Managing the Artificial Airway RC 275
Tracheotomy/Tracheostomy <ul><li>When intubation can’t be done or the need for the airway is indefinitely long </li></ul><...
RCP’s Role During the Procedure <ul><li>Monitor the patient! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain adequate ventilation and oxyge...
Try to leave the fresh trach undisturbed for 48 hours Suctioning obviously must be performed but as gently as possible
Complications Associated with ET and Trach Tubes Can be due to the insertion procedure or from having the tube in the airway
Intubation Complications <ul><li>Trauma to oral cavity, pharynx, and vocal cords </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul>...
Tracheotomy Complications <ul><li>Bleeding (can be life-threatening) </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumothorax </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-...
Complications due to irritation from the tube and cuff <ul><li>Contamination/Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Obstructed Tube <...
Complications Due to High Cuff Pressures <ul><li>Normal Mean Hemodynamics in the Tracheal Mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lym...
Effects of Excessive Cuff Pressure <ul><li>Ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul><u...
Cuff Pressure Should NOT Exceed 25-30 cmH2O! The pressure in the cuff should be checked often, eg each ventilator check
Cuff Inflation Management Techniques <ul><li>MOV – Minimal Occlusive Volume </li></ul><ul><li>MLT- Minimal Leak Technique ...
MOV- Minimal Occlusive Volume <ul><li>Air is slowly added to cuff until either pressure cycling occurs (if applicable) or ...
Minimal Leak Technique <ul><li>Like MOV except after cycling or volume return is achieved, a slight amount of air is remov...
Again, these techniques should be utilized each time the cuff is checked If high pressures are needed initially, the artif...
Extubation Done when none of the four indications for an artificial airway exist
Extubation Technique <ul><li>Have suction, BVM and O2, and intubation supplies ready(including tracheotomy tray) </li></ul...
Possible Complications <ul><li>Inspiratory stridor due to glottic or sub-glottic edema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stridor that ...
Post-Extubation Treatment <ul><li>O2 Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>For stridor, nebulized racemic epinephrine and a steroid </...
Time to face the music!
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Managing the artificial

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Managing the artificial

  1. 1. Managing the Artificial Airway RC 275
  2. 2. Tracheotomy/Tracheostomy <ul><li>When intubation can’t be done or the need for the airway is indefinitely long </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional surgical incision or PDT (Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheotomy) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDT may not be as damaging to tracheal cartilage </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. RCP’s Role During the Procedure <ul><li>Monitor the patient! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assist physician as needed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Try to leave the fresh trach undisturbed for 48 hours Suctioning obviously must be performed but as gently as possible
  5. 5. Complications Associated with ET and Trach Tubes Can be due to the insertion procedure or from having the tube in the airway
  6. 6. Intubation Complications <ul><li>Trauma to oral cavity, pharynx, and vocal cords </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Laryngospasm </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Q Emphysema (from perforation of trachea) </li></ul><ul><li>Improper tube placement </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination/Infection </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tracheotomy Complications <ul><li>Bleeding (can be life-threatening) </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumothorax </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Q Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination/Infection </li></ul>
  8. 8. Complications due to irritation from the tube and cuff <ul><li>Contamination/Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Obstructed Tube </li></ul><ul><li>Tracheitis (sore throat) </li></ul><ul><li>Glottic and/or sub-glottic edema (may not manifest until tube is removed) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal cord damage (ET tubes only) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralysis, polyps, granuloma formation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Complications Due to High Cuff Pressures <ul><li>Normal Mean Hemodynamics in the Tracheal Mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic: 5mmhg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venous: 18 mmhg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterial: 30 mmhg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impeding/occluding arterial flow causes ischemia! </li></ul><ul><li>Impeding/occluding lymphatic or venous flow causes edema </li></ul>
  10. 10. Effects of Excessive Cuff Pressure <ul><li>Ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Stenosis </li></ul><ul><li>Tracheal Malacia </li></ul><ul><li>T-E Fistula </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cuff Pressure Should NOT Exceed 25-30 cmH2O! The pressure in the cuff should be checked often, eg each ventilator check
  12. 12. Cuff Inflation Management Techniques <ul><li>MOV – Minimal Occlusive Volume </li></ul><ul><li>MLT- Minimal Leak Technique </li></ul>
  13. 13. MOV- Minimal Occlusive Volume <ul><li>Air is slowly added to cuff until either pressure cycling occurs (if applicable) or exhaled volume equals inhaled tidal volume </li></ul><ul><li>Cuff pressure is then checked to make sure it does not exceed 25-30 cmH20 and adjusted to still allow pressure cycling or returned exhaled volume </li></ul>
  14. 14. Minimal Leak Technique <ul><li>Like MOV except after cycling or volume return is achieved, a slight amount of air is removed to cause either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) a loss of no more than 50 ml of set Vt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) An audible leak heard around trachea </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Again, these techniques should be utilized each time the cuff is checked If high pressures are needed initially, the artificial airway is probably too small If cuff pressures gradually increase, damage to the trachea may be occurring
  16. 16. Extubation Done when none of the four indications for an artificial airway exist
  17. 17. Extubation Technique <ul><li>Have suction, BVM and O2, and intubation supplies ready(including tracheotomy tray) </li></ul><ul><li>In Fowler’s or semi-Fowler’s, suction through tube and pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Loosen tape and deflate cuff </li></ul><ul><li>Insert new suction catheter into tube and have patient take a deep breath </li></ul><ul><li>Apply suction as tube is pulled out and have patient cough at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor vitals and respiratory status </li></ul>
  18. 18. Possible Complications <ul><li>Inspiratory stridor due to glottic or sub-glottic edema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stridor that develops immediately after extubation is an ominous sign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laryngospasm/Bronchospasm </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul>
  19. 19. Post-Extubation Treatment <ul><li>O2 Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>For stridor, nebulized racemic epinephrine and a steroid </li></ul><ul><li>If distress is not helped by nebulized drugs, re-intubate </li></ul><ul><li>If not possible, tracheotomy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Time to face the music!

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