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Food Service Systems Nancy Brenowitz, MS, RD
Subsystems•   Menu planning     •Transportation•   Purchasing        •Regeneration•   Storage           •Service•         ...
Types of Foodservice Systems• Vary with regard to:   –   Where food is prepared   –   What types of food are purchases   –...
Conventional (Cook to Serve)• Many restaurants, cafeterias• Foods are purchased, transformed into final  products for serv...
Conventional (Cook to Serve)• Advantages  – Food quality can be high (depends upon time    held—usually only 1-2 hours)  –...
Commissary (Satellite)• School systems, airline catering• Foods are purchased and produced in large  central production ki...
Commissary (Satellite)• Advantages  – Cost savings from lower food cost and lack of    equipment duplication  – Decreased ...
Commissary (Satellite)• Disadvantages  – Food safety is a concern (holding and    transporting)  – Quality can deteriorate...
Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or          Cook/Freeze)• Many foodservice operations use along with  others• Foods are prepare...
Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or         Cook/Freeze)• Advantages  – Workload is evened out; can prepare foods    during down...
Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or        Cook/Freeze)• Disadvantages  – Large refrigerators/freezers needed (high    energy co...
Convenience (Assembly-Serve)• Already prepared foods are purchased and  then assembled, heated and served• No food product...
Convenience (Assembly-Serve)• Advantages  – Less labor and less skilled labor needed  – Minimal investment in equipment  –...
Convenience (Assembly-Serve)• Disadvantages  –   Menu items limited by market availability  –   Food cost substantially hi...
Food Delivery Systems• Centralized Delivery-Service System  – Prepared foods portioned and assembled for    individual mea...
Food Delivery Systems• Decentralized Delivery-Service Systems  – Bulk quantities of prepared foods sent hot or    cold to ...
Choosing a Distribution System•   Type of foodservice system•   Kind of foodservice organization•   Size and physical layo...
Kind of Food Service            Organization•   Number of people?•   How quickly do they need to be served?•   Groups serv...
Size and Layout of Facility• High rise or low and highly spread out• Elevators, conveyor belts• Equipment available in dif...
Style of Service• Self-service   – Guest carry own food from place of display to a dining     area• Cafeteria style   – Tr...
Style of Service• Machine Vended  – Often contracted to outside company to keep    machines filled  – Drinks, snacks, sand...
Style of Service• Drive Thru Pick-Up• Tray Service  – Airlines, hospitals, nursing homes  – Delivered to floor pantry by f...
Wait Service• American service  – Host or hostess greets and seats  – Servers take orders and serve to customers  – Each p...
Wait Service• French service  – Portions of food brought to dining room on    serving platter and chief server completes a...
Economic Factors• Different amounts of labor and equipment  needed for various types of service• Cost of inputs and output...
Food Safety• Managing time/temperature relationship• Can you meet standards to temperatures  with current equipment or sho...
Timing Required for Meal            Service• Does everyone need to be served at once?  – Banquet, school foodservice,• Wha...
Meal Delivery Systems•   Paper menus•   Paperless•   Bedside Entry System•   Roomservice
How is Food Actually Delivered         to Patients?•   Heated cart•   Covered plates•   Divided trays•   Heated surface un...
Delivery Service Equipment• Fixed or Built In  –   Planned when facility is built  –   Automated car transport or monorail...
Delivery Service Equipment• Mobile  – Delivery trucks for off premises  – Movable carts for on premises  – Heated/Refriger...
Delivery Service Equipment• Pellet Disc  – Metal disc is preheated and at mealtime is    placed in a metal base  – Individ...
Delivery Service Equipment• Insulated Trays with Insulated Covers  – Dished put on tray and covered  – Trays generally sta...
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Foodservice systems2

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Foodservice systems2

  1. 1. Food Service Systems Nancy Brenowitz, MS, RD
  2. 2. Subsystems• Menu planning •Transportation• Purchasing •Regeneration• Storage •Service• •Dining Pre-preparation •Clearing• Production •Dishwashing• Holding •Storage of leftovers
  3. 3. Types of Foodservice Systems• Vary with regard to: – Where food is prepared – What types of food are purchases – How foods are held and for how long – Labor and equipment required – Whether food is transported• Most foodservice operations use more than one type of these systems
  4. 4. Conventional (Cook to Serve)• Many restaurants, cafeterias• Foods are purchased, transformed into final products for service and held at serving temperature until served• Production and service occur on same premises• Many foods purchased raw/unfinished state, although some convenience items used• Menu items prepared as close to service time as possible• Traditionally has been the most widely used system
  5. 5. Conventional (Cook to Serve)• Advantages – Food quality can be high (depends upon time held—usually only 1-2 hours) – Any food can be produced if it can be held as serving temp for short time• Disadvantages – Less time flexibility – More labor, unevenly distributed work load – Limit to how long you can hold the food
  6. 6. Commissary (Satellite)• School systems, airline catering• Foods are purchased and produced in large central production kitchen• Delivered in bulk to satellite/remote serving areas for final production and service (frozen, chilled or hot)• Most items completely prepared from raw state in central facility• Best when large volumes are being prepared
  7. 7. Commissary (Satellite)• Advantages – Cost savings from lower food cost and lack of equipment duplication – Decreased labor costs – Limited peaks and valley is work load – Uniform products – Do not have to cook at meal time
  8. 8. Commissary (Satellite)• Disadvantages – Food safety is a concern (holding and transporting) – Quality can deteriorate during holding; some items don’t hold well – Reliable transportation method needed – Requires a large kitchen; does not pay for itself unless preparing large quantities
  9. 9. Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or Cook/Freeze)• Many foodservice operations use along with others• Foods are prepared on the premises and then chilled or frozen for later use• May be chilled/frozen in bulk or in individual portions• Chilled foods must be used within 102 days; frozen foods can last up to several months• Hot foods undergo two heating periods; adjustments in cooking times
  10. 10. Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or Cook/Freeze)• Advantages – Workload is evened out; can prepare foods during down time – Variety may be increased with large inventory of chilled or frozen items – Can transport food easier than hot – Can hold foods for longer than hot
  11. 11. Ready Prepared (Cook/Chill or Cook/Freeze)• Disadvantages – Large refrigerators/freezers needed (high energy costs) – Food safety can be a problem – Some foods do not freeze or chill well – Quality may suffer during holding • Freezer burn • Textural changes • Separation of emulsions – Need reheating equipment – If power goes out, a lot of food can be lost
  12. 12. Convenience (Assembly-Serve)• Already prepared foods are purchased and then assembled, heated and served• No food production required• Can be purchased in bulk or individual portions• Convenience stores, fast foods, special diets in hospitals
  13. 13. Convenience (Assembly-Serve)• Advantages – Less labor and less skilled labor needed – Minimal investment in equipment – Can purchase preportioned items for a la carte menu – Portion control easier, less waste – Mostly an advantage for small foodservices
  14. 14. Convenience (Assembly-Serve)• Disadvantages – Menu items limited by market availability – Food cost substantially higher – Quality may not be equivalent to fresh – A lot of freezer/refrigerator space needed
  15. 15. Food Delivery Systems• Centralized Delivery-Service System – Prepared foods portioned and assembled for individual meals at a central location in or adjacent to the main kitchen – Completed orders then transported and distributed to the customers – Fast food, restaurants, banquet services, hospitals, long-term care facilities – Close supervision, control of food quality and portion size, less labor required – Span required for service can be excessively long
  16. 16. Food Delivery Systems• Decentralized Delivery-Service Systems – Bulk quantities of prepared foods sent hot or cold to serving galleys or ward kitchens located throughout the facility – Reheating, portioning and meal assembly take place in remote locations – Dishes returned to central kitchen for washing – Facilities where there is a great distance between the kitchen and the consumer – Foods travel better in bulk than plated – Large hospitals, medical centers, school districts, hotels
  17. 17. Choosing a Distribution System• Type of foodservice system• Kind of foodservice organization• Size and physical layout of facility• Style of service• Skill level of available personnel• Economic factors• Quality standard to food safety• Timing required for meal service• Space requirements• Energy usage
  18. 18. Kind of Food Service Organization• Number of people?• How quickly do they need to be served?• Groups served?• In what environment?
  19. 19. Size and Layout of Facility• High rise or low and highly spread out• Elevators, conveyor belts• Equipment available in different areas
  20. 20. Style of Service• Self-service – Guest carry own food from place of display to a dining area• Cafeteria style – Traditional: employees are stationed behind counter to serve guests and encourage them with the selections; may be straight line, parallel, zigzag or U shaped; customers follow each other – Hollow square, free flow or scramble system: separate sections of counter provided for various menu groups; provides speed and flexibility
  21. 21. Style of Service• Machine Vended – Often contracted to outside company to keep machines filled – Drinks, snacks, sandwiches, microwave items, frozen foods – Supplement to other styles of service• Buffet – Numerous options, eye appeal important – Foods should hold up well with long sitting time
  22. 22. Style of Service• Drive Thru Pick-Up• Tray Service – Airlines, hospitals, nursing homes – Delivered to floor pantry by foodservice or directly to patient – Need cooperation between foodservice and nursing; quality and food safety issues – Many hospitals turning to style more like restaurant service
  23. 23. Wait Service• American service – Host or hostess greets and seats – Servers take orders and serve to customers – Each plate prepared individually for each customer – Busers may help with dish removal and checker makes sure food taken to customer corresponds with order – Plates transported by cart, by hand or on trays – All guests at one table served before proceeding to next table
  24. 24. Wait Service• French service – Portions of food brought to dining room on serving platter and chief server completes at table (carving, boning, making a sauce) while another server delivers plates to customers• Russian – Food completely prepared and portioned in the kitchen – Adequate number of servings for each person at table placed on serving platter, served to individuals at table – Banquets
  25. 25. Economic Factors• Different amounts of labor and equipment needed for various types of service• Cost of inputs and outputs• Transporting foods can be expensive• Duplicating equipment can be expensive
  26. 26. Food Safety• Managing time/temperature relationship• Can you meet standards to temperatures with current equipment or should new be purchased?• How long will delivery take?
  27. 27. Timing Required for Meal Service• Does everyone need to be served at once? – Banquet, school foodservice,• What is acceptable time span? – 1-2 hours – Hospitals, staggered lunch periods
  28. 28. Meal Delivery Systems• Paper menus• Paperless• Bedside Entry System• Roomservice
  29. 29. How is Food Actually Delivered to Patients?• Heated cart• Covered plates• Divided trays• Heated surface under plate, covered• Variety of systems and costs• Quality can be a problem with all
  30. 30. Delivery Service Equipment• Fixed or Built In – Planned when facility is built – Automated car transport or monorail – Alternative if power failure – Elevators, manual or power driven conveyors, dumbwaiters
  31. 31. Delivery Service Equipment• Mobile – Delivery trucks for off premises – Movable carts for on premises – Heated/Refrigerated• Portable – Pans with lids – Hand carriers
  32. 32. Delivery Service Equipment• Pellet Disc – Metal disc is preheated and at mealtime is placed in a metal base – Individual portions of food plated and placed over the base and covered – Keeps the meal at serving temp for 40-45 minutes
  33. 33. Delivery Service Equipment• Insulated Trays with Insulated Covers – Dished put on tray and covered – Trays generally stack – Designed to create “synergism”, when stacked properly the hot and cold sections work together to maintain the proper temperatures – No special carts are needed – Some foods hold heat better than others • Ex. Beef stew better than green beans

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