Intergroup behavior


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Intergroup behavior

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  • Intergroup behavior

    1. 1. Conflict, Negotiation, and Intergroup Behavior When two people in business always agree, one of them is unnecessary. -- W. Wrigley, Jr.
    2. 2. Conflict <ul><li>What is conflict? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict: a situation in which two or more people disagree over issues of organizational substance and/or experience some emotional antagonism with one another. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Conflict <ul><li>Substantive and Emotional Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>substantive conflict: conflict that occurs in the form of a fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional Conflict: conflict that involves interpersonal difficulties that arise over feeling of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, and the like </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Levels of Conflict <ul><ul><li>Individual conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational conflict </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Is Conflict Bad? <ul><li>Traditional View: Bad </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations: Good </li></ul><ul><li>Interactionist: Depends </li></ul>
    6. 6. Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict <ul><ul><li>Functional conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyfunctional conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict situations faced by managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vertical conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>horizontal conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>line-staff conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>role conflict </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Conflict and Unit Performance High Low High Low A B C
    8. 8. Conflict Management Approaches <ul><li>Indirect Conflict Management Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appeal to common goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hierarchical referral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational redesign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scripts and myths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Conflict Management Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>win-lose conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>win-win conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lose-lose conflict (avoidance, accommodation/smoothing, compromise) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Five Conflict Management Styles Assertiveness Cooperativeness Unassertive Assertive Uncooperative Cooperative Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating
    10. 10. but I think each style can be appropriate in different circumstances...
    11. 11. Avoidance Is Appropriate When ... <ul><li>You have no chance of satisfying your concerns </li></ul><ul><li>let people cool down </li></ul>
    12. 12. Accommodation Is Appropriate When ... <ul><li>You realize you are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Issue is much more important to other party </li></ul><ul><li>To build up credit for later negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>To preserve harmony </li></ul>
    13. 13. Competition Is Appropriate When... <ul><li>No long term relationship </li></ul><ul><li>To protect yourself against untrustworthy parties </li></ul><ul><li>Unpopular courses of action need implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Issues are vital to your welfare </li></ul>
    14. 14. Collaboration Is Appropriate When ... <ul><li>Both parties’ concerns are too important to be compromised </li></ul><ul><li>To gain commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Time is not an issue </li></ul>
    15. 15. Compromising Is Appropriate When ... <ul><li>Goals are less important to you than collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually exclusive goals </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve temporary settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Under intense time pressure </li></ul>
    16. 16. Negotiation <ul><li>Negotiation: process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective negotiation: substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four major action settings for negotiations: two-party, group, intergroup, and constituency negotiation. </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Negotiation Process Preparation and Planning Definition of Ground Rules Clarification and Justification Closure and Implementation Bargaining and Problem Solving
    18. 18. Different Approaches to Negotiation <ul><li>Distributive Bargaining : focus is on “positions” staked out or declared by the parties involved who are each trying to claim certain portions of the available (fixed) “pie”; a win-lose situation </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative Bargaining : the focus is on the merits of the issues, and the parties involved try to enlarge the available “pie” rather than stake claims to certain portion of it; a win-win situation </li></ul>
    19. 19. Issues in Negotiation <ul><li>Personality Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Third-Party Negotiations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conciliators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultants </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. M ethods for Managing Intergroup Relations High Low Cost to use each method Integrating departments Teams Task forces Liaison roles Planning Hierarchy Rules and procedures