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- 1. The Theory and Practice of Corporate
- 2. Some alternative investment rules <ul><li>From this handout we will start learning “capital budgeting”, the decision-making process of accepting or rejecting project. </li></ul><ul><li>The most useful decision rule is the net present value (NPV) rule where project is accepted when the net present value of the cash flow of the project is positive, and rejected if it is negative. </li></ul><ul><li>See next page </li></ul>
- 3. Some alternative investment rules (contd) <ul><li>Although NPV rule is our preferred rule, there are other investment rules that are used in practices. These alternative investment rules had been used for several reasons: These alternative rules may be easy to calculate, may be easy to understand, or may be used simply because it have been conventionally used. </li></ul>
- 4. Some alternative investment rules (contd) <ul><li>In this handout, we will learn some alternative investment rules. </li></ul><ul><li>First, this handout summarizes some reason we may prefer NPV rules. Then, it will explain </li></ul><ul><li>Payback Period Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Average accounting return rule </li></ul><ul><li>The internal rate of return </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability Index </li></ul>
- 5. Why use Net Present Value? <ul><li>A basic investment rule is to </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the project if the NPV is greater than zero </li></ul><ul><li>Reject the project if NPV is less than zero. </li></ul>
- 6. Why use Net Present Value? (Contd) <ul><li>First reason we prefer NPV rule is that accepting positive NPV projects benefits the stockholders. Suppose that a firm has a productive asset worth $V and has $100 of cash. Consider the following two strategies. The market interest rate is 0.06 </li></ul><ul><li>Use $100 of corporate cash to invest in the project. The $107 dividend will be paid as a dividend in one year. </li></ul><ul><li>Forgo the project and pay the $100 of corporate cash as a dividend today. </li></ul><ul><li>See next slide </li></ul>
- 7. Why use Net Present Value? (Contd) <ul><li>If the firm takes strategy (1), the value of the firm today will be </li></ul><ul><li>$V+$107/1.06=$V+$100.94 </li></ul><ul><li>If the firm takes the strategy (2), the value of the firm today will be </li></ul><ul><li>$V+$100 </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly the firm value for strategy (1) is greater than the firm value for strategy (2) by the amount equal to the net present value of the project ($0.94). Thus, accepting the positive NPV project will benefit the shareholder. </li></ul>
- 8. Why use Net Present Value? (Contd) <ul><li>Second reason we prefer the NPV rule is that, the firm value will increase by the NPV. This can be seen from the example in the previous slides. The firm value for strategy (1) was higher than the firm value for strategy (2) by the amount equal to the NPV of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, if the goal of the firm is to maximize its value, NPV rule gives clearer guidance than other alternative investment rules. </li></ul>
- 9. Alternative Investment rule <ul><li>Although NPV method is our preferred method for capital budgeting, it is worthwhile to learn other alternative methods. It is worthwhile, first because learning other methods highlights, and second because these alternative methods are used in the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>Next slides shows the extent to which these alternative methods are used in the real world. </li></ul>
- 10. The practice of capital budgeting <ul><li>According Graham, Campbell and Harvey “The Theory and Practice of Corporate Finance: Evidence from the Field” Journal of Financial Economics 2000, the practice of capital financing decision of majority of the US and Canadian companies are given by the following table. </li></ul>% of CFOs who always or almost always use a given technique % of almost always Internal Rate of Return 75.6% NPV 74.9% Payback method 56.7% Discounted payback 29.5% Accounting rate of return 30.3% Profitability index 11.9%
- 11. Alternative Investment rule (1): The Payback Period Rule <ul><li>“ Payback period” rule is the decision rule where you accept the project if the initial investment can be paid back within pre-determined criteria period. For example, if the predetermined criteria period is 4 years, then you will accept the investment project if the initial investment can be paid back within 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>There are certain problem with this “payback method” </li></ul><ul><li>When the payback period is computed (number of years to recover initial costs), typically the cash flow is not discounted </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Acceptance Criteria (criteria period) is set arbitrary by management </li></ul><ul><li>There may be several projects that can be accepted. Then criteria to rank amount these project is set arbitrary by the management. </li></ul>
- 12. Payback Period Rule Example <ul><li>Consider a project with the following cash flow. </li></ul><ul><li>If the minimum criteria for payback period is 3 years, is this project accepted? </li></ul><ul><li>You could see that payback period rule gives an easy-to-understand, and easy-to-compute investment decision rule: You do not have to consider the cash flow after the criteria period. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this also causes a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>See next page. </li></ul>Year Cash flow 0 -100 1 20 2 30 3 50 4 60 : :
- 13. Example 2 <ul><li>Now consider the three project given in the table. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>If the minimum criteria is 3 years, which project will be accepted? </li></ul><ul><li>This example shows some disadvantages of the payback period rule. </li></ul>Year Project A Project B Project C 0 -100 -100 -100 1 20 50 50 2 30 30 30 3 50 20 10 4 60 60 60000 : : : :
- 14. The Payback Period Rule (continued) <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignores the time value of money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignores cash flows after the payback period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biased against long-term projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires an arbitrary acceptance criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A project accepted based on the payback criteria may not have a positive NPV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to understand </li></ul></ul>
- 15. Alternative investment rule (2) The Discounted Payback Period Rule <ul><li>Since one of the problems with the payback method is that it does not discount the cash flow, one way to modify the method is to discount the cash flow and find out the payback period. </li></ul><ul><li>However, major problems still remain: You still have to arbitrarily set the criteria periods; the decision still have a bias against long term project since it still ignores the cash flow after the criteria period. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, by the time you have discounted the cash flows, you might as well calculate the NPV. </li></ul>
- 16. Alternative investment rule 3 Average accounting return <ul><li>The procedure of the AAR method is to accept the project if AAR is greater than a target return. </li></ul><ul><li>Although this procedure has several problems (which will be described later), this method provides a percentage return of the investment. Thus, this method provides an easy-to-understand decision rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Another popular alternative investment method is the average accounting return (AAR) method. The average accounting return (AAA) is given by the following. </li></ul>
- 17. Average Accounting Return Rule Example <ul><li>Consider a company that is evaluating whether to buy a new store in a new mall. The purchase price is $500,000. We will assume that the store has an estimated life of 5 years. We assume that the store will worth nothing at the end of the lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Excel Sheet “Average accounting return example” shows the estimated cash revenue and expenses for each of the 5 periods. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the file to compute the cash flow for each period by filling Table 1. Use straight line depreciation. </li></ul>
- 18. Average Accounting Return Rule Example (contd) Then, the average net income is given by Average Net Income =(100,000+150,000+50,000+0-50,000)/5=50,000 Table 1 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Revenue 433,333 450,000 266,667 200,000 133,333 Expense 200,000 150,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 Before tax Cash flow 233,333 300,000 166,667 100,000 33,333 Depreciation 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 100,000 Earning before tax 133,333 200,000 66,667 0 -66,667 tax 33,333 50,000 16,667 0 -16,667 Net Income 100,000 150,000 50,000 0 -50,000
- 19. Average Accounting Return Rule Example (contd) <ul><li>Now, compute the average investment of this project by filling Table 2 of “Average Accounting Return exercise”. </li></ul>
- 20. Average Accounting Return Rule Example (contd) We simply take the average of the investment. Notice that investment occurs at date 0. Therefore, there are 6 periods in this table. The average investment is then determined by Average Investment =(500,000+400,000+300,000+200,000+100,000+0)/6=250,000 Table 2 Year 0 Year 1 Year2 Year3 Year4 Year5 Value of the investment $500,000 $400,000 $300,000 $200,000 $100,000 $0
- 21. Average Accounting Return Rule Example (contd) <ul><li>Thus, the average accounting return of this example is given by </li></ul>If the company has a target average accounting return smaller than 20% (say 15%), the project will be accepted. If the company had a target AAR greater than 20%, the project will be rejected.
- 22. Problems with Average Accounting Return <ul><li>AAR uses accounting number. Since the decision to depreciate or expense a certain item depends on accountant judgment, the computed AAR is influenced by accountant judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum acceptance criteria is set arbitrarily by management. </li></ul><ul><li>AAR does not take into account the time value of money. </li></ul>
- 23. Alternative Investment rule 4 Internal Rate of Return <ul><li>Similar to average accounting return, internal rate of return provides a single number (in percentage) summarizing the merit of the project. Thus, this method provides an easy-to-understand decision rule for investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Rate of Return, however, has several problems. These problems will be discussed later in this handout. </li></ul>
- 24. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Example <ul><li>To see the basic idea of IRR decision rule, consider a project that generates one time cash flow of $110 thousand dollars next year. Initial cost of this investment is $100 thousand dollars, which will occur at today. Then, what is the return on this investment. See next Page </li></ul>
- 25. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Example, Contd <ul><li>To answer the question, we will solve the following equation for y. </li></ul>Solution to y is called the Internal Rate of Return. Internal rate of return for this example is 10%. This means that if the discount rate is lower than 10% (say 8%), it makes sense for the firm to invest in the project; the project provides a higher return than if the firm invests the money elsewhere. Thus, the basic IRR rule of investment is to accept the project if the IRR is greater than the discount rate.
- 26. Internal Rate of Return -Decision Rule- <ul><li>Consider an investment project with the following cash flow. </li></ul>Internal rate of return (IRR) is the solution to the following equation. Decision rule: The decision rule is to accept the project if IRR is greater than discount rate, and reject if IRR is smaller than the discount rate. Period 0 1 2 ··· T Cash flow ‒ C 0 C 1 C 2 ··· C T
- 27. Internal Rate of Return: Example <ul><li>Let us consider another example given in the graph below. </li></ul><ul><li>Although we can compute IRR by using excel function IRR(:), let us find IRR manually. </li></ul><ul><li>See next page. </li></ul>0 1 2 3 $50 $100 $150 -$200
- 28. Exercise <ul><li>To compute the IRR, consider to compute Z, which is defined in the following equation, for many different value of y. </li></ul>Notice that IRR is the value of y that makes Z equal to zero Use “Internal Rate of Return Exercise”, fill the table, and graph Z against y to find the IRR.
- 29. Answer <ul><li>IRR is computed as 19.44%. Therefore, if the discount rate is smaller than 19.44%, the project is accepted. </li></ul>
- 30. Internal Rate of Return <ul><li>As can be seen from the example in the previous slides, internal rate of return provides a single number that summarizes the merit of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the IRR does not depend on the discount rate, this is called “internal rate of return”; the number that is intrinsic to the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Although IRR is attractive decision rule, it has several problems, which are summarized in the following slides. </li></ul>
- 31. Problems with IRR approach (1) Multiple solutions <ul><li>Consider the following case. </li></ul>Exercise: Use “problem with IRR 1”. Compute Z for each value of y, and graph Z against y. Period 0 1 2 Cash flow -100 230 -132
- 32. Answer <ul><li>There are two solutions to IRR. This typically occurs when negative cash flow occurs sometime after the initial period. </li></ul><ul><li>Although such cash flow seems strange, it is not uncommon. For example, strip-mining project requires the excavation of the earth at the initial period. When all the mineral is extracted, the company will have to reclaim the land causing cash outflow. . </li></ul>
- 33. Problems with IRR approach (1) Multiple solutions, Contd <ul><li>When cash flow exhibits “flip-flop” pattern, (the project has negative cash flow, positive cash flow, and then negative cash flow), the multiple solution is likely to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Modified IRR” method can be used for such a case. Consider the same example. The cash flow is [-$100, $230, -$132] </li></ul><ul><li>Modified IRR combines the second cash flow ($230) and the third cash flow (-$132) using a discount rate so that there is only one change in sign. </li></ul><ul><li>See next page </li></ul>
- 34. Problems with IRR approach (1) Multiple solutions, (modified IRR, contd) <ul><li>Suppose that the discount rate is 14%. Then, modified IRR combines the second cash flow and the third cash flow by </li></ul><ul><li>$230 ‒$132/(1+0.14)=$114.21 </li></ul><ul><li>After combining the second and third cash flow, the modified cash flow of the project looks like [-$100, $114.21] </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you compute the IRR using the modified cash flow. If the resulting IRR is greater than the discount rate you used (14%), the project is accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, modified IRR is 14.21%. Since this is greater than the discount rate 14%, this project will be accepted. </li></ul>
- 35. Problems with IRR approach (1) Multiple solutions, (modified IRR, contd) <ul><li>The modified IRR may solve the problem. But this method violates the fundamental spirit of IRR that it does not depend on the discount rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, if there are several negative cash flows, this modified IRR becomes difficult to implement. </li></ul><ul><li>This problem shows one of the reasons why we prefer the net present value method over IRR rule. </li></ul>
- 36. Problems with IRR approach (2) -Two period cash flow, with negative cash outflow coming in second period- <ul><li>Suppose a company conduct a seminar. The participants pay the fees in advance. Therefore, the cash inflow occurs at date 0 (today). The large expense occurs at the seminar date. Therefore, the negative cash flow occurs at date 1 (1 period from today). See Next Page </li></ul>
- 37. Problems with IRR approach (2) -Two period cash flow, with negative cash outflow coming in second period- Contd <ul><li>Suppose that the cash flow of the project is given by the following. </li></ul>Suppose that the cash flow of the project is given by the following. If you compute the IRR of this project, it will be 30% See next page Period 0 1 Cash flow 100 -130
- 38. Problems with IRR approach (2) -Two period cash flow, with negative cash outflow coming in second period- Contd <ul><li>This particular case gives rise to the following unusual decision making rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> The decision making rule when the data 0 cash flow is positive and date 1 cash flow is negative is to accept the project if IRR is less than the discount rate, and reject if IRR is greater than the discount rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The intuitive reason for this unusual decision rule is the following. </li></ul>
- 39. Problems with IRR approach (2) -Two period cash flow, with negative cash outflow coming in second period- Contd <ul><li>Investing in this seminar project is like borrowing $100 at data 0, and paying back $130 at date 1. Internal rate of return on 30% is like borrowing $100 at 30% interest rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, if the discount rate (market interest rate) is smaller than the IRR, (say 25%), it makes more sense to borrow from the bank than investing in the project. This leads to the decision rule to reject the project when IRR is greater than the discount rate. </li></ul><ul><li>As can be seen, this could cause a confusion for the decision making. This is another reason we prefer net present value method over IRR method. </li></ul>
- 40. Problem with IRR (3) -Scale Problem- <ul><li>Another problem of IRR is that it does not take into account the scale of the project. For example, consider two projects, project A and project B. Project A is a small project (initial cost of $10,000) with 20% internal rate of return. Project B is large project (initial cost of $100 million) with 10% internal rate of return. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the project B will bring larger cash flows, IRR decision rule would falsely make the project A appear more attractive. This is the basic illustration of scale problem. See next page. </li></ul>
- 41. Problem with IRR (3) -Scale Problem- <ul><li>Scale problem becomes a problem when there are two mutually exclusive projects. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually exclusive projects : Project A and B are called mutually exclusive if you cannot accept both project at the same time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If two projects are not mutually exclusive, you can accept both projects as long as both projects have IRRs greater than the discount rate. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if two projects are mutually exclusive, you have to choose either project A or B. If IRR method is used for this purpose, scale problem may occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>See the example in the next slide, </li></ul>
- 42. Problem with IRR (3) -Scale Problem- Example <ul><li>Consider you produce a movie on either a small budget or a big budget. Then two plans are mutually exclusive. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise: Fill in the blanks. </li></ul>Cash Flow at date 0 Cash flow at date 1 IRR NPV at 25% discount rate Small budget -10 million $40 million Big budget -25 million $65million
- 43. Problem with IRR (3) -Scale Problem- Example <ul><li>IRR for small budget movie is 300%, while IRR for a big budget movie is 160%. However, net present value of the project B is greater. </li></ul><ul><li>If we blindly apply IRR method to the decision to choose between small budget and large budget movies, we would choose low budget movie since it has higher IRR. However, it has a smaller net present value. This is the problem of scale problem in IRR method, and is one of the reasons NPV method is preferred over IRR method. </li></ul><ul><li>We can somehow remedy this problem by using incremental IRR. See next page. </li></ul>
- 44. Problem with IRR (3) -Scale Problem- Example contd <ul><li>Incremental IRR: First you compute the incremental (or additional) cash flow from choosing small budget instead of large budget. Then compute incremental IRR. </li></ul>‒ $25m ‒(‒$10m) = ‒$15m $65m ‒ $40m = $25m Incremental IRR= 66.67% Period 0 1 IRR Small budget ‒ $10m $40m 300% Large budget ‒ $25m $65m 160% Incremental cash flow from choosing large budget instead of small budget
- 45. Problem with IRR (3) -Scale Problem- Example contd <ul><li>In the previous slide, incremental IRR is 66.67%. This means that choosing large budget movie instead of small budget move will brings additional return of 66.67%. Put differently, increasing the budget from small to large will bring additional return of 66.67%. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, if 66.67% is greater than the discount rate, large budget movies should be accepted because 66.67% is the additional return from increasing the size of the project. </li></ul>
- 46. Alternative Investment Rule 5 -Profitability Index (PI)- <ul><li>Profitability index also provides a single number that summarizes the merit of a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability Index is computed as </li></ul>
- 47. Alternative Investment Rule 5 -Profitability Index Example- <ul><li>Consider a project with the following cash flows. Assume the discount rate of 12%. </li></ul>Using this example, the profitability Index is computed in the following ways. See next slides. Period 0 1 2 Cash flow -20 70 10
- 48. Alternative Investment Rule 5 -Profitability Index Example- First, you compute the present discount value of cash flows subsequent to the initial investment with discount rate of 12%. This is given by Then, the profitability index is computed by dividing the above number ($70.5) by the initial investment ($20). Therefore, the Profitability Index (PI) for this example is given by
- 49. <ul><li>Decision to accept or reject an independent project is given by the following. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision rule: Accept the project if PI >1. Reject if PI<1. </li></ul>Alternative Investment Rule 5 -Profitability Index Decision rules-
- 50. A problem with the profitability index <ul><li>A problem occurs when we consider two mutually exclusive project. As was the case in the IRR method, profitability method does not take the size of the project into account. </li></ul><ul><li>To illustrate the problem, consider the following two mutually exclusive project. </li></ul>Period 0 1 2 Project 1 -20 70 10 Project 2 -10 15 40
- 51. A problem with the profitability index, Contd <ul><li>As an exercise, compute profitability index for both projects. Assume the discount rate of 12% </li></ul>Period 0 1 2 Project 1 -20 70 10 Project 2 -10 15 40
- 52. A problem with the profitability index, contd <ul><li>As can be seen, project 2 has greater PI. However, since profitability index is the ratio, PI misses out the fact that project 2 is a smaller project. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, if the size of the projects are different, it is not necessarily the case that project with greater profitability index is more attractive project. </li></ul><ul><li>We can remedy this weakness by using incremental cash flow. </li></ul><ul><li>See next page. </li></ul>Period 0 1 2 PI Project 1 -20 70 10 3.53 Project 2 -10 15 40 4.53
- 53. A problem with the profitability index, contd <ul><li>Exercise: Profitability index for incremental cash folow: Complete the following table </li></ul>Period 0 1 2 PI Project 1 -20 70 10 3.53 Project 2 -10 15 40 4.53 Incremental cash flow (1-2) PI for the incremental cash flow=
- 54. A problem with the profitability index, contd <ul><li>The profitability index for the incremental cash flow was 2.52. This means that choosing project 1 instead of project 2 will still increase profit. Put differently, increasing the size of the project from project 2 to project 1 will bring additional profit. Thus, project 1 is preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>As can be seen, scale problem can be remedied by computing the PI for incremental cash flow. However, net present value method is more straightforward when choosing between mutually exclusive projects. </li></ul>
- 55. The practice of capital budgeting <ul><li>According Graham, Campbell and Harvey “The Theory and Practice of Corporate Finance: Evidence from the Field” Journal of Financial Economics 2000, the practice of capital financing decision of majority of the US and Canadian companies are given by the following table. </li></ul>% of CFOs who always or almost always use a given technique % of almost always IRR 75.6% NPV 74.9% Payback method 56.7% Discounted payback 29.5% Accounting rate of return 30.3% Profitability index 11.9%

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