Organizational behavior ppt @ bec doms baglkot


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  • 11 According to the current view of managerial functions, the central role for managers is to provide leadership and direction. Managers and employees now share the responsibility for the other traditional managerial functions. In some businesses, teams handle the controlling and monitoring functions. For example, many organizations use Total Quality Management --a concept popularized by W. Edwards Deming to promote customer satisfaction through continuous improvement of business processes. Continuous improvement requires all employees to improve the quality of products or services on an on-going basis. Managing quality becomes everyone’s job.
  • 14 Managers must manage change by recognizing and adapting to new trends. Therefore, managers must analyze business, social, cultural, and political trends; understand the implications of these trends; and adapt to them. The traditional vertical career ladder is becoming increasingly rare. Moreover, few organizations promise long, stable employment. As a result, managers must manage their own careers through creative planning and by actively seeking training, education, and new learning opportunities. Establishing and managing strong relationships with people within and without the organization will be important to future managers. Therefore, they must master the skill of managing diverse relationships --that is, the ability to guide and control personal and work relationships effectively. Managers must be able to delegate tasks and empower employees and team members. While delegation refers to assigning various tasks to employees, empowerment goes one step further. Managers give employees the authority and responsibility to complete tasks; thus, employees are empowered to be in charge of jobs.
  • 4 Organizations are groups of two or more people who cooperate and coordinate their activities in a systematic manner to reach their goals. Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of how people behave in organizations as individuals or as teams and how organizations structure human resources to achieve their goals. The purpose of OB is to understand people in organizations, to provide managers and practitioners with effective management tools, and to help organizations achieve their goals.
  • In an open system, an organization takes in resources from its external environment and converts or transforms them into goods and services that are sent back to that environment, where they are bought by customers. The activities of most organizations can be modeled using the open-systems view. Consider asking students to apply the open systems model to a company’s processes. The system is said to be open because the organization draws from and interacts with the external environment to secure resources, transform them, and then sell the products created to customers.
  • 4 Figure 1.1 illustrates how organizational behavior concepts and theories allow people to correctly understand, describe, and analyze the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations, and the organization itself.
  • Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual. OB is particularly important to managers.
  • Figure 1.3 illustrates how the text covers the three levels of organizational behavior. Part I includes chapters 2-9. Part 2 includes chapters 10-15. Part 3 includes chapters 16-18.
  • 5 The first level of Organizational Behavior (micro OB) studies the individual. It is the smallest level of organizational analysis and includes topics such as perception, personality, motivation, and learning. The second level of organizational behavior is the small group that is made up of individual employees (two people or more) within an organization. It includes issues of group size and composition, cohesion, trust, conflict management, team building, small-group decision making, and leadership. The third level of OB analysis (macro OB) involves larger groups, such as departments, and organizational processes. Topics include the design and structure of organizations, organizational culture and strategy, organizational power and politics, change, and organizational effectiveness. Most managers must understand their organizations at all three levels of analysis to meet the daily challenges they face.
  • 17 Though the world is becoming more interconnected, culture, politics, and religion can impede day-to-day business interactions. To manage the process of globalization more effectively, countries are signing agreements to reduce tariffs, subsidies, quotas, and other obstacles to business cooperation. Managers face two cultural issues in the workplace. As companies step outside their national borders, managers must change their managerial practices to fit other cultures. In addition, they must also deal with cultural diversity --differences due to ethnicity, religion, age, or sexual orientation. Globalization and technology are changing the marketplace. Managing the rapid pace of change is another challenge that managers and organizations face. If well managed, change can promote growth; if poorly managed, change can devastate any organization. Businesses must respond to the needs of customers in order to succeed. The challenge of delivering high quality and low cost has forced organizations to seek ways to become more efficient. Businesses must remain responsive to external and internal stakeholders --the individuals or groups that have some interest or stake in the organization. But what may benefit one group of stakeholders may hurt another group. To balance the needs of multiple stakeholders, managers must analyze business decisions in light of legal concerns, ethical considerations, and social responsibilities.
  • 18 Organizations are going global by expanding markets and operations all over the world. In addition, firms are promoting diversity and training managers to handle cultural diversity. To face the global, quality, and efficiency challenges, many organizations are restructuring --that is, changing the way human resources are organized. The goals of restructuring are increased flexibility, quicker response to external changes, and more fluid structures. Entrepreneurs provide considerable competition for large businesses. Free of bureaucratic red tape and more connected to their customers, they can “turn on a dime” when a new opportunity or challenge arises. The flexibility, creativity, and responsiveness of entrepreneurs are benefits that many large businesses try to harness by encouraging intrapreneurs --employees in large organizations that have the drive, creativity, and flexibility of entrepreneurs. Through the use of high technology , business organizations can become more flexible and efficient. Computer networks, state-of-the-art hardware and software, information technology, telecommunication tools, automation, and robotics allow organizations to do more in less time.
  • 19 To respond to globalization and cultural issues , managers must learn to work with people from other countries effectively and manage diverse cultures inside and outside the organization. To keep up with the rapid pace of change , managers must recognize, adapt to, and reap the inherent benefits of change. To respond to customer demands for low-cost, high-quality products and services, managers must adjust to new situations quickly, respond to organizational and customer demands efficiently, and think broadly and creatively. Managers must work with a diverse workforce, be socially responsible and aware of ethical issues, and consider the effects of business activities on multiple stakeholders .
  • Organizational behavior ppt @ bec doms baglkot

    2. 2. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>Define organizational behavior (OB). </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what managers do. </li></ul><ul><li>List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB. </li></ul>
    3. 3. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>Describe why managers require a knowledge of OB. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the need for a contingency approach to the study of OB. </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Managers Do <ul><li>Managerial Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Direct activities of others to attain goals </li></ul>
    5. 5. Where Managers Work
    6. 6. The Management Process Resources Human Financial Physical Informational Goal Achievements Management Functions Planning Organizing Directing Controlling
    7. 7. Management Functions Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
    8. 8. Management Functions (cont’d)
    9. 9. Management Functions (cont’d)
    10. 10. Management Functions (cont’d)
    11. 11. Management Functions (cont’d)
    12. 12. Continuous Improvement Total Quality Management New Managerial Functions
    13. 13. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul><ul><li>Decisional </li></ul>
    14. 14. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
    15. 15. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)
    16. 16. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)
    17. 17. Management Skills
    18. 18. New Managerial Skills Delegation and Empowerment Managing Diversity Managing Change Managing One’s Career
    19. 19. Effective Versus Successful Managerial Activities (Luthans) <ul><li>Traditional management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making, planning, and controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resource management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Allocation of Activities by Time
    21. 21. Organizational Behavior How Organizations Use Human Resources to Achieve Goals How People Behave in Organizations
    22. 22. What is Organizational Behavior? <ul><li>Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study: </li></ul><ul><li>of human behavior in organizational settings; </li></ul><ul><li>of the interface between human behavior and the organization; </li></ul><ul><li>of the organization itself. </li></ul><ul><li>All these three areas are necessary for a comprehensive understanding </li></ul><ul><li>or organizational behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>We can study individual behavior without explicitly considering the </li></ul><ul><li>organization. But the organization influences and is influenced </li></ul><ul><li>by the individual, we cannot fully understand the individual’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>without learning something about the organization. </li></ul>
    23. 23. What is Organizational Behavior? Contd.,
    24. 24. An Open Systems View of Organizations and OB
    25. 25. Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior <ul><li>Organizations (Illustrate with examples) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is OB? </li></ul><ul><li>Link organizations and OB </li></ul>
    26. 26. Figure 1.1 What is Organizational Behavior? Insert Figure 1.1 here
    27. 27. Figure 1.2 Levels of Analysis Group Level Individual Level Organizational Level
    28. 28. Figure 1.3 Components of Organizational Behavior Understanding organizational behavior requires studying Individuals in Organizations Group and Team Processes Organizational Processes
    29. 29. Organizational Behaviour <ul><li>. . . a field of study that investigates how individuals, groups and structure affect and are affected by behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Why Do We Study OB? <ul><li>To learn about yourself and others </li></ul><ul><li>To understand how the many organizations you encounter work. </li></ul><ul><li>To become familiar with team work </li></ul><ul><li>To help you think about the people issues faced by managers and entrepreneurs </li></ul>
    31. 31. What is an Organization? <ul><li>A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals </li></ul>.
    32. 32. What is an Organization? <ul><li>A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals </li></ul>.
    33. 33. How Companies are Changing <ul><li>“ Cool” Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Believe casual days are progressive </li></ul><ul><li>Believe titles are obsolete </li></ul><ul><li>Don't impose on employees' personal time </li></ul><ul><li>Allow staff to come and go as they please   </li></ul><ul><li>Offer all employees stock options </li></ul><ul><li>Let employees make decisions that affect their work </li></ul><ul><li>Offer assistance with childcare </li></ul><ul><li>Have minimal bureaucracy (red tape) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Old” Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Think casual Fridays are pitiful </li></ul><ul><li>Charge employees for perks and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Hold events on employee time </li></ul><ul><li>Have flex time: but only between 7:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Hide financial results from their employees </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage employee input -- but rarely act on it </li></ul><ul><li>Employ rigid hierarchies (chain of command) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop at “open door” policies </li></ul>
    34. 34. Exhibit 1-1 Challenges Facing the Workplace Workplace Organizational Level • Productivity • Developing effective employees • Global competition • Managing in the global village Group Level • Working with others • Workforce diversity Individual Level • Job satisfaction • Empowerment • Behaving ethically
    35. 35. Exhibit 1-4 The Layers of OB The Organization Negotiation Conflict Communication Groups and teams Power and politics The Group Emotions Values and attitudes Perception Personality Motivating self and others The Individual Change Organizational culture Decision making Leadership Groups and teams
    36. 36. Exhibit 1-3 Toward an OB Discipline Social psychology Psychology Behavioural science Contribution Unit of analysis Output Anthropology Sociology Political science Study of Organizational Behaviour Organization system Learning Motivation Perception Training Leadership effectiveness Job satisfaction Individual decision making Performance appraisal Attitude measurement Employee selection Work design Work stress Group dynamics Work teams Communication Power Conflict Intergroup behaviour Formal organization theory Organizational technology Organizational change Organizational culture Conflict Intraorganizational politics Power Organizational culture Organizational environment Behavioural change Attitude change Communication Group processes Group decision making Group Comparative values Comparative attitudes Cross-cultural analysis Individual
    37. 37. Bottom Line: OB Is For Everyone <ul><li>Organizational behaviour is not just for managers. </li></ul><ul><li>OB applies equally well to all situations in which you interact with others: on the basketball court, at the grocery store, in school, or in church. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Summary and Implications <ul><li>OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>OB focuses on improving productivity, reducing absenteeism and turnover, and increasing employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behaviour. </li></ul>
    39. 39. The Three Levels of Organizational Behavior Organizational Processes The Individual Group Processes
    40. 40. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
    41. 41. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
    42. 42. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
    43. 43. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
    44. 44. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)
    45. 45. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS <ul><li>Key </li></ul><ul><li>forces </li></ul><ul><li>affecting </li></ul><ul><li>organizational </li></ul><ul><li>behavior </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>Individual Differences and Work Behavior   </li></ul><ul><li>Direct effect on behavior, people … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceive things differently behave differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different attitudes respond differently to directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different personalities interact differently with bosses, coworkers, subordinates, and customers </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Individual differences help explain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some people embrace change and others are fearful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some employees will be productive unsupervised and others only if they are closely supervised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some workers learn new tasks more effectively than others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>
    48. 48. Attraction-Selection-Attrition   (ASA) Cycle  <ul><li>Different people are attracted to different careers and organizations as a function of their own: abilities, interests, personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are selected based on needs: skills and abilities and individual attributes such as values and personality </li></ul><ul><li>Attrition occurs when: individuals discover they do not like being part of the organization and elect to resign, or the organization determines an individual is not succeeding and elects to terminate </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul>
    49. 49. <ul><li>Each phase of the ASA cycle is significantly influenced by the individual differences of each person  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective managerial practice requires that individual behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.  </li></ul>
    50. 50. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Physiological variable Age Sex Physical feature Socio psychological variable Personality Perception Learning Attitude EQ motivation Situational variable Orgn variable Org structure Org processes Org culture Job variables Nature of job Work environment
    51. 51. Challenges and Opportunity for OB <ul><li>Responding to Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Workforce Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Quality and Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to the Labor Shortage </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Customer Service </li></ul>
    52. 52. Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) <ul><li>Improving People Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering People </li></ul><ul><li>Coping with “Temporariness” </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation Innovation and Change </li></ul><ul><li>Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Ethical Behavior </li></ul>
    53. 53. The Setting For Organizational Behavior <ul><li>Management practices and organization design are major contributors to employee attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. </li></ul>Management Organization Employee Attitudes, Motivation & Behavior
    54. 54. The Origin of Organizations Societal Needs give rise to . Organizations
    55. 55. The Origin of Different Types of Organizations Different Societal Needs give rise to . Organizational Differentiation
    56. 56. Organizational Chart <ul><li>A schematic drawing that depicts hierarchical relationships (chain of command) among all positions in the organization. </li></ul>Nonmanager Nonmanagers Managers Key Nonmanager Nonmanager Nonmanager Nonmanager Nonmanager Nonmanager Nonmanager Manager Director Director Director Director Director Director Manager Vice President Vice President Vice President President
    57. 57. Organization Defined <ul><li>“ Machine” Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A technical or mechanical system that transforms inputs into the goods and services required to serve a societal need. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social System Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system characterized by relatively enduring interaction patterns that link people and people as they pursue organizational goals. </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. The Machine View of Organization Imported Resources The Work Organization Exported Goods and Services Input System Throughput System Output System
    59. 59. Strategic Choices External Environment Strategic Choices Management Practices Organization Design Employee Attitudes, Motivation & Behavior Management Philosophy Organizational Goals (“reason for being”)
    60. 60. Challenges for Today’s Organizations Rapid Pace of Change Multiple Stakeholders Globalization and Culture High Quality and Low Cost
    61. 61. The Response of Organizations Globalization and Cultural Issues Rapid Pace of Change Demand for Quality and Low Cost Multiple Stakeholders Going Global and Promoting Diversity Restructuring Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship High-Technology
    62. 62. The Response of Managers Globalization and Cultural Issues Rapid Pace of Change Demand for Quality and Low Cost Multiple Stakeholders Work With Others and Manage Diversity Identify and Harness Opportunities Be Flexible, Learn Fast, and Think Creatively Adopt a Broad, Big-Picture View
    63. 63. Basic OB Model, Stage I
    64. 64. The Dependent Variables x y
    65. 65. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)
    66. 66. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)
    67. 67. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)
    68. 68. The Dependent Variables (cont’d)
    69. 69. The Independent Variables Independent Variables Individual-Level Variables Organization System-Level Variables Group-Level Variables