Change and knowledge management ppt @ bec doms mba
CHANGE AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT BABASAB PATIL
WHAT IS CHANGE?Change is considered with making things different.Change intervention is a planned action to makethings different.The person or persons who act as catalysts andassume the responsibility for managing the changeprocess is the change agent.
Defn of CHANGEChange is defined as ‘ to make or become different,give or begin to have a different form’.Change also means dissatisfaction with the old andbelief in the new.
WHY CHANGE ?To survive and eventually prosper, an organizationmust monitor its external environment and alignitself with changes that occur, or tend to occur.Change takes place on three levels:
Contd…,The self, the team or the (small) organization and thewider system that surrounds the team or the smallorganization or the organizational unit – dependingon how the borders are defined.In a process, change needs to be facilitated on allthree levels to become sustainable.
CHANGE IN HISTORYIn 513 B.C., Heraclitus of Greece observed “ Thereis nothing permanent expect change”.In 16th century, Niccolo Machivelli stated in hispolitical treatise, The Prince, “There is nothingmore difficult to take in hand, more perilous toconduct, or more uncertain in its success, than totake the lead in the introduction of a new order ofthings”.
Contd…,Simply managing change is insufficient. Successfulchange requires leadership.The old saying, “You can lead a horse to water, butyou can’t make it drink”.Eight step model to implement change by JohnP.Kotter –4.Establish a sense of urgency5.Obtain management & peer backing6.Create a vision for change7.Communicate the vision
Contd…,1. Empower employees to implement change2. Establish short term goals3. Encourage additional changes4. Reinforce changes made as permanent.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF CHANGEa. Missionb. Workloadc. Politicald. Environmente. Changes in managementf. Resourcesg. Technological.
DEALING WITH CHANGEChange is an inevitable part of all organization.The world we live in is constantly changing and atan accelerated rate.Organizations and individuals must continuallyadapt to this changing environment by changingthemselves or they will not survive.Some people accept and some people resistchange.
Contd...,Phases of change when change is introduced & there is an understandingthat it will be implemented, we experience the following –Denial – when things change, the first reaction is to deny it.Bargaining & Negotiating – when we perceive that thechange don’t go away, we still believe things worked betterbefore the change & bargain for reinstating the old system.Anger – when we realize change is here to stay, and we cando nothing about it, we get angry.
HOW TO DEAL WITH CHANGEOnce change is communicated and implemented, wecan play a part in reducing the effects on us by:2.AcceptingCommunicating – share and communicate ourfeeling through which we get more information andfear can be reduced.Planning – where we were and where we want to be,how we are going to get there. Clarify goals andexpectations, get feedback from others.
INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCEThe following are the five reasons why individuals mayresist change:Habit – while going to college use the same route.Security- threatens their feelings of safetyEconomic Factors – changes will lower one’s incomespecially when pay is closed tied with productivityFear of the Unknown –the experience of school tocollege6.Selecitive Information Processing Individuals shapetheir world through their perceptions.
ORGANIZATIONAL RESISTENCEStructural Inertia – selection process.Limited focus of change – depts are interdependent, difficult to change one without affecting others.Group Inertia – individuals want to change but group acts as constraint. Union member.Threat to Expertise – decentralized personal computers, which allow for managers to gain access to information directly from a company mainframe. It was resisted by centralized information depts.Threat to Establish Power Relationship – redistribution of decision making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization.Threat to Establish Resource Allocations – Groups in the organization that control sizable resources often see change as a threat. Reduction in their budget or cut in their staff size?
OVERCOMING RESISTENCE TO CHANGESix tactics have been suggested for use by changeagents in dealing with resistance to change.2.Education & Communication3.Participation4.Facilitation & Support – counseling, training etc toreduce fear.5.Negotiation6.Manipulation & Co-optation7.Coercion
PERSONAL CHANGEPersonal change is defined as means of improvementin an individual’s life.It also helps in finding how to change.It aims at tapping the unlimited potential available inthe individual.
UNDERSTANDING PERSONAL CHANGEPersonal change is a process of movement of anindividual from current undesirable level to adesirable level of behavior to improve theorganizational and individual effectiveness andefficiency. Identified & Desire to change
PERSONAL CHANGE PROCESSStep 1: PC starts with discovery, finding out moreabout yourself; how you do things, how you havebeen limiting your options. Discovery involveswillingness to learn. Learning might be unexpected &surprising.
Contd...,Step 2: After discovery phase clearing phase startswhich involves the process of realizing and rejecting thewrong answers which have become a part of us.Ex: The problem with getting angry inappropriately. Theprocess of discovery helps realize that the anger reallybelonged with a specific incident 30 years ago. Thatwould allow clearing undesirable responses now.Clearing is a key element in Personal Change.
Contd...,Step 3: Clearing then leads to programmingwhich is establishing useful ways of how to dothings. That might involve the discovery of howthings are being done and the creation of morepowerful new methods. Once the Programmingphase is over the phase of processing starts.
ELEMENTS / COMPONENTS OF PERSONAL CHANGE1. Self – Awareness2. Self – Analysis3. Self Esteem and4. Self Efficacy.
1.SELF-AWARENESSA self-aware person is one who:2.Is aware of one’s strengths & limitations3.Has a clear idea of one’s priorities: know what is imp4.Is aware of one’s attitudes, values & beliefs: Values and beliefs are theprimary causes of conflicts.5.Knows how one’s behavior is affecting others6.Knows how others are affecting oneself.7.Is aware of ones feelings & emotions & how they affect oneself & others8.One is aware of his fears & anxieties & the defenses he usually employsto protect his sanity.9.One has relatively stable & strong self-image & is not unduly perturbedby what others say about oneself.
Contd...,SELF AWARENESS – can be defined as the ability toperceive one’s own existence, including one’s own traits,feelings & behaviors.Self awareness helps in –3.Personal development through self-awareness4.Skill development5.Knowing your strengths and weaknesses6.Developing intuitive decision-making skills7.Stress
Contd...,1. Motivation2. Leadership3. Practicing this management skill4. Ask somebody5. Questionnaires6. Seek professional help
Contd...,21st century leadership is based on emotional self-awarenessEmotional Self-awareness is the key to increasedpersonal & organizational performance.Johari Window explains Self awareness as an elementof personal Change.Johari Window is a tool used for illustrating &improving self-awareness, & mutual understandingbetween individuals within a group.
Contd...,Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingramin the 1950’s, who recognised that, effectivelearning is facilitated by good interpersonalcommunication
Contd...,Johari Window model is referred to as a ‘disclosure /feedback’ model of self awareness and by somepeople an ‘information processing tool’.It represents information – feelings, experience,views, attitudes, skills, intensions, motivation, etcwithin or about a person-in relation to their group,from four prospective, which are ‘regions’ or ‘areas’or ‘quadrants’ - ‘open/ free area’, ‘blind area’,‘hidden area’, & ‘unknown area’.
Known by self Unknown by selfKnown ARENA BLINDby others CONCEALED DARK / / HIDDEN UNKNOWNUnknownby others
Contd...,Johari Window four regions:What is known by the person about him/himself & is also knownby others – open area, open self, free area, free self, or ‘the arena’.What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which othersknow – blind area, blind self, or ‘blindspot’.What the person knows about him/herself that others do not know –hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self, or ‘façade’.What is unknown by the person about him/herself & is alsounknown by others – unknown area or unknown self.
JOHARI Window: An Interpersonal Communications Model KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO MEKNOWN Public Blind spotTO Arena BadOTHERS Open UnacceptedUNKNOWN Hidden UnknownTO Avoided UnconsciousOTHERS Private Not tried
JOHARI Window: An Interpersonal Communications Model KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Name Bad breathKNOWN Height SnoringTO Education/Dept Untidy tableOTHERS Marks scored Short tempered Bad habits PotentialsUNKNOWN Known fears Unknown fearsTO Unshared secrets Untried methodsOTHERS Jealousy Unseen places
When you share about yourself or self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Blind spotKNOWN Public BadTOOTHERS Arena Unaccepted Open UnknownUNKNOWN HiddenTO Unconscious AvoidedOTHERS Not tried Private
When you share about yourself or self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Name Height Blind spotKNOWN Education/Dept BadTO Marks scoredOTHERS Unaccepted Native place Parents Old friends Hidden UnknownUNKNOWN UnconsciousTO Avoided Not triedOTHERS Private
When you solicit or receive feedback & Improve KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Name Height (Mouth Wash) Education/Dept Snoring KNOWN Marks scored (Organised TO Table) OTHERS Short tempered Native place Parents Old friends Hidden UnknownUNKNOWNTO Avoided UnconsciousOTHERS Not tried Private
When you solicit or receive feedback and self-disclose: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME Blind spot KNOWN TO Public Bad Unaccepted OTHERS Arena Open UnknownUNKNOWN Hidden UnconsciousTO Avoided Not triedOTHERS Private
When you acquire knowledge: KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO MEKNOWNTO Public Blind spotOTHERS Bad Arena Unaccepted OpenUNKNOWN Learn new HiddenTO thingsOTHERS Avoided Like Private swimming
JOHARI Window : Ideal KNOWN TO ME UNKNOWN TO ME KNOWN Less TO OTHERS More Strengths weaknesses More Comfort Free to interactUNKNOWN KnownTO Less avoidance potentials,OTHERS Increased Less fear Learning
MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI)Psychological tool used for self-awareness.Myer’s Brigg’s classification means theperson can begin to identify preference inbehavior & how the individual is similar to& different from him/her.
Contd...,The MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people thatresult from the following –Where they prefer to focus their attention & get energy(Extroversion or Introversion)The way they prefer to take in information (Sensing or Intuition)The way they prefer to make decisions (Thinking or Feeling)How they orient themselves to the external world-with a judgingprocess or a perceiving process (Judging or Perceiving)There is no right or wrong to these preferences. Each identifiesnormal & valuable human behaviors.
Contd...,The MBTI model is useful for:2.Understanding & developing yourself3.Understanding & developing others4.Understanding what motivates others5.Understanding other’s strengths & weaknesses6.Working in teams-by ensuring that all relevantnecessary capabilities are represented in the team7.Allocating & agreeing tasks & project responsibilities8.Agreeing roles & development with others & foroneself.
(E) Extraversion Or Introversion (I) The focus or direction or ‘Attitude’ or orientation of our orientation behavior – outward or inward(S) Sensing Or Nituition (N) How we gather Function information (Jungian ‘Irrational’ or MB ‘Perceiving’)(T) Thinking Or Feeling (F) How we decide Function (Jungain ‘Rational’ or MB ‘Judging’)(J) Judging Or Perceiving (P) How we react to the Myers Briggs’ world – do prefer to added make decisions or keep dimension open to options (& also equating to which middle ‘Functions’ Jung’s do we favour) ‘Irrational’ & ‘Rational’
Sixteen Personality types are – Contd…,2.ISTJ – The dominant quality in their lives is an abiding sense of responsibilityfor doing what needs to be done in the here & now.3.ISTP – For them, the driving force in their lives is to understand how things &phenomena in the real world work so that they can make the best & most effectiveuse of them.4.ESTP – For these individuals the dominant quality in their lives is theirenthusiastic attention to the outer world of hands on & real life experiences.5.ESTJ – the driving force in their lives is their need to analyze & bring intological order the outer world of events, people & things.6.ISFJ – the dominant quality in their lives is an abiding respect & sense ofpersonal resp for doing what need to be done in the here & now.7.ISFP – They have a dominant quality which is deep felt caring, for living things,combined with a quietly playful & sometimes adventurous approach to life & allits experiences.8.ESFP – For them the dominant quality in their lives is their enthusiastic attentionto the outer world of hands on & real life experiences.
Contd…,1. ESFJ – active & intense caring about people & a strong desire to bring harmony in their relationships.2. INFJ – is their attention to the inner world of possibilities, ideas & symbols.3. INFP – is a deep felt caring & idealism about people.4. ENFP – is their attention to the outer world of possibilities; they are exited by continuous involvement in anything new.5. ENFJ – is an active & intense caring about people & a strong desire to bring harmony into their relationships.6. INTJ – is their attention to the inner world of possibilities, symbols, abstractions, images & thoughts.7. INTP – is to understand what ever phenomenon is the focus of their attention.8. ENTP – is their excitement in continuous involvement in anything new, whether it be ideas, people or activities.9. ENTJ – is their need to analyze & bring into logical order the outer world of events, people, & things.
2. SELF ANALYSISPersonal change begins with analyzing oneself.Self analysis has to do with a personal SWOTanalysis.Self analysis helps a person in understanding:Whether or not one has a suitable aptitude for agiven job.Whether or not one is capable of handling thevarious roles and responsibilities one has accepted.What motivates and what drains one’s energy.
Contd...,Whether one brings out the best in others or the worst inothers.Who in the environment be it a personal or official capacitybrings out the best in oneself and who brings out the worst inoneself?One’s stress tolerance potential.Whether one is doing the work that is meaningful tohimself / herself, others around him/her, his/her organizationand community.An important aspect of self analysis is to examine whetherone has meaningful relationships with others & to move awayfrom relationships that are not fulfilling.
Contd...,Exercise on self analysis – blank sheet of paper startanswering the following questions.One’s current and previous jobs, including anyvoluntary workOne’s interest outside work and extracurricularactivitiesOne’s course andAny other significant experiences, in life.
Contd...,Ask Oneself :2.Why did I choose the course, job, experience?3.Which parts of this experience did I really enjoy?4.Which parts did I find frustrating or boring?5.Which bits was I best at?6.Which bits did I find a struggle?7.What have other people said about mycontribution in this job, course, and experience?8.What do others consider I am good at? (Ask them)
Contd...,It tells us about the sorts of skills one feels mostcomfortable using, the sort of environment oneperforms best in and the types of people with whomone enjoys working.
3. SELF ESTEEMSelf-esteem or self-worth is defined as a person’sself-image at an emotional level; circumventingreason & logic.According to Hellriegel, Slocum & Woodmandefined Self esteem as the result of an individual’scontinuing evaluation of himself or herself.According to Rosenberg’s described it as a favorableor unfavorable attitude toward the self.
Contd…,Factors determining one’s self esteem: build animage of oneself through one’s experiences withdifferent people & activities. – experience during childhood, - one’s successes & failures, - how we were treated by the members of one’simmediate family, teachers, coaches, religiousauthorities, & by one’s peers, all contributes to thecreation of one’s basic self esteem.
Contd…,Nature of Low Self-Esteemed Person & Healthy Self EsteemedPerson-People with low self-esteem often rely on how they are doing inthe present to determine how they feel about themselves. Theyneed +ve external experiences to counteract the –ve feelings &thoughts that constantly plague them. Even them the goodfeeling can be temporary.-People with healthy self esteem are able to assess oneselfaccurately. They will be able to realistically acknowledge one’sstrengths & limitations & at the same time accepting oneself asworthy & worthwhile without conditions or reservations.
Contd…, • Causes for healthy & low self esteem CAUSES FOR HEALTHY SELF- ESTEEM CAUSES FOR LOW SELF ESTEEM Childhood experiences Childhood experiences that include being that include being yelled praised at, or beaten Being listened to Being ignored Being spoken to Teased respectfully Being expected to be Getting attention & “perfect” all the time hugs Experiencing failures Experiencing success in sports or school
Contd…, • Facets of Low self-Esteem It is not so easy to recognize low self esteem The three common faces that low self esteem may wear are – The Impostor – pretends to be happy & successful -Lives with a constant fear that he or she will be “found out” -Needs continuous successes to maintain the mask of +ve self esteem The Rebel – acts against the opinions or good will of others- especially people who are important or powerful-don’t matter. -Lives with constant anger about not feeling “good enough” -Continuously needs to prove that others’ judgments & criticisms don’t hurt
Contd…, The Loser – acts helpless & unable to cope with the world &waits for someone to come to the rescue.-Uses self-pity or indifference as a shield against fear of takingresponsibility for changing his or her life.-Looks constantly to others for guidance, which can lead to suchproblems as lacking assertiveness skills, under-achievement, &excessive reliance on others in relationships.
Contd…,Consequences of Low Self Esteem – It can create anxiety, stree, loneliness & increasedlikelihood for depressionIt can cause problems with friendships & relationships. It can seriously impair academic & job performance. It can lead to underachievement & increased vulnerabilityto drug & alcohol abuse. It reinforces the –ve self image & can take a person intodownward spiral of lower & lower self-esteem & increasinglynon-productive or even actively self-destructive behavior.
•Contd…,Measures to overcome Low self-esteem:First believe that one can change, and should be willing to change.There are three steps one can take to begin to change one’s self-esteem: Step 1: Rebut the Inner Critic – challenge the –ve messages ofthe critical inner voice.“I failed the class test. I don’t understand anything in class. Ishouldn’t be taking this course”.Rebut the critic by saying – “ I did poorly on this one test, but I’vedone O.K. on all the assignments. There are some things here that Idon’t understand as well as I thought I did.
Contd…, Step 2: Practice Self-Nurturing – treat oneself as a worthwhile person, caring for oneself in ways that shows that one is valuable, component, deserving & lovable. Components to self-nurturing: -Practice Basic Self-Care: enough sleep, healthy food, regular exercise -Plan Fun & Relaxing Things for yourself -Reward Yourself for Your Accomplishment -Remind Yourself of Your Strengths & Achievements – keep file of certificates & awards where you can see them. -Forgive Yourself When You Don’t Do All You’d Hoped -Self-Nurture Even When You Don’t Feel You Deserve It: “Fake it” until you can “make it”.
Contd…, Step 3: Get Help from Others -Ask for support from Friends -Get help from Teachers & Other Helpers -Talk to a Therapist or Counselor
4. SELF-EFFICACYAccording to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy refers toan individual’s sense of competence or ability ingeneral or in particular domains.
ORGANIZATIONAL ROLESPersonal change has a direct impact in an Organization & the rolesthat individuals play.In a social system an organization has roles with expectations thatrequire individuals to perform certain tasks called job duties.Discharge of duties.People must be attracted not only to the organization but also toremain in it.People must perform the task for which they are hired, and must do soin a dependable manner andPeople must go beyond the dependable role performance & engage increative, spontaneous & innovative behaviour at work.The organizational structure & Individual characteristics need to bematched to become effective.This matching leads to the evolving of a Role in the organization.
Contd…,The organization structure consists of - Work Structure, StatusStructure, Authority Structure,Individual Characteristics like – Interest, Attitudes, Needs.There are TWO Role Systems – - Role Space – each individuals plays several roles like daughter,mother, sales person, member of a club & so on. - Role Set – is a pattern of interrelationship between one roleamong many others.Role is a convergence region between the individual & theorganization. What is given in a organization chart is the position &when the individual occupies a position, it becomes a ‘role’.It has been defined as “a set of Behaviours enacted by aperson as a result of his occupying a certain position in theorganization.
Making organizational roles effectiveRole effectiveness depends on:Having high role efficacy on the part of the role occupant andBy developing a style & strategy to cope with the RoleConflict or stress.