BEHAVIORISTIC FRAMEWORKStimuli – ResponseResponse = Stimulus + Environment +LearningThe scope of theOperant Theory ofBehaviorProf: Asim Naseer’s AssignmentSubmitted By Jamaluddin PanhwarRegistration No. 1552-410036
. . . . . . .. . . Dated : 16th January 2011What is “Behaviorist Framework” Behaviorist Framework is the second theory of human & animal behavior. In Behaviorist Framework human behavior is explained with as stimulus-response. A stimulus brings out a response in an individual and results in learning. The stimulus- response relationship explains the physical reflexes in human beings. For example, when a person is pricked with a pin, he immediately flinches. 2
To further understand this theory let us examine the two elements of thistheoryStimulusWhat is Stimulus: any change in an organism’senvironment that causes to the organism toreact. It is a fancy way of saying “cause”.Stimulus – singularStimuli – pluralExample: Food, Smell, Heat, Cold.ResponseResponse: how the organism reacts to a stimulus and results in a changein behavior. It is a fancy way of saying “effect”.Example: Getting a drink when you are thirsty.Stimulus - Response
. . . . . . .. . .The behavioristic Theory has two conditionsClassical ConditionsUnlike the earlier psychologists Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watsonfocused on observable behaviors rather than the evasive mind. Thebehavioristic Theory explained human behavior with the help ofstimulus-response experiments.A stimulus brings out a response in an individual and results inlearning. The stimulus- response relationship also explains thephysical reflexes in human beings. For example, when a person ispricked with a pin, he immediately flinches.Hence Stimulus Elicits Response (S-R)Operant ConditionThe classical conditions was further studied by B.F. Skinner and henamed his findings as “ Operant behavior” The Operant Behaviorindicates voluntary or learned behavior. Through his operantconditioning experiments, Skinner emphasized the importance ofstimulus-response relationship.He found that the consequences of response explain more aboutbehavior than the stimuli that elicit response.According to Skinner The stimulus serves as a cue to manifestcertain behavior and does not actually cause the behavior. Anindividual responds in a particular way to the stimulus and thisresults in certain consequences. He believed that behavior is afunction of its consequences.For instance, an organization passes a circular to its employeesasking them to stay longer in order to increase the production to 4
meet the increasing demand. Here, the circular is the stimulus. Theemployees may increase the production. This is the response. If theincrease in productivity is rewarded, it is the consequence. Skinnerexplained that certain behavior can be expected from an individualby creating a positive consequence desired by him.The behaviorist approach is based on the environment. Thoughcognitive processes like thinking, expectations and perception doexist, they are not needed to manage or predict behavior. However,some behavioral scientists believe that the cognitive variables dohave a role in the behaviorist approach. Continuous research effortshave led to the emergence of a new area called social learningapproach which incorporates both cognitive and behavioristconcepts.
. . . . . . .. . .HistoryIvan Pavlov and John B. Watson were the pioneers of thebehaviorist theory. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (September 14, 1849 - February 27, 1936) was born in a small village in central Russia. After reading Charles Darwin, he found that he cared more for scientific pursuits and left the seminary for the University of St. Petersburg. There he studied chemistry and physiology, and he received his doctorate in 1879. He continued his studies and began doing his own research in topics that interested him most: digestion and blood circulation. His work becamewell known, and he was appointed professor of physiology at theImperial Medical Academy.The work that made Pavlov a household name in psychologyactually began as a study in digestion. He was looking at thedigestive process in dogs, especially the interaction betweensalivation and the action of the stomach. 6
He realized they were closely linked by reflexes in the autonomicnervous system. Without salivation, the stomach didnt get themessage to start digesting. Pavlov wanted to see if external stimulicould affect this process, so he rang a metronome at the same timehe gave the experimental dogs food. After a while, the dogs -- whichbefore only salivated when they saw and ate their food -- wouldbegin to salivate when the metronome sounded, even if no foodwere present. In 1903 Pavlov published his results calling this a"conditioned reflex," different from an innate reflex, such as yankinga hand back from a flame, in that it had to be learned. Pavlov calledthis learning process (in which the dogs nervous system comes toassociate the sound of the metronome with the food, for example)"conditioning." He also found that the conditioned reflex will berepressed if the stimulus proves "wrong" too often. If the metronome sounds repeatedly and no food appears, eventually the dog stops salivating at the sound. Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an
. . . . . . .. . .American psychologist, author, inventor, social philosopher, andpoet. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at HarvardUniversity from 1958 until his retirement in 1974.Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, innovated hisown philosophy of science called Radical Behaviorism, andfounded his own school of experimental research psychology—theexperimental analysis of behavior. His analysis of human behaviorculminated in his work Verbal Behavior, which has recently seenenormous increase in interest experimentally and inapplied settings.Skinner discovered and advanced the rate of response as adependent variable in psychological research. He invented thecumulative recorder to measure rate of responding as part of hishighly influential work on schedules of reinforcement. In a June,2002 survey, Skinner was listed as the most influential psychologistof the 20th century. He was a prolific author who published 21books and 180 articles 8