Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Introduction to Contracts CHAPTER 10
Quote of the Day <ul><li>“ The whole duty of government is to prevent crime and to preserve contracts .” </li></ul><ul><li...
The   Purpose of a Contract <ul><li>Contracts exist to make business matters more predictable. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial ...
Elements of a Contract <ul><li>Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One party must make a valid offer, and the other party must...
Contracts <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A promise that the law will enforce.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmen...
Types of Contracts  (or Agreements) <ul><li>Bilateral and Unilateral Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral : both part...
Types of Contracts  (cont’d) <ul><li>Express and Implied Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express : the two parties explici...
Types of Contracts  (cont’d) <ul><li>Valid, Unenforceable, Voidable, and Void Agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid :  sa...
Promissory Estoppel <ul><li>Even when there is no contract, a plaintiff may use  promissory estoppel  to enforce the defen...
Quasi-contract <ul><li>Even when there is no contract, a court may use  quasi-contract  to compensate a plaintiff who can ...
Sources of Contract Law <ul><li>Common Law </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Commercial Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCC Article 2 g...
“ If you understand the contract issues that courts scrutinize, the agreement you draft is likelier to be enforced.  You t...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Contract law

1,642 views

Published on

Contract law

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

Contract law

  1. 1. Introduction to Contracts CHAPTER 10
  2. 2. Quote of the Day <ul><li>“ The whole duty of government is to prevent crime and to preserve contracts .” </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Melbourne, </li></ul><ul><li>British Prime Minister </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Purpose of a Contract <ul><li>Contracts exist to make business matters more predictable. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Activism vs. Judicial Restraint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial restraint makes the law less flexible but more predictable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial activism makes the law more flexible but less predictable. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Elements of a Contract <ul><li>Agreement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One party must make a valid offer, and the other party must accept it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There has to be bargaining that leads to an exchange between the parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The contract must be for a lawful purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The parties must be adults of sound mind. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Contracts <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A promise that the law will enforce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Contract Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common law once required all contracts to be in writing, with a seal affixed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later, some payment was required before a contract could be enforced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual promises became enforceable in the 1600’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1900’s, courts began to consider the fairness of contracts before enforcing them. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Contracts (or Agreements) <ul><li>Bilateral and Unilateral Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral : both parties make a promise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unilateral : one party makes a promise that the other party can accept only by doing something. </li></ul></ul>vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. Bilateral Unilateral Express Implied Executory Executed Valid Unenforceable Voidable Void
  7. 7. Types of Contracts (cont’d) <ul><li>Express and Implied Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express : the two parties explicitly state all important terms of their agreement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implied : the words and conduct indicate that the parties intended an agreement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executory and Executed Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executory : when one or more parties has not fulfilled its obligations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executed : when all parties have fulfilled their obligations. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Contracts (cont’d) <ul><li>Valid, Unenforceable, Voidable, and Void Agreements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid : satisfies the law’s requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unenforceable : when the parties intend to form a valid bargain but some rule of law prevents enforcement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voidable : when the law permits one party to terminate the agreement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Void : one that neither party can enforce, usually because the purpose is illegal or one of the parties had no legal authority. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Promissory Estoppel <ul><li>Even when there is no contract, a plaintiff may use promissory estoppel to enforce the defendant’s promise if he can show that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The defendant made a promise knowing that the plaintiff would likely rely on it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plaintiff did rely on the promise; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only way to avoid injustice is to enforce the promise. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quasi-contract <ul><li>Even when there is no contract, a court may use quasi-contract to compensate a plaintiff who can show that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He gave some benefit to the defendant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He reasonably expected to be paid for the benefit and the defendant knew this; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The defendant would be unjustly enriched if she did not pay. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The damages awarded are called quantum meruit , meaning that the plaintiff gets “as much as he deserved.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources of Contract Law <ul><li>Common Law </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Commercial Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCC Article 2 governs the sale of goods. “Goods” means anything moveable, except for money, securities, and certain legal rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a mixed contract, Article 2 governs only if the primary purpose was the sale of goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restatement (Second) of Contracts </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ If you understand the contract issues that courts scrutinize, the agreement you draft is likelier to be enforced. You thus achieve greater control over your affairs -- the very purpose of a contract.”

×