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QA/QC 2
What is Civil Engineering?
 Civil engineering is the second-oldest engineering discipline
after military engineering
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Civil Engineering deals with the
design, construction, and
maintenance of structures or
public works as they related to
earth, water or in space
QA/QC 3
Who is Civil Engineer?
 A person who practices civil engineering application of
planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating
infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental
health
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Father of civil engineer
John Smeaton Mokshagundam
Visvesvaraya
QA/QC 4
What is Construction?
DNEPL Pipeline Project
• Construction is the process of creating and
building infrastructure or a facility.
• It involves planning and
execution, transportation of
materials, site development
based on hydraulic,
environmental, structural and
geotechnical engineering.
QA/QC 5
What is Quality?
DNEPL Pipeline Project
• Quality - Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics
fulfills requirements.
• Quality Assurance - Part of Quality Management focused on
providing confidence that Quality requirements will be
fulfilled.
• Quality Control - Part of Quality
Management focused on implementation &
fulfilling Quality requirements.
QA/QC 6
Codes & Standards
DNEPL Pipeline Project
• Code is a standard that has been adopted by one or more
governmental bodies and is enforceable by law.
• Standard consists of technical
definitions and guidelines that
function as instructions for
designers/manufacturers and
operators/users of equipment.
QA/QC 7
Concrete Structural Works
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Survey
 Formwork
 Rebar Bending & Fixing
 Concreting
 Earthworks
 Piling
QA/QC 8
What is Surveying
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Surveying is the three-dimensional position of points and the
distances and angles between them. And it is a basic
requirement for all Civil Engineering projects
 To establish the bench marks,
fixing grids, transferring co-
ordinates and reduced level
 Total Station, Theodolite &
Leveling staff instruments are
using for Surveying works
QA/QC 9
Process of Surveying
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Clear the all grass, bushes etc. from site location
 Check validity of Instrument calibration before use
 AFC Drawings only used for setting out & Levels
QA/QC 10
Surveying
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Codes & Standards
IS Code 11134 - Code of practice for setting out of buildings
 Level Deviations
• ± 30 mm - Earthwork without any particular accuracy
• ± 12 mm - Earthwork subject to accuracy
• ± 5 mm - In Cast in Situ Concrete Structure
• ± 2 mm - Precast Concrete Structure & Steel Structure
 Position point Deviations
• ± 10 mm - Earthwork without any particular accuracy
• ± 5 mm - Earthwork subject to accuracy
• ± 2 mm - In Cast in Situ Concrete Structure
• ± 1 mm - Precast Concrete Structure & Steel Structure
QA/QC 11
Concrete Piles
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Type of Concrete Piles
• Pre-cast Piles
• Cast-in-situ Piles
• Bored-in-situ Piles
 Pile is like a column , It is installed in the ground to transfer the
structural loads to soils at some significant depth below the
base of the structure.
QA/QC 12
Concrete Piles
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Where it is Need ?
• Where the soil near the surface doesn’t have sufficient
bearing capacity (weak) to support the structural loads
• Where the soil is compressible
• Where the soil is Water logged
QA/QC 13
Pre-cast Piles
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Reinforced concrete piles, molded in circular, square,
rectangular or octagonal form.
 Cast and cured in the casting yard, then transported to the site
of driving.
 Function of reinforcement in a pre-cast pile is to resist the
stresses.
QA/QC 14
Cast-in-Situ Piles
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Cast in position inside the
ground.
 Then the soil from the bore
is drawn out
 Reinforce cage to be placed
in
 First of all a bore is dug  And finally filled with cement
concrete
QA/QC 15
Exposing of Concrete Piles
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 16
Concrete Piles
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Codes & Standards
IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 1 - Driven Cast-in-situ concrete piles
IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 2 - Bored Cast-in-situ concrete piles
IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 3 - Driven precast concrete piles
IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 4 - Bored precast concrete piles
IS Code 2911 Part 4 - Load Test on Piles
 Tolerance
Position of Piles should not deviate more than deviate more
than 75 mm
Deviation from Vertical 1 in 75
QA/QC 17
Earthworks
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Processing it to meet location, elevation, density in moisture
content, etc.
 An excavation is a man-made cut, cavity, or depression in the
earth’s surface.
QA/QC 18
Excavation
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Excavated soil shall be
stacked in away from pit
or in stacking area
 Excavation shall be in required
dimension, Level & Slope.
QA/QC 19
Process of Excavation
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Check for Underground facility if any
 Side slopes as per drawing & working space.
 Excavated Earth shall be howled to dumping yard or placed at
least 2 mts from cutting edge.
 If you work in an excavation that’s five feet deep (or deeper)
you must be protected from a cave-in.
QA/QC 20
Backfilling
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Approval Source of Soil
 Free Swell Index, less than 50 %
 Lab Test results (MDD/OMC)
 Liquid Limit between 20-35
 Soil shall be laid in layers
 Plastic Index shall not more than 12
QA/QC 21
Compaction Process
DNEPL Pipeline Project
By Roller By Plate Compactor
 Compaction shall be done to achieved as per customer requirement.
QA/QC 22
Compaction tests
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Codes & Standards
IS Code 2720 Method of Test for Soils
Sand Replacement method Core Cutter Method Nuclear Density Gauge
Rapid Moisture Meter
QA/QC 23
Anti-Termite Treatment
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 ATT should be carried out in the early stages of
construction of Buildings
 Start from sub structure to plinth level
 Chlorpyriphos 20% EC bearing ISI
certification . (1 Emulsion :19 Water )
 Indian pest control association
approved chemical shall be used
QA/QC 24
ATT - Masonry Foundations &
Basement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
1. Foundations shall be completely
enveloped with chemical barrier.
2. Treatment shall be from sub
structure to plinth surface
3. Apply emulsion @ 5 Ltrs/ Sqm for
normal load bearing structures
4. Vertical surfaces @ 7.50 Ltrs/Sqm.
Legend
A - Bottom and sides of trench
B - Backfill in immediate contact with
foundation wall
C - Junction of wall and floor
D- External perimeter of building
7.50
Ltrs/Sqm
5
Ltrs/Sqm
QA/QC 25
ATT - RCC Foundations &
Basement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
1. Treatment shall start at a depth of
500 mm below the ground
level/FML.
2. Apply emulsion for vertical surfaces
@ 7.50 Ltrs/Sqm.
Legend
A - Min 500 mm below ground level
B - Plinth Filling
D - FML to Grade Beam top
E - FFL to Plinth beam top
NGL - Natural Ground Level
FML - Formation Level
500 mm
below
NGL/FML
7.50
Ltrs/Sqm
QA/QC 26
ATT – Top Surface of Plinth fill
DNEPL Pipeline Project
Holes @
150 mm
c/c
 Treatment shall be @ 5 Ltrs/Sqm before sub-base is laid.
 If consolidated soil doesn't allow the emulsion to seep through,
• Make holes using 12mm dia rod @ 150 mm c/c in both directions.
• Depth of hole shall be 50mm to 75 mm.
5
Ltrs/Sqm
QA/QC 27
ATT – External Perimeter of
Building
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 The external perimeter of the building shall be
roded at 150 mm c/c on both ways to make holes.
 Minimum depth of hole shall be 300 mm.
 Pour the chemical emulsion in to the hole @ 7.5
ltr / Sqm of vertical surface.
 Tamp back the soil after treatment & consolidate.
External
Perimeter
Min 300
mm @ 7.5
Ltrs / Sqm
QA/QC 28
What is Formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Formwork is a mould including all supporting structures, used to
shape and support the concrete until it attains sufficient strength
to carry its own weight
 It should be capable of carrying all imposed dead and live loads
apart from its own weight.
 Formwork is commonly made of
• Steel
• Timber
QA/QC 29
Type of Formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
Timber Formwork Steel Formwork
QA/QC 30
Qualities of Formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 It should be water tight.
 It should be strong.
 It can be reusable.
 Its contact surface should be uniform.
 It should be according to the size of
member.
QA/QC 31
Advantages of Steel formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 It can be used for a no. of times.
 It is non absorbent.
 Smooth finish surface obtained.
 No shrinkage of formwork occurs.
 Easy to use.
 Its volume is less
 Its strength is more.
QA/QC 32
Stages of Formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Assembly and erection
 Concrete placement
 Stripping & dismantling
Different Structure of Formwork
 Wall
 Column
 Slabs & Beam
 Stairs
QA/QC 33
Formwork for Wall
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 After completing one side of
formwork reinforcement is
provided at the place then the
second side formwork is
provided.
QA/QC 34
Formwork for Column
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 After completing one side of
Two end & two side planks
are joined by the yokes and
bolts.
QA/QC 35
Formwork for Slab & Beams
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Beam formwork rests on
head tree
 Slab form work rests on
battens and joists
 If prop height are more
than 8’ provide horizontal
braces.
QA/QC 36
Formwork for Stairs
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 37
Deviation of Formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
Deviation in cross section of column & beams - 6mm to + 12 mm.
Deviation from dimensions of footings
Dimension in Plan +50 to -12 mm
Eccentricity
0.02 times the width of the footing in the direction of
Deviation but not more than 50mm
Thickness +/- 0.05 times the specified Thickness.
For Cast in-situ elements, the deviation of level of any point from the intended level +/- 10 mm
Deviation in length / Straightness (Single or Continuous Member)
In Length up to 3 m +/- 6 mm
In Length up 3 m to 4.5 m +/- 9 mm
In Length up 4.5m to 6m +/-12mm
In Length additional deviation for every subsequent 6m +/- 6mm
Deviation in Twist
Upto 600mm wide and upto 6m in length +/- 6 mm
Over 600mm wide and for any length +/-12mm
QA/QC 38
Removal of Formwork
DNEPL Pipeline Project
Walls, columns and vertical faces of wall Structural members 16 to 24 hours
Slabs (props left under) 3 days
Beam Soffits (props left under) 7 days
Removal of props under slabs
Spanning upto 4.5m 7 days
Spanning over 4.5m 7 days
Removal of props under beams and arches
Spanning upto 6m 14 days
Spanning over 6m 21 days
 Codes & Standards
• IS 456 - Code practice for Plain & Reinforcement Concrete
• IS 14687 - False work for concrete structures guidelines
QA/QC 39
Reinforcement bar
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), also known as reinforcing
steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension
device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry
structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension
QA/QC 40
Types & Grades of Rebar
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Strength grades of reinforcement steel
 Storage
 Reinforcements should not be left in direct contact with ground.
 Reinforcement should be stacked on elevated ground and on top of timber
sleepers, concrete sleepers or the like.
QA/QC 41
Bar Bending Schedule
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Bar Bending Schedule (BBS) is the
schedule of reinforcement bars prepared
in advance before cutting & bending of
rebar’s as per IS 2502.
 The schedule contains all details of size,
shape, numbers & dimension of rebar to be
cut as per the drawing requirements.
QA/QC 42
General Reinforcement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Over lapping : It is done when length of reinforcement
bar is small but we need longer reinforcement
 Ties : Columns have closed lateral ties spaced
approximately uniformly across the column
 Hook : Used to resist expansion & Shall be bent 1350
 Stirrups : Used to resist shear and diagonal tension
stresses in a beam
QA/QC 43
Cutting & Bending of Reinforcement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Bars shall be bent in accordance with the dimensions shown in
the schedule.
 The bar must be bend slowly to avoid capillary crack
 Samples may be check to avoid wastages
QA/QC 44
Fixing of Reinforcement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 After the cutting bar, tie bar work fine with the wire.
 Congestion of bars should be avoided at points
 Use bar bending table.
QA/QC 45
Fixing of Reinforcement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
Fixing of Spacer BarFixing of Chairs
Fixing of Cover Block in Slab
Fixing of Cover
Block in Slab
QA/QC 46
Tolerance for Reinforcement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Permissible Limits for cutting
of reinforcement bars (As per
IS 2502):
 Permissible Limits for placing
& Cover of reinforcement bars
(As per IS 456):
QA/QC 47
Codes & Standards of
Reinforcement
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 IS 432 Part – 1 - Mild steel & medium tensile steel bars
 IS 456 - Code practice for Plain & Reinforcement Concrete
 IS 1786 - Code of practice for High Strength deformed Steel bars and
wires for concrete Reinforcement
 IS 2502 - Code of practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete
reinforcement
 SP 34 - Handbook on concrete reinforcement and detailing
QA/QC 48
Concrete works
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials.
 Concrete is a composite
material made from several
readily available constituents
(aggregates, sand, cement,
water).
QA/QC 49
Concrete Material
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Cement
 Fine Aggregate
 Coarse Aggregate
 Water
 Admixture
QA/QC 50
Mixing of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 51
Manual mix of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 52
Ready mix of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 53
Placing of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
• Pour cement slurry /bonding agent at
construction joint.
• Keep all things ready (labour /pump/
vibrator)
• Never pour too low slump concrete.
• Restrict Height of free fall through
reinforcement as much as possible.
• Place the concrete within stipulated
time.
• Avoid use of vibrator to spread the
concrete
QA/QC 54
Compaction of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Vertical penetration a few inches into
previous lift (which should not yet be
rigid) of systematic regular intervals will
give adequate consolidation
 Check the direction of rotation of
vibrator.
 Never touch needle to Reinforcement /
Shutter.
 Insert Quickly and take out slowly.
 Insert the vibrator till previous layer.
QA/QC 55
Finishing of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 56
Finishing of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 57
Curing of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Start Curing as soon as concrete is set.  Cure the concrete for minimum 7
days
QA/QC 58
Testing of Concrete
DNEPL Pipeline Project
QA/QC 59
Permissible Limits of Concrete
works
DNEPL Pipeline Project
 Water
• Shall be clear and free from injurious amounts of Oil, Acid, Alkali,
Organic matters or other harmful substances
• Cross Sectional +10mm / -5mm
• In position: ±10mm
• In Level: ±10mm
• The pH value of water shall not be less than 6.
• Limits for Solids shall be as per IS 456 (Clause 5.4) .
 Exposed Surface  Test Results
• The Individual variation should
not be more than ± 15mm
QA/QC 60
Codes & Standards for
Concrete works
DNEPL Pipeline Project
IS:383 & IS 2386 - Coarse and fine aggregate
IS 456 - Code practice for Plain & Reinforcement Concrete
IS 516 - Method of test for strength of concrete
Civil Engineering: Quality, Construction & Surveying

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Civil Engineering: Quality, Construction & Surveying

  • 1.
  • 2. QA/QC 2 What is Civil Engineering?  Civil engineering is the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering DNEPL Pipeline Project  Civil Engineering deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of structures or public works as they related to earth, water or in space
  • 3. QA/QC 3 Who is Civil Engineer?  A person who practices civil engineering application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health DNEPL Pipeline Project  Father of civil engineer John Smeaton Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
  • 4. QA/QC 4 What is Construction? DNEPL Pipeline Project • Construction is the process of creating and building infrastructure or a facility. • It involves planning and execution, transportation of materials, site development based on hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering.
  • 5. QA/QC 5 What is Quality? DNEPL Pipeline Project • Quality - Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements. • Quality Assurance - Part of Quality Management focused on providing confidence that Quality requirements will be fulfilled. • Quality Control - Part of Quality Management focused on implementation & fulfilling Quality requirements.
  • 6. QA/QC 6 Codes & Standards DNEPL Pipeline Project • Code is a standard that has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies and is enforceable by law. • Standard consists of technical definitions and guidelines that function as instructions for designers/manufacturers and operators/users of equipment.
  • 7. QA/QC 7 Concrete Structural Works DNEPL Pipeline Project  Survey  Formwork  Rebar Bending & Fixing  Concreting  Earthworks  Piling
  • 8. QA/QC 8 What is Surveying DNEPL Pipeline Project  Surveying is the three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. And it is a basic requirement for all Civil Engineering projects  To establish the bench marks, fixing grids, transferring co- ordinates and reduced level  Total Station, Theodolite & Leveling staff instruments are using for Surveying works
  • 9. QA/QC 9 Process of Surveying DNEPL Pipeline Project  Clear the all grass, bushes etc. from site location  Check validity of Instrument calibration before use  AFC Drawings only used for setting out & Levels
  • 10. QA/QC 10 Surveying DNEPL Pipeline Project  Codes & Standards IS Code 11134 - Code of practice for setting out of buildings  Level Deviations • ± 30 mm - Earthwork without any particular accuracy • ± 12 mm - Earthwork subject to accuracy • ± 5 mm - In Cast in Situ Concrete Structure • ± 2 mm - Precast Concrete Structure & Steel Structure  Position point Deviations • ± 10 mm - Earthwork without any particular accuracy • ± 5 mm - Earthwork subject to accuracy • ± 2 mm - In Cast in Situ Concrete Structure • ± 1 mm - Precast Concrete Structure & Steel Structure
  • 11. QA/QC 11 Concrete Piles DNEPL Pipeline Project  Type of Concrete Piles • Pre-cast Piles • Cast-in-situ Piles • Bored-in-situ Piles  Pile is like a column , It is installed in the ground to transfer the structural loads to soils at some significant depth below the base of the structure.
  • 12. QA/QC 12 Concrete Piles DNEPL Pipeline Project  Where it is Need ? • Where the soil near the surface doesn’t have sufficient bearing capacity (weak) to support the structural loads • Where the soil is compressible • Where the soil is Water logged
  • 13. QA/QC 13 Pre-cast Piles DNEPL Pipeline Project  Reinforced concrete piles, molded in circular, square, rectangular or octagonal form.  Cast and cured in the casting yard, then transported to the site of driving.  Function of reinforcement in a pre-cast pile is to resist the stresses.
  • 14. QA/QC 14 Cast-in-Situ Piles DNEPL Pipeline Project  Cast in position inside the ground.  Then the soil from the bore is drawn out  Reinforce cage to be placed in  First of all a bore is dug  And finally filled with cement concrete
  • 15. QA/QC 15 Exposing of Concrete Piles DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 16. QA/QC 16 Concrete Piles DNEPL Pipeline Project  Codes & Standards IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 1 - Driven Cast-in-situ concrete piles IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 2 - Bored Cast-in-situ concrete piles IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 3 - Driven precast concrete piles IS Code 2911 Part 1/ Sec 4 - Bored precast concrete piles IS Code 2911 Part 4 - Load Test on Piles  Tolerance Position of Piles should not deviate more than deviate more than 75 mm Deviation from Vertical 1 in 75
  • 17. QA/QC 17 Earthworks DNEPL Pipeline Project  Processing it to meet location, elevation, density in moisture content, etc.  An excavation is a man-made cut, cavity, or depression in the earth’s surface.
  • 18. QA/QC 18 Excavation DNEPL Pipeline Project  Excavated soil shall be stacked in away from pit or in stacking area  Excavation shall be in required dimension, Level & Slope.
  • 19. QA/QC 19 Process of Excavation DNEPL Pipeline Project  Check for Underground facility if any  Side slopes as per drawing & working space.  Excavated Earth shall be howled to dumping yard or placed at least 2 mts from cutting edge.  If you work in an excavation that’s five feet deep (or deeper) you must be protected from a cave-in.
  • 20. QA/QC 20 Backfilling DNEPL Pipeline Project  Approval Source of Soil  Free Swell Index, less than 50 %  Lab Test results (MDD/OMC)  Liquid Limit between 20-35  Soil shall be laid in layers  Plastic Index shall not more than 12
  • 21. QA/QC 21 Compaction Process DNEPL Pipeline Project By Roller By Plate Compactor  Compaction shall be done to achieved as per customer requirement.
  • 22. QA/QC 22 Compaction tests DNEPL Pipeline Project  Codes & Standards IS Code 2720 Method of Test for Soils Sand Replacement method Core Cutter Method Nuclear Density Gauge Rapid Moisture Meter
  • 23. QA/QC 23 Anti-Termite Treatment DNEPL Pipeline Project  ATT should be carried out in the early stages of construction of Buildings  Start from sub structure to plinth level  Chlorpyriphos 20% EC bearing ISI certification . (1 Emulsion :19 Water )  Indian pest control association approved chemical shall be used
  • 24. QA/QC 24 ATT - Masonry Foundations & Basement DNEPL Pipeline Project 1. Foundations shall be completely enveloped with chemical barrier. 2. Treatment shall be from sub structure to plinth surface 3. Apply emulsion @ 5 Ltrs/ Sqm for normal load bearing structures 4. Vertical surfaces @ 7.50 Ltrs/Sqm. Legend A - Bottom and sides of trench B - Backfill in immediate contact with foundation wall C - Junction of wall and floor D- External perimeter of building 7.50 Ltrs/Sqm 5 Ltrs/Sqm
  • 25. QA/QC 25 ATT - RCC Foundations & Basement DNEPL Pipeline Project 1. Treatment shall start at a depth of 500 mm below the ground level/FML. 2. Apply emulsion for vertical surfaces @ 7.50 Ltrs/Sqm. Legend A - Min 500 mm below ground level B - Plinth Filling D - FML to Grade Beam top E - FFL to Plinth beam top NGL - Natural Ground Level FML - Formation Level 500 mm below NGL/FML 7.50 Ltrs/Sqm
  • 26. QA/QC 26 ATT – Top Surface of Plinth fill DNEPL Pipeline Project Holes @ 150 mm c/c  Treatment shall be @ 5 Ltrs/Sqm before sub-base is laid.  If consolidated soil doesn't allow the emulsion to seep through, • Make holes using 12mm dia rod @ 150 mm c/c in both directions. • Depth of hole shall be 50mm to 75 mm. 5 Ltrs/Sqm
  • 27. QA/QC 27 ATT – External Perimeter of Building DNEPL Pipeline Project  The external perimeter of the building shall be roded at 150 mm c/c on both ways to make holes.  Minimum depth of hole shall be 300 mm.  Pour the chemical emulsion in to the hole @ 7.5 ltr / Sqm of vertical surface.  Tamp back the soil after treatment & consolidate. External Perimeter Min 300 mm @ 7.5 Ltrs / Sqm
  • 28. QA/QC 28 What is Formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project  Formwork is a mould including all supporting structures, used to shape and support the concrete until it attains sufficient strength to carry its own weight  It should be capable of carrying all imposed dead and live loads apart from its own weight.  Formwork is commonly made of • Steel • Timber
  • 29. QA/QC 29 Type of Formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project Timber Formwork Steel Formwork
  • 30. QA/QC 30 Qualities of Formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project  It should be water tight.  It should be strong.  It can be reusable.  Its contact surface should be uniform.  It should be according to the size of member.
  • 31. QA/QC 31 Advantages of Steel formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project  It can be used for a no. of times.  It is non absorbent.  Smooth finish surface obtained.  No shrinkage of formwork occurs.  Easy to use.  Its volume is less  Its strength is more.
  • 32. QA/QC 32 Stages of Formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project  Assembly and erection  Concrete placement  Stripping & dismantling Different Structure of Formwork  Wall  Column  Slabs & Beam  Stairs
  • 33. QA/QC 33 Formwork for Wall DNEPL Pipeline Project  After completing one side of formwork reinforcement is provided at the place then the second side formwork is provided.
  • 34. QA/QC 34 Formwork for Column DNEPL Pipeline Project  After completing one side of Two end & two side planks are joined by the yokes and bolts.
  • 35. QA/QC 35 Formwork for Slab & Beams DNEPL Pipeline Project  Beam formwork rests on head tree  Slab form work rests on battens and joists  If prop height are more than 8’ provide horizontal braces.
  • 36. QA/QC 36 Formwork for Stairs DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 37. QA/QC 37 Deviation of Formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project Deviation in cross section of column & beams - 6mm to + 12 mm. Deviation from dimensions of footings Dimension in Plan +50 to -12 mm Eccentricity 0.02 times the width of the footing in the direction of Deviation but not more than 50mm Thickness +/- 0.05 times the specified Thickness. For Cast in-situ elements, the deviation of level of any point from the intended level +/- 10 mm Deviation in length / Straightness (Single or Continuous Member) In Length up to 3 m +/- 6 mm In Length up 3 m to 4.5 m +/- 9 mm In Length up 4.5m to 6m +/-12mm In Length additional deviation for every subsequent 6m +/- 6mm Deviation in Twist Upto 600mm wide and upto 6m in length +/- 6 mm Over 600mm wide and for any length +/-12mm
  • 38. QA/QC 38 Removal of Formwork DNEPL Pipeline Project Walls, columns and vertical faces of wall Structural members 16 to 24 hours Slabs (props left under) 3 days Beam Soffits (props left under) 7 days Removal of props under slabs Spanning upto 4.5m 7 days Spanning over 4.5m 7 days Removal of props under beams and arches Spanning upto 6m 14 days Spanning over 6m 21 days  Codes & Standards • IS 456 - Code practice for Plain & Reinforcement Concrete • IS 14687 - False work for concrete structures guidelines
  • 39. QA/QC 39 Reinforcement bar DNEPL Pipeline Project  Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), also known as reinforcing steel, is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension
  • 40. QA/QC 40 Types & Grades of Rebar DNEPL Pipeline Project  Strength grades of reinforcement steel  Storage  Reinforcements should not be left in direct contact with ground.  Reinforcement should be stacked on elevated ground and on top of timber sleepers, concrete sleepers or the like.
  • 41. QA/QC 41 Bar Bending Schedule DNEPL Pipeline Project  Bar Bending Schedule (BBS) is the schedule of reinforcement bars prepared in advance before cutting & bending of rebar’s as per IS 2502.  The schedule contains all details of size, shape, numbers & dimension of rebar to be cut as per the drawing requirements.
  • 42. QA/QC 42 General Reinforcement DNEPL Pipeline Project  Over lapping : It is done when length of reinforcement bar is small but we need longer reinforcement  Ties : Columns have closed lateral ties spaced approximately uniformly across the column  Hook : Used to resist expansion & Shall be bent 1350  Stirrups : Used to resist shear and diagonal tension stresses in a beam
  • 43. QA/QC 43 Cutting & Bending of Reinforcement DNEPL Pipeline Project  Bars shall be bent in accordance with the dimensions shown in the schedule.  The bar must be bend slowly to avoid capillary crack  Samples may be check to avoid wastages
  • 44. QA/QC 44 Fixing of Reinforcement DNEPL Pipeline Project  After the cutting bar, tie bar work fine with the wire.  Congestion of bars should be avoided at points  Use bar bending table.
  • 45. QA/QC 45 Fixing of Reinforcement DNEPL Pipeline Project Fixing of Spacer BarFixing of Chairs Fixing of Cover Block in Slab Fixing of Cover Block in Slab
  • 46. QA/QC 46 Tolerance for Reinforcement DNEPL Pipeline Project  Permissible Limits for cutting of reinforcement bars (As per IS 2502):  Permissible Limits for placing & Cover of reinforcement bars (As per IS 456):
  • 47. QA/QC 47 Codes & Standards of Reinforcement DNEPL Pipeline Project  IS 432 Part – 1 - Mild steel & medium tensile steel bars  IS 456 - Code practice for Plain & Reinforcement Concrete  IS 1786 - Code of practice for High Strength deformed Steel bars and wires for concrete Reinforcement  IS 2502 - Code of practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete reinforcement  SP 34 - Handbook on concrete reinforcement and detailing
  • 48. QA/QC 48 Concrete works DNEPL Pipeline Project  Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials.  Concrete is a composite material made from several readily available constituents (aggregates, sand, cement, water).
  • 49. QA/QC 49 Concrete Material DNEPL Pipeline Project  Cement  Fine Aggregate  Coarse Aggregate  Water  Admixture
  • 50. QA/QC 50 Mixing of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 51. QA/QC 51 Manual mix of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 52. QA/QC 52 Ready mix of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 53. QA/QC 53 Placing of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project • Pour cement slurry /bonding agent at construction joint. • Keep all things ready (labour /pump/ vibrator) • Never pour too low slump concrete. • Restrict Height of free fall through reinforcement as much as possible. • Place the concrete within stipulated time. • Avoid use of vibrator to spread the concrete
  • 54. QA/QC 54 Compaction of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project  Vertical penetration a few inches into previous lift (which should not yet be rigid) of systematic regular intervals will give adequate consolidation  Check the direction of rotation of vibrator.  Never touch needle to Reinforcement / Shutter.  Insert Quickly and take out slowly.  Insert the vibrator till previous layer.
  • 55. QA/QC 55 Finishing of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 56. QA/QC 56 Finishing of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 57. QA/QC 57 Curing of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project  Start Curing as soon as concrete is set.  Cure the concrete for minimum 7 days
  • 58. QA/QC 58 Testing of Concrete DNEPL Pipeline Project
  • 59. QA/QC 59 Permissible Limits of Concrete works DNEPL Pipeline Project  Water • Shall be clear and free from injurious amounts of Oil, Acid, Alkali, Organic matters or other harmful substances • Cross Sectional +10mm / -5mm • In position: ±10mm • In Level: ±10mm • The pH value of water shall not be less than 6. • Limits for Solids shall be as per IS 456 (Clause 5.4) .  Exposed Surface  Test Results • The Individual variation should not be more than ± 15mm
  • 60. QA/QC 60 Codes & Standards for Concrete works DNEPL Pipeline Project IS:383 & IS 2386 - Coarse and fine aggregate IS 456 - Code practice for Plain & Reinforcement Concrete IS 516 - Method of test for strength of concrete