-23 Leading Organizational ChangeLeading Organizational Change • Establish a Sense of Urgency • Form a Powerful Guiding Coalition • Develop a Compelling Vision and Strategy • Communicate Widely • Empower Others to Act on the Vision • Generate Short-term Wins • Consolidate Gains and Create Greater Change • Institutionalize Changes in the Organizational Culture

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