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  2. 2. THE OPPORTUNITY <ul><li>Always Be Ready to Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Could Be Casual or Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Could Be in a Store or On a Street Corner </li></ul><ul><li>Could Be at Work or a Social Affair </li></ul><ul><li>Could Be at a Professional or Fun Event </li></ul><ul><li>First Impressions Really Count </li></ul><ul><li>Your Next “Boss/Subordinate” May Be Beside You </li></ul><ul><li>- At An Unexpected Time Or Place </li></ul>
  3. 3. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS <ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Layered Questions Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of questions designed to gather information about the “Three Employer Concerns” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS <ul><li>Performance/Role Play Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate role-plays job functions to assess specific skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to put candidate under stress and assess reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to get the candidate to reveal more information than they might otherwise </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. TYPES OF INTERVIEWS <ul><li>Reverse Role Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The candidate becomes the interviewer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment Instruments Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various types of techniques are used to determine if candidate is a good fit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combination Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of two or more interviews </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. MODES OF INTERVIEWING <ul><li>Telephone Screenings </li></ul><ul><li>On-Campus Interview </li></ul><ul><li>On-Site Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Off-Site Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Third Party </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Visit </li></ul>
  7. 7. Planning The Interview <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Information Gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Plan physical setting </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate problem </li></ul>
  8. 8. CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW <ul><li>Opening </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewer’s role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent’s role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>
  9. 9. THREE EMPLOYER CONCERNS <ul><li>Skill Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you do the job? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal Characteristics Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you do the job? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will you get along well with others? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you manageable? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Money Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the company afford you? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Before the Interview : <ul><li>R esearch </li></ul><ul><li>R ehearse </li></ul><ul><li>R elax </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research : <ul><li>The workplace-the physical setting </li></ul><ul><li>The company </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of the business </li></ul><ul><li>The company culture and philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>The management style </li></ul><ul><li>The name(s) of the interviewer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>The location and how to get there </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rehearse : <ul><li>The questions the interviewer might ask </li></ul><ul><li>The features and benefits you bring </li></ul><ul><li>The stories or evidence that prove you can address the employer’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>The physical aspects of the interview-your handshake, your body language, your attire </li></ul>
  13. 13. During the Interview <ul><li>Be on time or a few minutes early </li></ul><ul><li>Call if you will be detained </li></ul><ul><li>Dress appropriately- conservatively for the first meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Be professional and courteous with everyone you meet in the office, especially the receptionist </li></ul><ul><li>Make a good first impression </li></ul><ul><li>Show the interviewer that you are the perfect fit </li></ul>
  14. 14. During the Interview <ul><li>Professional and firm handshake </li></ul><ul><li>SMILE </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Positive attitude and confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm and a good posture </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on skills / accomplishments / success stories </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening is the key - make sure you understand the reason for the question </li></ul>
  15. 15. During the Interview <ul><li>Ask for clarifications and / or paraphrase the question to make sure you know what the interviewer means </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from criticizing others (including your past employer / workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Thank the interviewer and arrange a follow-up </li></ul>
  16. 16. After the Interview <ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Assess how you did </li></ul><ul><li>What questions you answered well </li></ul><ul><li>Which responses need improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in interview checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul><ul><li>Do something pleasurable </li></ul>
  17. 17. POST INTERVIEW ACTIONS <ul><li>Follow-up Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral and written </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Position Acceptance/Rejection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral and written </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Resources Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not circumnavigate them unless you have prior approval from them </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. ETHICS OF INTERVIEWING <ul><li>Guidelines for the Interviewer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t make unrealistic promises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t reveal confidential information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t ask illegal question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be overbearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be overfriendly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for the respondent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be dishonest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t waste interviewer’s time </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Characteristics of Groups <ul><li>Groups Range in size from 3 to 15 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Members know each other by name or role. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a considerable amount of interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Members are interdependent. </li></ul><ul><li>Common goals, interests, benefits of membership are shared within the group. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ROLES - Group Communication <ul><li>Effective groups establish cohesiveness and norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles (Every member plays at least one role). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information agent: offers facts and asks for input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborator: offers further clarification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonizer: smoothes over tension in the group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gatekeeper: controls communication channels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blocker: negative and stubbornly resistant behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoider: displays noninvolvement in the group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUP COMMUNICATION <ul><li>SIZE </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul>
  23. 23. PROCESS <ul><li>Orientation Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict stage </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence stage </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement stage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Styles of Decision Making <ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two situations call for this style: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of group knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are major disadvantages to this method. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Styles of Decision Making <ul><li>Laissez-Faire Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable time and resources can be lost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This group operates without guidance from a designated leader. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Styles of Decision making <ul><li>Participative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader makes decisions with the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits are noted from research: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members are more committed to outcomes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of decisions is improved. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations revolve around time issues and perceptions of the leader’s expertise. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. ANSWERE THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS <ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>Which </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul>
  29. 29. THINGS TO REMEMBER <ul><li>Notice </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Opening </li></ul><ul><li>Execution </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Meetings • Informational (or instructional) meeting – formal – informal • Problem - solving and decision - making meetings Change Facilitating Meetings •
  31. 31. Plan a Meeting “ The P3 Model”
  32. 32. Plan a Meeting Plan the meeting prior to its assembly using the “N.E.A.T.E.R.” acronym. Plan a Meeting Expectations Agenda Time Extra Resources Nature Effective Meeting Effective Meeting
  33. 33. FOLLOW - UP
  34. 34. Making, Organizing and Presenting the Speech
  35. 35. Getting Started <ul><li>What is being requested of me? </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics of the event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel Plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule Travel Times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan on arriving at least 30 minutes early for set up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there other speakers? You may need to coordinate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment Available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCD, Microphone, Extra Handouts, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Remember <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the goal of this speech? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change Minds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. PURPOSE <ul><li>Informative </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Entertaining </li></ul>
  38. 38. ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>
  39. 39. Research the Topic and Audience <ul><li>Grasp the Objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When requested to speak, be sure to make sure that your understanding of the topic is THEIR understanding of the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research the topic thoroughly. This helps prepare for questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview the inviter if necessary </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Research the Topic and Audience <ul><li>Know the audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal – (First Impressions Count!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audit Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand the Type of Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive, Informative, Demonstrative, Commemorative(remember), Other </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Methods of Speaking <ul><li>Using Manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Impromptu </li></ul><ul><li>Extemporaneous </li></ul>
  42. 42. Organizing Structures <ul><li>The Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causal order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The conclusion </li></ul>
  43. 43. Draft the Presentation <ul><li>Outline the Major Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction (Tell them what you are going to say) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body (Tell them) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion (Tell them what you told them) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build in the Detail within each major point </li></ul><ul><li>Make the presentation appropriate for the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Once “completed”, set it down for 48 hours, then revisit. </li></ul><ul><li>Have someone else review it if appropriate. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Present <ul><li>Dress Appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Use the restroom immediately before presenting </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you are healthy. Postpone if you are ill (if possible). </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your language is appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a story or an appropriate joke. This draws in the audience. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Present (Continued) <ul><li>Expect to be a bit nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to meet with the meeting’s “chairman” so they know you are there. </li></ul><ul><li>Check to make sure equipment works and is available </li></ul><ul><li>Have paper copies as a backup </li></ul>
  46. 47. Present (Continued) <ul><li>If you make a mistake, laugh at yourself, make the correction, then move forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid jargon. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid overuse of acronyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Interject interesting information to “keep” your audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anecdotal Stories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take off your watch, but place it where you can see it. Watch your time. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Present (Continued) <ul><li>Address your audience, not your shoes or the slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak clearly and slowly and with appropriate volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note : If a Microphone is provided, use it. Sometimes presentations are recorded or off-site people will not be able to hear unless you speak through the microphone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End conclusively! </li></ul>
  48. 49. Persuasive Speech <ul><li>Problem – solution order </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive and inductive structures </li></ul>
  49. 50. How To make Speech effective <ul><li>Supporting Idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Testimony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anecdotes (real life characters), Fables (animals), Parables(fictitious stories) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. How To make Speech effective <ul><li>Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Using Right Medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OHP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videotapes, audiotapes, films etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models & Physical objects </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. Improve your skills <ul><li>After the presentation, think about how well you did. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for areas of improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a “library” of presentations that you can use for the future along with notes of what went well / not well. </li></ul>