At this point: 1. Introduce yourself - your students are likely to want to know something about your qualifications and interests - overall, where you are coming from. 2. Have students introduce themselves. Ask why they are taking this class. If you are fortunate enough to have a Polaroid camera, take pictures of each student for later posting on a class “board” so both they and you get to know each other. 3. Discuss both choice of textbook and development of syllabus. 4. If you are expecting students to work in teams, at east introduce the choice of team members. If at all possible, have students participate in a team building or team study exercise. It works wonders. Most student have been told to work in teams in prior classes, but have never examined exactly what a team is and how it works. One hour spent in a team building/examination exercise saves many hours and avoids many problems later on.
Two additional points: 1. Any activity is an “operation” 2. No company produces only “goods” - service is a greater or lesser part of any product. (Discuss this in more detail later)
Here is the point at which you can add to your discussion of the three business functions. In an effort to encourage student participation, you might allow students to lead the discussion as to the nature of each function, while you lead the discussion as to the relationship of the individual functions to the larger business. Initiate a class discussion about how these functions expand as the firm grows and how new activities have become important (i.e., MIS and Human Resources)
One might ask students to consider: - marketing => deciding what is needed - finance => securing resources - operations => doing it! What are the limitations of this perspective?
Students can do the math! It may be useful to show a more detailed breakdown of cost-of-goods-sold, and illustrate the contribution to cost-of-goods sold of marketing, finance/accounting, and operations. It may also be helpful to use this data to introduce and illustrate fixed and variable costs and their relationship to net contribution.
This is the typical breakdown one finds in many business courses. It may be helpful to the students if you discuss each of these elements in relationship to something you or they have done. Work on a group project, for example, can provide a useful vehicle for the discussion.
Using this and subsequent slides, you might go through in more detail the decisions of Operations Management. While greater detail is provided by these slides than the earlier one, you may still decide to have the students contribute examples from their own experience.
Ask your students for input here. Look for positions that they or their parents have filled. You might also ask them (a) what positions they are seeking upon graduation; and (b) to “predict” how demand for workers in each of these areas is likely to change over time, and why. Finally, have them consider the skills required of the occupants of each position
You should stress that the time-based historical perspective is only one way to look at the development of Operations Management, outcome focus is another.
You might ask students why standardization is so important. If their answers do not raise the issue, here is a good time to introduce the concept of “setup.” Discussion of Whitney also raises issues of quality control, and even worker training.
Some students argue that Taylor’s main objective was to get more from the workers. You might discuss the difference between trying to get more out of the workers and trying to improve their efficiency.
There are several issues which can be raised here: - the individual nature of individuals (not everyone is suited to the same job) - how does one decide what is “proper” training? - perhaps “a poor workman blames his tools;” but a workman may only be as good as his tools - “a day’s pay for a day’s work” - what is a “day’s work”? How do we decide? How do we arrive at a monetary value for this day’s work?
Ask the students: So what? Get them to think about task performance at various levels of detail. - How does one determine the most efficient motions to be used? - How does one “balance” the performance of a task so that one limb does not bear an excessive load? - How can one “design a job” before actually performing a task? You might also wish to discuss the book and movies about the Gilbreths and their children.
Assembly lines are widely accepted and used. Are they actually “God’s gift to repetitive manufacturing?” Have students consider the Volvo experiment where teams were used to build automobiles.
Have students consider why Dr. Deming’s popularity was so great in Japan, but took such a long time to develop in the U.S.
Here you might try to make two points: - there are many contributions from outside the OM/business disciplines (one of the most important characteristics of an Operations Manager is the ability to work with or within multiple disciplines) - the greater contribution from the information sciences is not to make things occur faster (automation) but to enable the operations manager to look at problems from a different perspective.
Gives you a chance to summarize some of the critical events in the evolution of OM.
Use this and the subsequent slide to get students thinking about some of the changes taking place in OM. Try to help them understand both the causes of the changes and the implications. In particular, have them consider the role of information and of information technology.
You might pick a company that produces a physical product that will be familiar to the students, ask students to identify the product, and discuss its characteristics. Once the students have identified the physical characteristics of the product, you can ask “What other characteristics does the company believe its product possesses?” This question will often raise the issue of “service.” Companies which might it be helpful to consider include: Xerox - an information management company (not just copiers) McDonalds, Burger King, Wendys - either compare the viewpoints of the three companies, or contrast them to a gourmet restaurant Volkswagen versus Volvo, Mercedes or Rolls Royce.
Here it is probably useful to look to the students to identify both company and product. You might use the approach of taking one characteristic at a time and asking the students to identify a service that has that characteristic: Unique - wedding planning High customer interaction - health care Inconsistent definition - “consulting” etc.
At this point, you might approach this and the next several slides by asking students to identify a product (good or service as appropriate) that illustrates each characteristic. You might also ask them to identify products that violate one or more of these distinctions between goods and services.
This slide should help you make the point that a “product” is seldom only a “good” or only a “service” but usually includes some of each. You might also raise the point that as companies are reaching the limit of evolution of the physical (good), they are tending to add information (a service) to their product. Finally, it is important that the student be able to cite examples illustrating each of the ranges shown in the slide.
Have your students consider the U.S. Employment Services/Industry/Farming shares. What factors will ultimately act to limit changes in this graph. What about the other two graphs?
Ask your students to consider why the rate of growth of productivity in the U.S. is so low. As they identify factors, have them link these factors to the resources of capital, labor, and management. This may also be a good point at which to introduce the notions of efficiency (doing a job well), and effectiveness (doing the right job). It may be especially helpful to discuss the conditions under which efficiency or effectiveness becomes the more important.
This slide may help explain why an increasing productivity is so important if one wishes an increased standard of living.
The productivity discussion can continue with this slide. One question for students might be: Why is the present rate of productivity improvement in the U.S. less than in the period 1889 to 1973? You might also ask them to consider what happens as the rate of productivity improvement approaches zero. Does this simply mean that the standard of living ceases to rise, or are there more ominous manifestations?
This slide can be used to introduce multi-factor productivity.
Ask the students to think about why productivity is so difficult to measure. Have them identify several tasks or jobs, and help them identify some possible productivity measures. Ask them how they would go about making these measurements. Student and faculty productivity certainly provide examples that can generate discussion! You might ask your students if they believe “grades” measure student productivity.
Here again, faculty and student productivity make useful discussion generators. Students can certainly look at the role of both capital and management in the classroom - and they are likely to be able to tie the three productivity variables to the presentation or teaching methodologies of different faculty.
You might first ask students to consider the conditions under which each of the key variables is most important. Once the conditions are identified, you might list the conditions on the board or screen and ask students to develop a method for comparing various countries on the basis of these conditions. Where would they place the U.S.? Developing countries? Etc.
You might ask the students, how, in general, they might expect the figures shown in this graph to change over the next twenty years. In addition, initiate a discussion of how we have moved from “hunting and gathering” to “agriculture” to “manufacturing” to “service.”
You can use this slide to frame a discussion of service productivity. Ask students to provide examples of services having each characteristic. Once they have done this, ask if they can think of a way to overcome or change the characteristics for that service so as to increase productivity.
Operations management ppt @ bec doms
Operations Management Operations and Productivity
Outline <ul><li>PROFILE: HARD ROCK CAFE </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT? </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZING TO PRODUCE GOODS AND SERVICES </li></ul><ul><li>WHY STUDY OM? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT OPERATIONS MANAGERS DO </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE ARE THE OM JOBS? </li></ul>
Outline - Continued <ul><li>THE HERITAGE OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATIONS IN THE SERVICE SECTOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between Goods and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXCITING NEW TRENDS IN OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
Outline - Continued <ul><li>THE PRODUCTIVITY CHALLENGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity Measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity and the Service Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THE CHALLENGE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY </li></ul>
Learning Objectives <ul><li>When you complete this chapter, you should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify or Define : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations Management (OM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What operations managers do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul>
Learning Objectives - Continued <ul><li>When you complete this chapter, you should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Describe or Explain : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A brief history of operations management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career opportunities in operations management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The future of the discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring productivity </li></ul></ul>
The Hard Rock Cafe <ul><li>First opened in 1971 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now – 110 restaurants in over 40 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rock music memorabilia </li></ul><ul><li>Creates value in the form of good food and entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>3,500 + custom meals per day </li></ul><ul><li>How does an item get on the menu? </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Operations Manager </li></ul>
What Is Operations Management? Production is the creation of goods and services Operations management is the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs
Organizational Charts Manufacturing Operations Facilities: Construction:maintenance Production & inventory control Scheduling: materials control Supply-chain management Manufacturing Tooling, fabrication,assembly Design Product development and design Detailed product specifications Industrial engineering Efficient use of machines, space, and personnel Process analysis Development and installation of production tools and equipment Finance & Accounting Disbursements/credits Receivables Payables General ledger Funds Management Money market International exchange Capital requirements Stock issue Bond issues and recall Marketing Sales promotions Advertising Sales Market research
Why Study OM? <ul><li>OM is one of three major functions ( marketing, finance, and operations ) of any organization. </li></ul><ul><li>We want ( and need ) to know how goods and services are produced. </li></ul><ul><li>We want to understand what operations managers do. </li></ul><ul><li>OM is such a costly part of an organization. </li></ul>
What Operations Managers Do Plan - Organize - Staff - Lead - Control
The Critical Decisions <ul><li>Quality management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for quality? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we define quality? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service and product design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What product or service should we offer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should we design these products and services? </li></ul></ul>
The Critical Decisions - Continued <ul><li>Process and capacity design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What processes will these products require and in what order? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What equipment and technology is necessary for these processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where should we put the facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On what criteria should we base this location decision? </li></ul></ul>
The Critical Decisions - Continued <ul><li>Layout design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should we arrange the facility? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How large a facility is required? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resources and job design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we provide a reasonable work environment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much can we expect our employees to produce? </li></ul></ul>
The Critical Decisions - Continued <ul><li>Supply chain management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should we make or buy this item? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are our good suppliers and how many should we have? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inventory, material requirements planning, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much inventory of each item should we have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When do we re-order? </li></ul></ul>
The Critical Decisions - Continued <ul><li>Intermediate, short term, and project scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is subcontracting production a good idea? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we better off keeping people on the payroll during slowdowns? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for maintenance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When do we do maintenance? </li></ul></ul>
Where Are the OM Jobs? <ul><li>Technology/methods </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities/space utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic issues </li></ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul><ul><li>People/team development </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Cost reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity improvement </li></ul>
The Heritage of Operations Management Division of labor (Adam Smith 1776 and Charles Babbage 1852) Standardized parts (Whitney 1800) Scientific Management (Taylor 1881) Coordinated assembly line (Ford/Sorenson/Avery 1913) Gantt charts (Gantt 1916) Motion study (Frank and Lillian Gilbreth 1922 Quality control (Shewhart 1924; Deming 1950) Computer (Atanasoff 1938) CPM/PERT (DuPont 1957)
The Heritage of Operations Management - Continued Material requirements planning (Orlicky 1960) Computer aided design (CAD 1970) Flexible manufacturing system (FMS 1975) Baldrige Quality Awards (1980) Computer integrated manufacturing (1990) Globalization(1992) Internet (1995)
Frederick W. Taylor Born 1856; died 1915 Known as ‘father of scientific management’ In 1881, as chief engineer for Midvale Steel, studied how tasks were done Began first motion & time studies Created efficiency principles
Taylor: Management Should Take More Responsibility for <ul><li>Matching employees to right job </li></ul><ul><li>Providing the proper training </li></ul><ul><li>Providing proper work methods and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing legitimate incentives for work to be accomplished </li></ul>
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth Frank (1868-1924); Lillian (1878-1972) Husband-and-wife engineering team Further developed work measurement methods Applied efficiency methods to their home & 12 children! (Book & Movie: “Cheaper by the Dozen,” book: “Bells on Their Toes”)
Henry Ford Born 1863; died 1947 In 1903, created Ford Motor Company In 1913, first used moving assembly line to make Model T Unfinished product moved by conveyor past work station Paid workers very well for 1911 ($5/day!) ‘ Make them all alike !’
W. Edwards Deming Born 1900; died 1993 Engineer & physicist Credited with teaching Japan quality control methods in post-WW2 Used statistics to analyze process His methods involve workers in decisions
Significant Events in OM <ul><li>Division of labor (Smith, 1776) </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized parts (Whitney, 1800) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific management (Taylor, 1881) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated assembly line (Ford 1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt charts (Gantt, 1916) </li></ul><ul><li>Motion study (the Gilbreths, 1922) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality control (Shewhart, 1924) </li></ul>
New Challenges in OM <ul><li>Local or national focus </li></ul><ul><li>Batch shipments </li></ul><ul><li>Low bid purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy product development </li></ul><ul><li>Standard products </li></ul><ul><li>Job specialization </li></ul>Global focus Just-in-time Supply chain partnering Rapid product development, alliances Mass customization Empowered employees, teams From To
Characteristics of Goods Tangible product Consistent product definition Production usually separate from consumption Can be inventoried Low customer interaction
Characteristics of Service Intangible product Produced & consumed at same time Often unique High customer interaction Inconsistent product definition Often knowledge-based Frequently dispersed
Service Economies Proportion of Employment in the Service Sector
Goods Versus Services <ul><li>Can be resold </li></ul><ul><li>Can be inventoried </li></ul><ul><li>Some aspects of quality measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Selling is distinct from production </li></ul>Reselling unusual Difficult to inventory Quality difficult to measure Selling is part of service Goods Service
Goods Versus Services - Continued <ul><li>Product is transportable </li></ul><ul><li>Site of facility important for cost </li></ul><ul><li>Often easy to automate </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue generated primarily from tangible product </li></ul>Provider, not product is transportable Site of facility important for customer contact Often difficult to automate Revenue generated primarily from intangible service. Goods Service
Goods Contain Services / Services Contain Goods Automobile Computer Installed Carpeting Fast-food Meal Restaurant Meal Auto Repair Hospital Care Advertising Agency Investment Management Consulting Service Counseling Percent of Product that is a Good Percent of Product that is a Service 0 25 50 75 100 25 50 75 100
Organizations in Each Sector – Table 1.4 Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Professional services, education, legal, medical New York City PS108, Notre Dame University, San Diego Zoo 24.3 Trade (retail, wholesale) Walgreen’s, Wal-Mart, Nordstroms 20.6 Utilities, transportation Pacific Gas & Electric, American Airlines, Santa Fe R.R, Roadway Express 7.2
Organizations in Each Sector – Table 1.4 Service Sector Example % of all Jobs Business & Repair Services Snelling & Snelling, Waste Management, Pitney-Bowes 7.1 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Citicorp, American Express, Prudential, Aetna, Trammel Crow 6.5 Food, Lodging, Entertainment McDonald’s, Hard Rock Café, Motel 6, Hilton Hotels, Walt Disney Paramount Pictures 5.2 Public Administration U.S., State of Alabama, Cook County 4.5
Organizations in Each Sector – Table 1.4 Manufacturing Sector Example % of all Jobs General General Electric, Ford, U.S. Steel, Intel 14.8 Construction Bechtel, McDermott 7.0 Agriculture King Ranch 2.4 Mining Homestake Mining 0.4
Organizations in Each Sector – Table 1.4 Summary Sector % of all Jobs Service 75.4% Manufacturing 24.6%
Development of the Service Economy 1850 75 1900 25 50 75 2000 40 50 60 70 1970 75 80 85 90 95 2000 Percent United States Canada France Italy Britain Japan W Germany 1970 2000 Services Industry Farming 250 200 150 100 50 0 80 %70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 U.S. Employment, % Share Services as a Percent of GDP U.S. Exports of Services In Billions of Dollars Year 2000 data is estimated
Exciting New Challenges in Operations Management
Changing Challenges for the Operations Manager
Changing Challenges for the Operations Manager
The Economic System Transforms Inputs to Outputs The economic system transforms inputs to outputs at about an annual 2.5% increase in productivity (capital 38% of 2.5%), labor (10% of 2.5%), management (52% of 2.5%) Land, Labor, Capital, Management Goods and Services Feedback loop Inputs Process Outputs
Typical Impact of Quality Improvement As productivity improved Costs were pared Wages increased Parts per man hour 95 100 105 110 115 Year A Year B Year C Cost per unit decreased $1.50 $1.75 $2.00 $2.25 Year A Year B Year C Average worker's annual cash compensation increased 24000 25000 26000 27000 Year A Year B Year C
Productivity Measure of process improvement Represents output relative to input Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve Productivity Units produced Input used =
Multi-Product Productivity <ul><li>Productivity = </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Labor + material + energy + capital + miscellaneous </li></ul>
Measurement Problems <ul><li>Quality may change while the quantity of inputs and outputs remains constant </li></ul><ul><li>External elements may cause an increase or decrease in productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Precise units of measure may be lacking </li></ul>
Productivity Variables <ul><li>Labor - contributes about 10% of the annual increase </li></ul><ul><li>Capital - contributes about 32% of the annual increase </li></ul><ul><li>Management - contributes about 52% of the annual increase </li></ul>
Key Variables for Improved Labor Productivity <ul><li>Basic education appropriate for the labor force </li></ul><ul><li>Diet of the labor force </li></ul><ul><li>Social overhead that makes labor available </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining and enhancing skills in the midst of rapidly changing technology and knowledge </li></ul>
Investment and Productivity in Selected Nations
Service Productivity <ul><li>Typically labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently individually processed </li></ul><ul><li>Often an intellectual task performed by professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Often difficult to mechanize </li></ul><ul><li>Often difficult to evaluate for quality </li></ul>