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Recruitment & selection ch 3 & 5 23-09-2010


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Recruitment & selection ch 3 & 5 23-09-2010

  2. 2. • Specification the most important parts of the selection process has for long been the development of a clear specification upon which the selection activity is based.
  3. 3. • Human Resource Planning COMPETENCIES AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human resource planning Recruitment and selection Performance management Pay and reward structure Training and development Organization and job design Identification of competencies
  4. 4. • Performance Management A competency-based appraisal system takes a balance view of overall performance and will typically involve: • Setting targets for the role either in terms of specific projects or objectives, or other measurable dimensions of performance, such as volume of out put or customers served or sales achieved • Behavioral descriptions of the standards expected in fulfilling the role, ie the competencies, which are expressed as agreed statements of behavior at both ‘expected’ and ‘advance’ level • A development plan arising from the first two elements specifying any training or other development activities required to support the employee in achieving the targets and competencies • A system of periodic review at quarterly or six-monthly intervals leading to an annual appraisal of performance against the targets and sustained achievement of the required competencies.
  5. 5. • Pay PORTER AND LAWLER’s MOTIVATIONAL MODEL FOR PAY Value of reward Effort Performance Perceived effort/reward probability Perceived equitable rewards Satisfaction Abilities and traits Intrinsic rewards Role perceptions Extrinsic rewards
  6. 6. • Training and Development • Build up a very robust analysis of individual training needs from the performance management process. • Using the framework of competencies, it is also possible to see where the training and development investment is likely to yield the greatest return. • Natural competencies (ie the deep-seated underlying personal characteristics) are less receptive to training and development interventions, and expenditure in such an area can be regarded as extravagant. • Similarly, in looking at whether the ‘deficiencies’ are in the acquired or adapting competencies, it is possible to see whether they would be better served through education (for acquired) or training and development (for adapting).
  7. 7. • Integration it is important that integration takes place and that: • Selection of people into the organization is tied into the needs of the role • The induction and development of people is built around such demands for the role and their compatibility with it • Pay creates the connectivity between the needs of the business and the values and expectations of the workforce • The requirements of the role are clearly explained to those undertaking it • Insights into those people are clearly conveyed to those responsible for managing them.
  8. 8. • Outsourcing Organizations face a choice on whether to resource the recruitment and selection function internally or externally. Where outsourcing occurs, it generally takes one of two forms: • Using and external agency to undertaken all the functions expected of an internal recruitment and selection department • Contracting-out individual assignments as required. The key considerations will therefore be: • Is there likely to be sufficient frequency or volume of recruitment and selection to justify an in-house functions? • Can the organization afford the salaries of a skilled team or the training expenditure to bring generalist staff up to speed? • Are there any sensitivities or information about the organization which need to be closely guarded?
  9. 9. • Recruitment consultants • Registers were traditionally restricted to temporary agencies an(and similar) maintaining a database of candidates sourced primarily from their own advertising. • Selection consultants may be assigned to a specific project, eg specialist managers or professional staff, and will work with the client to take (or help develop) a clear brief of the candidates, make all the necessary arrangements for advertising, receive applications and screen then on behalf of the client, and provide the client with a shortlist of recommended candidates, usually accompanied by a report on each. • Search consultants operates differently from selection consultants (although many provide both kinds of service) in that selection consultants aim to hold out the job as an attraction for suitably qualified people to apply, while search consultants actively seek out those people with a view to persuading them to work for their client. In particular, check while selecting consultant: • That the consultant will undertake to prepare a detailed specification to form the basis of the selection assignment and which will be agreed with the client
  10. 10. • Recruitment consultants • That guarantees are provided on time-scales, with penalties if appropriate • That all elements of decision-making, including screening applications and interviewing will be undertaken by the consultant rather than “delegated’ to junior untrained staff • That all candidates will be treated courteously, paying particular regard to the acknowledgement of applications, advice on progress, and promptly notified of decisions • That all ethical and legal requirements are fulfilled and the client is indemnified for any liability incurred • That proper methods are used to make the selection, including the use of structured interviews, tests, and other techniques • That they undertakes not to ‘poach’ appointed people at a later stage, or in any other way breach the confidence or trust of the client • Whether they will undertake all appropriate checks such as references and verifying certificates and qualifications claimed.
  12. 12. • Person-specification  Personal qualities and attributes which are inherent in the person’s character, not easily changed, and pertinent to good work performance. Does the person need to be creative, or resilient, or be able to follow detail and routine, or be ‘good with people’?  Experience, whether of a particular industry or type of work, or dealing with certain types of customer, etc.  Record of achievement or evidence that the potential has been applied and realized, eg projects completed or sales achieved.  Skills or qualifications needed to perform the role. Some roles may necessitate certain qualifications, eg law or accountancy, perhaps as a statutory requirement, others may have a specific requirement, eg driving license, or qualifications may be used as a guide, eg degree level.  Organization-match, which may cover the fit with the style and culture of the organization if it is significant (perhaps very ‘laid back’ and informal or perhaps very formal and bureaucratic) but more usually aspects such as shift work or travelling requirements.  Needs and expectations of the candidates, what does the organization require?, eg someone looking for a long-term career, someone looking for a short-term fill-in, someone wanting routine or someone seeking new challenges?
  13. 13. • Using Competencies Competences Things that a person who works In a given occupational area should be able to do. Each one is an action, behavior or outcome that the person should be able to demonstrate. The training Agency, Definition of competences and performance criteria, 1988 Competencies Those characteristics that differentiate superior from average and poor performance…. Motives, traits skill, aspects of one’s self-image or social role, or body of knowledge. Richard Boyatzis, The Competent Manager, 1982
  14. 14. • Competency Framework Natural Acquired Adapting Performing • Extraversion/introversion • Emotional stability • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness • Openness to experience. The acquired cluster would include knowledge and skills, whether achieved through work or elsewhere, with which people are not naturally gifted. The adapting cluster forms the critical set which enables the individual to succeed In his or her work environment. All too often people in a new position fail to continue their previous tract record of success. The performing cluster consists of the observable behaviors and outputs that flow from the other three clusters. A framework showing how all these clusters fir together.
  15. 15. • Overcoming criticisms  Cloning, the criticism aimed at the competency approach generally, and MCI specifically, about defining a single, prescribed way of operating is overcome by recognizing the adapting elements. Using Kiron’s Adaptive-Innovative scale, which places people on a continuum ranging from highly-adaptive to highly-innovative, such adaption can extend to completely new management approaches and ideas.  Know-how, there is an argument that in some roles or occupations, what the person does is more observable but less important than how they do it or what they know. In such situations greater weight can be applied to the acquired and adapting clusters  Personally, over-emphasis on observable behavior ignores the personal characteristics necessary for success. Behavior can be transient and is sometimes more a reflection of the environment than the person, although important for gauging current success it is not a reliable predictor of future success in a different arena. Recognizing the importance of the natural cluster provides the appropriate balance.
  16. 16. • Competency-based person-specifications TECHNIQUES TO CHECK FOR DIFFERENT COMPETENCE Screen Test Interview Exercise Achievement  Leadership  Creativity  Resilience  Flexibility  Technical Knowledge  Judgment  Decision Making   Planning and Organization  People management  Energy  Financial Acumen 