Why study communication ppt @ bec doms


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Why study communication ppt @ bec doms

  1. 1. Why Study Communication? <ul><li>The Only Completely Portable Skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will use it in every relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will need it regardless of your career path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “Information Age” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of civilization is the history of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language and written documents facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge through time and space </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Why Study Communication? <ul><li>Your Quality of Life Depends Primarily on Your Communication Skills </li></ul><ul><li>You Cannot Be Too Good at Communication </li></ul><ul><li>People Overestimate Their Own Communication Skills </li></ul>
  3. 3. We Want Others to Change
  4. 4. What Is Communication? <ul><li>Transfer of Meaning—No </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Mental Maps—Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Redundant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthestic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energetic </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What Is Communication? <ul><li>Conscious and Intentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconscious and Unintentional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Unconscious Processing <ul><li>Conscious Processing = 7±2/Second </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious Processing = 200,000,000/Sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Habits <ul><li>Learned Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Established Over Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-talk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning <ul><li>Unconscious Incompetence </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious Incompetence </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul>
  9. 9. External Reality <ul><li>The Map is Not the Territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We delete information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We distort information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We generalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We assign meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models of the World </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sensory Data <ul><li>The Building Blocks of Subjective Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What we see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we touch, taste, and smell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Four-tuple </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings and Memories </li></ul>
  11. 11. Filtering Experience <ul><li>Primary Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Mediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal profiles of behavioral type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs, values, core questions, and core metaphors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and mental state </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Perception Can Be Tricky
  13. 13. The Communication Process Sensory Data Sensory Data Sender Receiver Filters Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State Filters Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State Decision- Making Message Channel The Bowman Communication Model, 1992-2003 Meaning Encoding Decision- Making Meaning Encoding
  14. 14. Metaphor: The Language of Perception <ul><li>Metaphors and Similes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My love is a flower. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My love is like a flower. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core Metaphors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argument is war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business is war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business is a sport or a game </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business is a building </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Core Metaphors <ul><li>Metaphors, Similes, and Analogies </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Filters </li></ul><ul><li>Common Operational Metaphors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time is… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men/Women are… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success is... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life is… </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Experience, Language, and Meaning Experience Sensory Data Mental Maps Language Meaning
  17. 17. Symbol Systems <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Words and sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning and labels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul>1+1=2
  18. 18. History of Communication <ul><li>Nonverbal: 150,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Oral: 55,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Written: 6,000 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early writing: 4000 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptian hieroglyphics: 3000 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoenician alphabet: 1500 to 2000 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book printing in China: 600 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book printing in Europe: 1400 AD </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Communicating Meaning <ul><li>Physiology and Appearance: 55 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage: 38 percent </li></ul><ul><li>Language: 7 percent </li></ul>
  20. 20. Sensory Data and Mental Maps <ul><li>Bridge Between Internal and External </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and External Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture and breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language and paralanguage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye accessing cues </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sensory Modalities <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional responses (feelings) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Preferred Sensory Modalities <ul><li>People Use All Their Available Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Some Prefer Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Some Prefer Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Some Prefer the Kinesthetic Cluster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senses of touch, taste, and smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated emotional responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Prefer “Digital” Processing </li></ul>
  23. 23. Visuals <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I see what you mean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It looks good to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s stay focused on the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She has a bright future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s always in a fog . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology and Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Auditories <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I hear what you are saying . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It sounds good to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the name Pavlov ring a bell? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s music to my ears . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s always blowing his own horn . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology and Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage </li></ul>
  25. 25. Kinesthetics (Kinos) <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I can grasp the concept, and it feels right to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It smells fishy to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It left me with a bad taste in my mouth . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She’s still rough around the edges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s a smooth operator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology and Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Paralanguage </li></ul>
  26. 26. Eye Accessing Cues Vr Ar Ai Vc Ac K
  27. 27. Exercise: Observing Eye Movements <ul><li>Ask questions that require internal processing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taste or smell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Exercise: Flexibility <ul><li>Determine your preferred system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are you doing when you “think”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speak for two minutes using predicates from one sensory modality, then do the the same for each of the other two. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work in groups and take turns speaking using sense-based predicates in a systematic way. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Rapport <ul><li>Finding Commonalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary and paralanguage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology and appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matching and Mirroring </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-over Matching </li></ul>People who are like each other, like each other .
  30. 30. Developing Rapport <ul><li>Nonverbal (what you see and do) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal (what you hear and say) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense-based predicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values, beliefs, and criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice tone and rate of speech </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Reading Nonverbal Messages <ul><li>Sensory Acuity </li></ul><ul><li>Agree and Disagree </li></ul><ul><li>Posture and Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated or dissociated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily response </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Exercises: Rapport <ul><li>Matching and Mirroring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practicing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calibration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like/dislike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes/no </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Congruence <ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left/right body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left/right brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal and Verbal Messages </li></ul><ul><li>“ Parts” </li></ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul>
  34. 35. Strategies <ul><li>The Structure of Subjective Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-tuples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learned Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTE (Test, Operate, Test, Exit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Common Strategies <ul><li>Spelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory (spell “phonics” phonetically) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening and speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul>Accommodate
  36. 37. Decision-making Strategies <ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inexpensive product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinner in a nice restaurant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An expensive product or service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Career Choices </li></ul>
  37. 38. Communication Strategy, 1 & 2 <ul><li>Pace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match (nonverbally and verbally) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain rapport </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Communication Strategy, 3 & 4 <ul><li>Blend Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand objectives and desires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create win-win solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify who does what next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future-pace possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presuppose positive results </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Exercise: Eliciting Strategies <ul><li>Ordering a Meal in a Restaurant </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Something New </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Something for the First Time </li></ul>
  40. 41. Personal Profiles <ul><li>Achiever </li></ul><ul><li>Communicator </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionist </li></ul>C S P A
  41. 42. Profile Characteristics <ul><li>Achiever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likes to set goals, challenge the environment and win. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees life as a competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likes to achieve results by working with and through people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finds more enjoyment in the process than in the results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Likes to plan work and relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finds enjoyment in knowing what to expect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perfectionist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys jobs requiring attention to detail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complies with authority and tries to provide the “right” answer. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Metaprograms <ul><li>Action — Initiate or Respond </li></ul><ul><li>Direction — Toward or Away From </li></ul><ul><li>Source — Internal or External </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct — Rule Follower or Breaker </li></ul>
  43. 44. More Metaprograms <ul><li>Response — Match or Mismatch </li></ul><ul><li>Scope — Global or Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Style — Thinking or Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation — VAK and Times </li></ul>
  44. 45. Exercise: Eliciting Metaprograms <ul><li>Metaprograms are revealed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s important to you about that? </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Changing Behavior <ul><li>Patterns and Pattern Interrupts </li></ul><ul><li>Anchors and Anchoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus-response conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic anchors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced Language Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Metamodel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Milton Model </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Exercise: Anchoring <ul><li>Setting Anchors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stacking Anchors </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsing Anchors </li></ul><ul><li>Using Sliding Anchors </li></ul>
  47. 48. The Structure of Subjective Experience <ul><li>Sorting for Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past, present, and future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sorting for Like and Dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and Changing Meaning </li></ul>
  48. 49. Modalities and Submodalities <ul><li>Visual Submodalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, size, distance, brightness, point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color or black & white, moving or still </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory Submodalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, tone, rate, pitch, inflection, rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language, voice (your voice, the voice of a parent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic Submodalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, strength, duration, movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality (warm, cold, “tingly,” etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Exercise: Changing Submodalities <ul><li>Select something, someone, or an activity you want to like better. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit submodalities for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things you like. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things you dislike. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change the submodalities with which you represent the thing, person, or activity. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Belief Systems <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Parental </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Global (Identity) </li></ul><ul><li>Cause-effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If X, then Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I study, then I will... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can/can’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must/must not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should/should not </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Values <ul><li>A Type of Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Either Positive or Negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something desired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something to avoid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congruent or Incongruent </li></ul>
  52. 53. Core Questions <ul><li>Remain Out of Conscious Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Influence Interpretation of Events </li></ul><ul><li>Influence Psychological State </li></ul><ul><li>Influence the Range of Possibilities </li></ul>
  53. 54. Exercise: Belief and Disbelief <ul><li>Elicit the submodalities of something you believe absolutely. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit the submodalities of something you doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit the submodalities of something you disbelieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a limiting belief and change its submodalities. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Frames and Reframes <ul><li>The Filters That Determine Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Influence State and Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and Changing Frames </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reframing Content </li></ul></ul>
  55. 56. Reframing Context <ul><ul><li>Key Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where would the characteristic or behavior be useful? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When would the characteristic or behavior be useful? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would have to be true for this to be useful? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Context Reframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rudolph’s red nose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procrastination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Reframing Content <ul><ul><li>Key Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What else could this mean (or be)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What am I missing here? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can he or she believe that? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How could this mean the opposite of what I thought? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Content Reframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ugly duckling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic or sawdust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 58. The Metamodel <ul><li>Used to Understand Another’s Mental Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Used to Recover Lost Information </li></ul><ul><li>Used to Help Correct Distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Metamodel Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What, who, or how specifically? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would happen if you did (or didn’t)? </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Metamodel “Violations” <ul><li>Unspecified Nouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract nouns (a student, teachers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominalizations (freedom, justice) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unspecified or Missing Pronouns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone you know. . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s wrong to think that. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Metamodel “Violations” <ul><li>Unspecified Verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have to learn this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will solve your problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unwarranted Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You never want to do anything. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politicians are crooks. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Metamodel “Violations” <ul><li>Unwarranted Comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand X gives you more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sally is the best. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unwarranted Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t do that on television. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean your plate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No pain, no gain. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. The Milton Model <ul><li>Used to Change Another’s Mental Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Used to Create New Possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Used to Influence </li></ul>
  62. 63. Milton Model Techniques <ul><li>Metamodel “Violations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unspecified nouns, pronouns, and verbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts in referential index </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. More Milton Model Techniques <ul><li>Presuppositions </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguities </li></ul>
  64. 65. Basic Language Skills <ul><li>My automobile prefers to warm up slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>The organization is in excellent shape. For example, the record profits last year. </li></ul><ul><li>The company has decided to purchase new furniture. </li></ul><ul><li>While busy working at the computer all day was no doubt the cause of her eye strain and stiff neck. </li></ul>
  65. 66. More Basic Language Skills <ul><li>Not only will Alex need to justify his behavior to his boss, but also to the company president. </li></ul><ul><li>The data is from “Service Is the Key”, by Eileen Johnson in the May issue of The Journal of Customer Relations. </li></ul>
  66. 67. Language Skills for Case 1 <ul><li>As an employee of Con-U-Tel, it is my responsibility to set up our companies annual convention. </li></ul><ul><li>I am writing this letter to inquire about your hotel’s accommodations. </li></ul><ul><li>How many people can your hotel accommodate at one time? </li></ul>
  67. 68. More Language Skills for Case 1 <ul><li>Does your hotel have banquet facilities? </li></ul><ul><li>How many conference rooms does your hotel have with audio/visual equipment? </li></ul><ul><li>I must have your answer by July 10th so that I can make a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you in advance for sending this and other helpful information. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Block Format and Mixed Punctuation <ul><li>Date goes on left margin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 January 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January 5, 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT : 1/5/2004 or 5.1.2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inside address includes the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of the individual with courtesy title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional title and/or office or department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization plus “mail stop” information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City, state, and ZIP code information </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Block Format and Mixed Punctuation—Part 2 <ul><li>Salutation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dear Ms. Goldman: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dear Director: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladies and Gentlemen: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The signature block includes the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An appropriate complimentary close (Sincerely, Cordially, Best Wishes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The signature of the person who wrote the letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The typed/printed name of the writer </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. Message Structure for Case 1 <ul><li>Ask the most important question. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the make-or-break question? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are convention facilities more important than guest rooms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it important to include the dates in the opening question? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain your needs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does she need to know to help you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does she not need to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is required for transition to the list of secondary questions? </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. More Structure for Case 1 <ul><li>Ask your secondary questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is implied by the numbered list? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you ensure that the information you receive will help you make a decision? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set and justify an end-date. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it possible that she can help you in ways you haven’t asked about? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you need a time index to justify a specific end-date? </li></ul></ul>