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Self efficacy ppt of HRM MBA 4 SEM


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Self efficacy ppt of HRM MBA 4 SEM

  1. 1. SELF-EFFICACY 9/10/2013
  2. 2. Self -Efficacy • Self-efficacy is belief in one’s capacity to succeed at tasks. Specific self-efficacy refers to beliefs about one’s ability to perform specific tasks. 9/10/2013
  3. 3. What is Self-Efficacy? • According to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy is “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations”. • In other words, self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. Bandura described these beliefs as determinants of how people think, behave, and feel. 9/10/2013
  4. 4. The Role of Self-Efficacy • Virtually all people can identify goals they want to accomplish, things they would like to change, and things they would like to achieve. However, most people also realize that putting these plans into action is not quite so simple. Bandura and others have found that an individual’s self-efficacy plays a major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached. 9/10/2013
  5. 5. People with a strong sense of self-efficacy: • View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered. • Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate. • Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities. • Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments 9/10/2013
  6. 6. People with a weak sense of self efficacy: • Avoid challenging tasks. • Believe that difficult tasks and situations are beyond their capabilities. • Focus on personal failings and negative outcomes. • Quickly lose confidence in personal abilities. 9/10/2013
  7. 7. Sources of Self-Efficacy • How does self-efficacy develop? • These beliefs begin to form in early childhood as children deal with a wide variety of experiences, tasks, and situations. However, the growth of self-efficacy does not end during youth, but continues to evolve throughout life as people acquire new skills, experiences, and understanding. 9/10/2013
  8. 8. According to Bandura, there are four major sources of self-efficacy. 1. Mastery Experiences 2. Social Modeling 3. Social Persuasion 4. Psychological Responses 9/10/2013
  9. 9. 1. Mastery Experiences • "The most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences,“. • Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of self- efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy. 9/10/2013
  10. 10. 2. Social Modeling • Witnessing other people successfully completing a task is another important source of self-efficacy. • “Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities master comparable activities to succeed” 9/10/2013
  11. 11. 3. Social Persuasion • Bandura also asserted that people could be influenced to belief that they have the skills and capabilities to succeed. • Consider a time when someone said something positive and encouraging that helped you achieve a goal. • Getting verbal encouragement from others helps people overcome self-doubt and instead focus on giving their best effort to the task at hand. 9/10/2013
  12. 12. 4. Psychological Responses • Our own responses and emotional reactions to situations also play an important role in self-efficacy. • Moods, emotional states, physical reactions, and stress levels can all impact how a person feels about their personal abilities in a particular situation. • A person who becomes extremely nervous before speaking in public may develop a weak sense of self- efficacy in these situations. 9/10/2013
  13. 13. Efficacy-Activated Processes A. Cognitive Processes • The effects of self-efficacy beliefs on cognitive processes take a variety of forms. • Much human behavior, being purposive, is regulated by forethought embodying valued goals. Personal goal setting is influenced by self-appraisal of capabilities. • The stronger the perceived self-efficacy, the higher the goal challenges people set for themselves and the firmer is their commitment to them. 9/10/2013
  14. 14. Conti.., B. Motivational Processes • Self-beliefs of efficacy play a key role in the self- regulation of motivation. Most human motivation is cognitively generated. People motivate themselves and guide their actions anticipatorily by the exercise of forethought. They form beliefs about what they can do. They anticipate likely outcomes of prospective actions. They set goals for themselves and plan courses of action designed to realize valued futures. 9/10/2013
  15. 15. Conti.., C. Affective Processes • People's beliefs in their coping capabilities affect how much stress and depression they experience in threatening or difficult situations, as well as their level of motivation. • Perceived self-efficacy to exercise control over stressors plays a central role in anxiety arousal. • People who believe they can exercise control over threats do not conjure up disturbing thought patterns. • But those who believe they cannot manage threats experience high anxiety arousal. 9/10/2013
  16. 16. Conti.., D. Selection Processes • The discussion so far has centered on efficacy-activated processes that enable people to create beneficial environments and to exercise some control over those they encounter day in and day out. • People are partly the product of their environment. Therefore, beliefs of personal efficacy can shape the course lives take by influencing they types of activities and environments people choose. • People avoid activities and situations they believe exceed their coping capabilities. But they readily undertake challenging activities and select situations they judge themselves capable of handling. • By the choices they make, people cultivate different competencies, interests and social networks that determine life courses. 9/10/2013
  17. 17. Development and Exercise of Self-Efficacy Over the Lifespan A. Origins of a Sense of Personal Agency. B. Familial Sources of Self-Efficacy. C. Broadening of Self-Efficacy Through Peer Influences. D. School as an Agency for Cultivating Cognitive Self-Efficacy. 9/10/2013
  18. 18. Conti…, E. Growth of Self-Efficacy Through Transitional Experiences of Adolescence F. Self-Efficacy Concerns of Adulthood G. Reappraisals of Self-Efficacy With Advancing Age 9/10/2013
  19. 19. Self-efficacy pros • Self-constructs seem to be positively associated with other desirable qualities, such as better quality of live, higher academic performance, character development and personal growth. 9/10/2013
  20. 20. Self- efficacy cons • Simply boosting self-esteem without boosting personal skill, it has been argued, creates more serious problems arising from the self-deception • This area deserves further research. Among other tasks, attention needs to be paid to distinguishing shallow self- esteem boosting methods form well developed, effective approaches to personal and social development. 9/10/2013
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