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business communication

  1. 1. Doç.Dr. Cem S. Sütcü M.Ü. İletişim Fakültesi http://mimoza.marmara.edu.tr/~csutcu
  2. 2. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Communication is any behavior, verbal or nonverbal, that is perceived by another. Knowledge, feelings or thoughts are enclosed and sent from at least one person and received and decoded by another. Meaning is given to this message as the receiver interprets the message. A connection is made between the people communicating. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Forms of Communication: Each of the channels of communication requires effective skills suited to the form of communication used to send the message. Communication is classified into three forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal communication, either spoken or written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Types of communication: A person working in an organization uses four different types of communication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass communication </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ch.1- Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>The communication process takes place in various situations for different reasons, with the potential for many interpretations. It has seven main elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context or setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise or interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception influences communication . It is the way people understand or give meaning to their environment. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Causes of communication barriers: Effective communication often passes unnoticed, while poor commuication is obvious. The compete message and its meaning are distorted and interrupted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate choice of word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver inattention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of courtesy by the sender or the receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication that does not support the words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different cultural backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor layout and presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>İnadequate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These barriers interrupt the flow of communication and lead to confusion and misunderstandings. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Communication within the workplace: For business decisions to be effective and relevant, timely and appropriate information has to be obtained and communicated throughout the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The successful organization is the one that has effective communication both within the organization and with other companies and clients. In fact, information flow is crucial to any organization and the better the flow the more successful the company or organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Being an effective communicator means being honest with yourself and others; it meanshaving the ability to say what you want or feel, but not at the expense of others. It is not about getting your own way and winning every time. Nor is it a means to manipulate and manage other people so that you achieve your aim while appearing to be considering others. An effective communicatior avoids a series of quick-fix tricks or techniques. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Communication is one of the most important skills in the workplace. Effective communication establishes a connection between two or more people and leads to understanding. It allows individuals to be more effective at work and in their relationship with others. </li></ul><ul><li>As well as allowing individuals to interact to satisfy their own needs and to develop their personal, social and work relationships, effective communication also enables leaders and managers to control work procedures motivate others and balance the needs and goals of individuals and the organization. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Intercultural communication between people living in the same country but from different cultural backgrounds. Over time, a culture develops distinctive national patterns of communication and social behavior. These patterns are the customs and the conventions regarded as the characteristics of a particular culture. They affect way people communicate and act as individuals or in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>What information we take in, which part of the message we choose to remember and which response we give are all a result of our perception. Effective communicators acknowledge differences in perception. They also use communication strategies that avoid the communication barriers caused by the ineffective intercultural communication strategies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Nonverbal communication consists of that part of a message that is not encoded in words. The nonverbal part of the message tends to be less conscious and reveals the sender’s feelings, likings and preferences more spontaneously and honestly than the verbal part. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four types of nonverbal messages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (to the individual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common to a group of people or culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal (to humankind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrelated to the message (random) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Analysing nonverbal communication : People communicate nonverbally with the body movement and with personal relationship behaviors. This nonverbal communication modifies, changes or complements the verbal communication. Nonverbal communication always exists in a context , or framework. The context often determines the meaning of the nonverbal behavior. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>We can classify nonverbal communication into seven main areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body movement or kinesics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touching behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal qualities, or paralanguage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of space, or proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artefacts (e.g. Parfume, clothes, lipstick, glasses and hairpieces project the style or mood of the wearer.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Matching the nonverbal and verbal parts of the message: The total message contains the spoken words and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication adds meaning, modifies or changes the spoken words in six ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating – for example, pointing when giving directions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradicting – for example, looking at your watch and backing away while telling someone, ‘I’m very interested in what you are saying.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substituting – using facial expressions as a substitute for words, to show pleasure, disappointment and range of emotions, feelings and experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementing – modifying, emphasizing or elaborating words in a way that conveys attitudes and intentions towards others; for example, standing in a casual way or using a careless tone of voice that conveys a lack of respect for the listener. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accenting – moving the head and hands to emphasize parts of the verbal message; for example, shaking the head as you say ‘No’. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling the flow of information – nodding your head or changing position can indicate that the speaker should continue or give you a turn. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>How to check the meaning of nonverbal behavior: When you are in doubt about the meaning of nonverbal behavior , check it out with the person sending the message raher than make assumptions or pass judgement. The total message is understood more easily when you follow the four-step process below. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear the words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See the nonverbal behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check out their meaning with the sender when the verbal and nonverbal messages are different. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the context or setting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next time you are uncertain about the meaning of someone’s nonverbal behavior, simply check it out by completing these two steps. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask the sender what the response means. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In this way you avoid making wrong assumptions about the communication </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>The process of Listening: Listening serves two broad purposes in this process. </li></ul><ul><li>As the sender of the message, listening to your receiver’s answers provides feedback on how the other person has interpreted your message. </li></ul><ul><li>As the receiver of the message, listening to the information from the other person allows you to understand the meaning. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>There are four listening skills and their responses: </li></ul><ul><li>Attending listening to focus on the speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage listening to invite the speaker to continue </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting listening to mirror the feelings and content in the message </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening to show empathy with the speaker </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Focus on the speaker: In attended listening, you focus on the speaker by giving your physical attention to the other person. </li></ul><ul><li>You use your whole body and the environment you create to provide feedback that assures the speaker of your total attention. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>There are four Listening Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the speaker: Eye contact, posture, body movement, personal space, environment, avoid distractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Invite the speaker to continue: Invitation to disclose, minimal and brief responses, pause, use encouraging questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mirror the content and feelings in the message: Paraphrasing, reflecting statements, clarifying, summarizing. </li></ul><ul><li>Show empathy with the speaker: Active participation, feedback. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ch.1- Apply communication principles in workplace <ul><li>Barriers in the listener </li></ul><ul><li>Boredom or lack of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The listener’s dislikeof the personality or physical appearance of the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>A desire to change rather than accept the speaker. </li></ul><ul><li>A tendency to make early conclusions or to listen only for the pause when the speaker can be interrupted. The intrusion of the listener’s own values or attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>A willingness in the listener to hear only that part of the message they agree with. </li></ul><ul><li>A perception by the listener that the speaker lack credibility. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Creating a communication climate: It is created by the way people feel about each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy: is the ability to understand and feel as the other person feels. </li></ul><ul><li>Win-win approach: is concentrating on the needs and interests of other people communicating. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-disclosure: involves showing how you react and feel about the present situationand giving any information about the past that affects this reaction; in this way you allow others to know more about you. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Effective interpersonal communication techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing openness </li></ul><ul><li>Showing empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Use supportiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate equality </li></ul><ul><li>Use “I” messages </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate feedback ( feedback is the receiver’s response to a sender’s message ) </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate self-disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate assertively </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Giving and receiving instructions: There are two types of instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Direct instructions are to the point and indicate who, what, when, where and how a task will be completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional insitructions explain the objectives, provide background information and describe the intended outcome. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>When giving instructions follow these simple guides: </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what needs to be accomplished- the intended outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Give reasons for doing the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Use concrete action words rather than abstract words. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the other person paraphrase the instruction back to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the skills in the task if your instructions involve machinery or equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure your timing is appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up as the person does the task on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer timely and specific feedback. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>When receiving and following instructions follow these simple guides: </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the person giving the instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid thinking about something else or daydreaming. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid jumping to conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions about the standards to be reached. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase to check your understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Double any safety issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help if you feel you do not understand or are unable to follow the instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask general questions. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Characteristics of an Interview : Interviews involve two sides; the interviewer and the interviewee. An interview is essentially an exchange of information What distinguishes it from a casual conversation, which is also an exchange of information, is that an interview: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is planned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is prearranged </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is structured </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is controlled by the interviewer (it means knowing how to motivate the interviewee to reply fully to questions) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has a predetermined purpose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place between two or more people of different status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Stages of an Interview: Intervieiws may take place for a number of reasons. Their structure, however, will generally include five stages. </li></ul><ul><li>The pre-interview stage </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of the interview ( p.35 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The body of an interview ( p.36 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The close ( p.37 ) </li></ul><ul><li>The post-interview ( p.38 ) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>There are three types of job Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The single interview: It is conducted by a single interviewer responsible for interviewing all applicants and selecting the new staff member. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The series interview: It is conducted by a number of interviewers in turn. Each interviewer is looking for a particular area of expertise and evaluates each applicant in this area of expertise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The panel interview: It is conducted by a group of interviewers. Each member on the panel asks specific questions relevant to their specialized experience. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Goals of a job interview: In conducting a job interview, you want to attract and choose the best applicant for the position. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information from interviewees to help predict their future performance </li></ul><ul><li>Inform applicants about the job and the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Determine applicants’ ability to work with others and ‘fit’ into the organizational culture </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Potential problems: Interviews are not always effective in choosing the best person for the job. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much attention to negative or irrelevant information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little knowledge of the job under discussion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judging the applicant inappropriate criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor listening, which results in the interviewer hearing only part of the interviewee’s answer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Pre-interview stage: Undertake the analysis of the job. Identify the tasks performed on the job and the activities, skills and personal attributes necessary to carry out the job. Create a job specification or description if one does not exist. The job specification is the basis for the essential and desirable quantities listed in the adviertisement as well as the basis for your questions in the interview. Determine the style and the structure of the interview. Directive interviews are controlled and organized by the interviewer. Non-directive interviews involve the participants and the organization in setting the goals and process of the interview. Employment interviews are usually directive interviews . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Preparing the questions: Prepare a fixed set of questions that ask about the interviewee’s qualifications, previous job experience, carrier ambitions, goals, and attitudes towards the organization’s products or policies. Aim to create clear, specific questions that will adequately establish the applicant’s capacity to meet the demands of the job. Questions should also be relevant, unambigous and free from bias, so that no one particular group in society is favoured or others disadvantaged. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Four types of questions may be asked during the interviews. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open questions: Encourage interviewees to speak freely and talk about themselves, while the interviewer listens, observes and makes notes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed questions: These type of questions are designed to limit interviewees’ responses and to establish familiar facts such as their address, previous place of employment or qualifications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror questions: These type of questions restate the interviewees’ previous answers and invite them to add further information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probing questions: These type of questions follow on from the last response of the interviewee. They are spontaneous rather than planned. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Short-Listing the candidates: Usually you receive more applications for a position than the number of applicants you are willing to interview. Therefore, you prepare a short list and interview only those who best suit the position. Each application is assessed for suitability. This cull, or sorting, of applications into two gropus – those to be called for an interview and those not to be interviewed – is made by comparing the information in the applications against the essential and desirable qualifications for the position. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Conducting an interview: Once you prepared the content of the interview you are ready to conduct the interview. Non-directive techniques use minimal questions, creating a conversational rather than an interrogatory tone, and adoptpositive nonverbal cues such as pauses and head nods to encourage the applicant. Directive techniques include open-ended questions and specific probing questions to focus on a particular topic and gain further information or clarification. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Open the interview: Create an open, friendly and trusting environment and aim to put the interviewee at ease. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greet the applicant by name and introduce yourself and the panel by name and jpb designation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the interviewee to a chair and perhaps offer refreshments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some interviewers like to talk about topics of general interest such as local events or sport to make the applicant feel at ease; however take care not to side-track too far from the interview’s purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the interview’s purpose and intended result. Be specific and avoid generalities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the interviewee know if you intend to take notes and explain the length of time alotted to the interview. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>The body of the interview: Use simple questions initially to help the applicant build confidence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress further through the interview with questions on work experience, education and personal details. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout the interview, your purpose is twofold: to obtain specific information from the applicant and to achieve an interview process that is comfortable for the applicant. So take notes to jog your memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some interviewee responses may be inadequate, irrelevant, poorly organized or inaccurate. Listen carefully and with empathy. On occasion, you may need to vary the type of question, to clarify information or to allow the applicant to elaborate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an interviewer it is your resposibility to give applicants accurate job information, to answer their questions and to allow scope to discuss their abilities. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Close the interview courteously. </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewer should summarize what has taken place during the interview to avoid any misunderstandings or communication barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the interview, indicate any further action that needs to be completed. Indicate clearly that the interview is over and thank applicants for their application and for attending the interview. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>After the interview , the interviewer or the panel evaluates each applicant and the results of the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the confidentiality of the interview and the documents presented at the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Record or complete notes on all important points immediately after the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>You are trying to form an objective opinion based on the information provided by the interviewee and any other information available. At this stage interview evaluation sheets or rating scales are very helpful. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Other workplace interviews: Apart from the job interview, a number of other interviews are regularly conducted at work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection interviews: They can take place daily within an organization as part of the problem-solving and decision-making process.Their aim is to obtain needed information and collect it in a form that can be analyzed and processed or order the information in a way that makes it easy to analyze. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive interviews: They aim to establish that a particular course of action or a new idea or change is acceptable. Plan the persuasive interview by knowing what you want to change or accomplish. Identify you objectives. They aim to influence the interviewee to change their attitude or bring them aroun a particular point of view. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><ul><ul><li>Performance interviews: They seek to evaluate the employers performance and provide feedback on the organization’s perception of the employer’s performance. The performance interview is often used for a promotion assessment. Plans to take action to change the behavior. Plan the interview carefully and choose a place free from interruptions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline or reprimand (kınama-azarlama) interviews: They aim to discuss unacceptable or undesirable behavior and to discuss plans to take action to change the behavior. Listen to the employee to determine reasons for the behavior . Deal with the facts rather than emplyee’s personal characteristics. This technique helps to reduce emotional reaction and defensiveness. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling (öğüt) interviews: They aim to provide support for employees dealing with issues and problems to help them solve the problem. Conseling interviews may also deal with issues that affect work performance. It is important in a conseling interview to remain non-evaluative, to use a range of questions and to develop active and reflective listening skills. They should be conducted privately, and confidentiality should be respected. They aim to help the employee clarify the problem and assist the employee to select the solution that most suıits their needs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Ch.4- Implement & maintain effective workplace comm. <ul><li>Common mistakes made by interviewers: The aim in a selection interview is to choose the best person for the job. By removing these mistakes from interviews an interviewer is able to choose the best person more effectively. Some mistakes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on first impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating towards the average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relying on overall impression to give the “halo” effect. (The halo effect describes a decision made on an overall impression based on general characteristics, rather than the specific criteria for the job. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing too much emphasis on negative information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a rushed decision </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Negotiation is a process in which two or more parties try to resolve differences, solve problems and reach aggreement. Effective negotiation meets as many interests as possible in an agreement that is durable. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation strategies: Although negotiation has a specific aim – to reach agreement – not all negotiation achieves this aim. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-win strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win-lose strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose-win strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose-lose strategy </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Win-win strategy: This gives a situation in which both parties are satisfied with the settlement negotiated. It is a process that seeks to meet the needs of both parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Win-lose strategy: This gives a situation in which one party is satisfied and one is dissatisfied. The focus is on the party’s problem to the exclusion of the other’s, until one side gives in or is defeated. People who adopt this strategy often use a confusing presentation or a dominant speaking style and body movement. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Lose-win strategy: This gives a situation in which a party is dissatisfied and the other is satisfied. In an extreme case, win-lose style of negotiation and the lose-win style of negotiation can lead to a deadlock followed by the lose-lose situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Lose-lose strategy: This results from a situation in which the objectives of both parties are too rigid, or when both parties are unable to collaborate, or unaware of the opportunity to do so. When agreement cannot be reached, a third party may mediate to help the parties reach their own solution. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Psychological barriers: When you are negotiating, psychological barriers may arise. These may include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of being taken for a ride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting to be liked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt about wanting to be assertive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be nice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling intimidated by so-called powerful people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of conflict or confrontation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of losing face with the boss or colleagues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of self-confidence </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>A five step approach to negotiation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan: Create a set of clear objectives to steer you in the right direction to achieve the results you want. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss: Identify areas of agreement and try to establish some rapport with the other party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: Define the issues at a time. Attempt to stay with the issue rather than generalizing into other situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate the issue: Start by asking for what you want, but accept that your goals may have to be modified. Link compromises to other objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check: Ceck the agreement that you have just concluded and confirm that each party is committed to the agreement. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Another approach to negotiation is principled bargaining . To implement it you need to; </li></ul><ul><li>State your case clearly and persuasively </li></ul><ul><li>Organize your facts well </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the timing and speed of the talks </li></ul><ul><li>Access the others’needs properly </li></ul><ul><li>Have patience </li></ul><ul><li>Not be unduly worried by conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Be committed to a win-win philosophy </li></ul>
  49. 49. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>BATNA stands for the Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement. If agreement cannot be achieved by negotiation, the alternative action to be taken is identified in the BATNA. </li></ul><ul><li>WATNA stands for the Worst Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement. If the person you are negotiating with is your manager or supervisor you may have to think about WATNA. Becasue the other person has the legitimate power, or because because you want the relationship to continue as it is, you may decide on less than your preferred outcome. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Problem solving by negotiating: It is necessary that the relationship is important to both parties and there is a genuine desire to solve the problem rather than to win. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select best time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement solutions </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Negotiating options: In the negotiation process, the parties involved may use different negotiation styles or options. A skillfull negotiator is able to identify each of the five options and recognize the style being used by other party. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise: the settlement of differences through concessions by one or both parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration: it results when people cooperate to produce a solution satisfactory to both parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition: it leads to one party gaining the advantage over the other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomodation: is a negotiation style where one party is willing to oblige or adapt to meet the needs of other party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal or avoidance: it is a negotiation style where both parties lose. In this style, one party retracts their point of view or backs away from the situation. (lose-lose) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Conflict occurs when two people, teams or groups have differing wants or goals and one party interferes with the other’s attempts to satisfy their wants or goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Conflict: Conflict moves through different levels before it reaches the crisis level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discomfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Discomforts: Perhaps nothing is isaid yet. Things don’t feel right. It may be difficult to identify what the problem is. Do you feel uncomfortable about a situaition, but not quite sure. </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents: Here a short, sharp exchange occurs without any lasting internal reaction. Has someting occured between you and someone else that has left you upset, irritated or with a result you did not want. </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstandings: Here motives and facts are often confused or misperceived. Do your thoughts keep returning frequently to the problem. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Tension: Here relationships are weighed down by negative attitudes and fixed opinions. Has the way you feel about and regard the other person significantly changed for the worse? Is the relationship a source of constant worry and concern? </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis: Behavior is affected, normal functioning becomes difficult, extreme gestures are contemplated or executed. Are you dealing with a major event like a possible rupture in a relationship, leaving a job, violence? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Ch.5- Negotiation & Conflict Management <ul><li>Constructive responses to conflict: Responses to conflict are learnt early in our childhood. These responses become habits and reactions used without thought in our adult life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening with emphaty </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Ch.9- Coordinate and M anage Quality Customer Service <ul><li>An organization that focuses on the customers’ point of view rather than its own point of view is well on the way to providing high quality customer service . It achieves this by clearly defining its customers’ needs and expectations , and by communicating regularly with them. An organization’s customer service is designed around the things customers value , and is continually improved to meet their needs and expectations. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Ch.9- Coordinate and M anage Quality Customer Service <ul><li>Establish working relationships with customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer Service Model: Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to customer service is now being adopted by many organizations. TQM Involves everyone in the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your customer’s needs and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan to meet internal and external customer requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify customer value: Basic service, Expected service, Desired service, Unexpected service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and external customers </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Ch.9- Coordinate and M anage Quality Customer Service <ul><li>Ensure delivery of quality product and service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach and mentor colleagues and team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with customer needs and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain customer records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform customers </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Ch.9- Coordinate and M anage Quality Customer Service <ul><li>Monitor, adjust and report customer service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer complaints policy: respond to feedback from customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek customer feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a proposal: that is to recommend and seek approval for modifications to customer service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorize, take action or refer on the complaints received from customers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemet proposed changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDCA cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act) for implementing proposed changes. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Determining the purpose: Meetings cover three main areas of resposibility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First, the organization’s resposibility is to provide the policy and procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second, the meeting’s executive is resposible for organizing and running the meeting according to its standing orders and formalities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third, members are required to take part in decision making at the meeting and contribute to areas requiring their expertise. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><ul><li>Formal meetings: they have rules and regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal meetings: they are less structured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning the seating arrengements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular or oval seating arrangement: This is the ideal arrangement. It allows everyone to see everyone else. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long rectangular seating arrangement: It is less than ideal. It can lead to problems such as “meetings within meetings” the members farthest from the chairperson may talk among themselves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U-shaped seating arrangement: It presents problems similar to those of the long rectangular table. The person on the immediate left of the chairperson tends to have trouble asserting their presence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Conducting a structure meeting: People at a meeting may take an executive role or a membership role. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duties of the chairperson: Chairperson is either selected or appointed. The resposibility is twofold: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To prepare and set the scene for the meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To conduct the meeting according to the standing orders or rules of the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Other duties of the chairperson; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C0nducting the meeting: check that a quorum (minimum number needed to conduct meeting) is present, declare the meeting open, welcome people, state the aims of meeting, delegate when necessary, give feedback, encourage participation... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruling on points of order: The chairperson makes a decision on any points of order that are rised. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following procedures: Chairperson’s role is to ensure that correct procedures are followed, and maintain control of the meeting: Allocating enogh time for adequate discussion, be objective and impartial, put forward the motion for the next meeting. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Moving and seconding proposals, motions and amendments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A motion is a specific proposal formally put by a member to the rest of the meeting. For example: “I move that a pay increase of $30 per week be accepted”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An amendment to the motion can be suggested by any member. It is an alteration that aims to clarify the motion (or improve it some other way) by rearranging removing or adding words. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><ul><li>Right of reply : Once the general discussion on the motion is completed, the chairperson gives its mover the right of reply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting for the motion: The chairperson then asks members to vote for or against the motion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution: A motion put to the meeting and carried becoms a resolution – that is, the discussion about it has been resolved to everyone’s satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  67. 67. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings
  68. 68. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Duties of the secretary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agenda: The secretary prepares the agenda in consultation with the chairperson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation: preparing enough copies, sending members the agenda for the next meeting and a copy of the minutes of the previous meeting . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apologies: The secretary records the names of those present., reads apologies from absentees, records these apologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correspondence and minutes within 24 hours or sooner. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Duties of participants at a meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-related roles: Before attending, read the agenda minutes, prepare and write proposalsor motions, and oral presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance-related roles: Support and encourage others’ contributions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive and dysfunctional roles: Defensive roles such as tension reliever or scapegoat and dysfunctional roles such as show-off, blocker or rebel – to achieve their own agendas prevent the meeting from achieving its goals. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Communication skills that achieve results </li></ul><ul><li>Practice courtesy and good meeting manners </li></ul><ul><li>Express your ideas and give feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Match the nonverbal messages to the spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up </li></ul>
  71. 71. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Communication barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Poor verbal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate nonverbal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening </li></ul><ul><li>Unwillingness to participate </li></ul>
  72. 72. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Decision-making and problem solving in a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal group technique: It anables members of a group to work independently as individuals at the meeting, to think about and present new ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss and clarify the situation or problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work as individuals (think on your own) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present and record ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate the ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the most preferred option </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Brainstorming: It lets each person contribute ideas and feel part of the process that produces the results. It is a quick and easy method. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the main issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage all members to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the action </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Ch.10- Organize and Manage Meetings <ul><li>Problem-solving process (by Dewey, 1933): It is creative, helps the participants understands the reasons for the final decision, and encourages them to discuss the results with others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List all the possible alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss an analyze the alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the course of action </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several ways you can tackle the task of planning a document. The following steps are a useful way of getting started and of ensuring that the result is appropriate, readable and clear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify your reason for writing the document. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the needs of yor receiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide what points and ideas you need to include. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the best way to organize these points. </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information <ul><li>Metods of organizing information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct method: Begins with the main points and/or conclusions, and then provides detailed evidence to support it and discussion about it. This method is often useful at work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect method: starts with the introduction, then provides the detailed evidence and discussion, and finishes with the conclusion or recommendation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving method: is used when you wish to focus the reader’s thoughts on a problem. Start with a detailed discussion of the factors that caused the problem and conclude with the solution. </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information <ul><li>Strategies for sorting information: During the planning stage of a complex document you will sort your materials before you decide what sequence or order to put it in. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional written outline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal outline: shows the main ideas, the supporting information, their position and the connections between them. It is useful for dealing with many complex ideas or details. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal outline: It lists the main ideas and their supporting information. It is one of the easiest ways of to orgainze simple, uncomplicated information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information <ul><ul><li>Tree diagram: is a plannig strategy that groups particular points or ideas together. It is a technique suited to complicated ideas and it is best to use it after you have fully developed them. This is because it shows up any similarities, differences, overlaps or gaps in your ideas, and identifies their order of importance. The main topic or theme becomes the trunk of the tree. Then each idea that stems from this trunk becomes a branch. </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Ch.13- Organize Workplace Information <ul><ul><li>Triangle: The shape of the triangle emphasises the lead-in or introduction to your topic and the conclusion. As a closed shape, it contains the main ideas in boxes along the bottom, as a unitConsequently, it helps you to limit your material to what is necessary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind Map: Instead of the linear approach to note-taking, the Mind Map offers key concept overviews to which descriptive details can be added. It helps us to make associations between key concepts and relevant experiences. This way of sorting and selecting information is more efficiant than making the traditional kind of structured notes which contain unnecessary words that interrupt the key words. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><li>At work we write letters for many different reasons to initiate a business contact, to reply to someone, to give directions, to make requests. Some are written to persuade a potential customer to buy something, or to encourage a customer to pay an overdue account. </li></ul><ul><li>The four main types of business letters are; </li></ul><ul><li>Good news letters </li></ul><ul><li>Bad news letters </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral letters </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive letters </li></ul>
  81. 81. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><li>Layout of a business letter: The layout of the letter provides the frame for the body of your letter. </li></ul>Essential Parts Optional Parts Writer’s name and address Subject line Date Attention line Inside (intended reader’s ) address Reference initials Greeting Enclosure Body of the letter File number Complimentary close Sender’s telephone extensions Writer’s signature and job title or designation Sender’s e-mail or website details
  82. 82. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><li>Types of layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full block layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full block layout with centered letterhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified block layout </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><li>Planning the business letter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on the purpose of the letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide what you want to say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note down all the ideas in point form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order these ideas into a sequence appropriate to the type of letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the first draft, using plain English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the letter to ensure that you have achieved your purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrite if necessary </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><ul><li>Writing good news or neutral letters: Direct order of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An acknowledgement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A letter of introduction to someone </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><li>Writing bad news letters: Indirect order of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An order refusal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A credit refusal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An adjustment refusal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refusing an invitation or request </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Ch.15- Writing Business Letters <ul><li>Persuasive letters : to collect someting (money, cooperation etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The remainder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strong remainder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urgency </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Ch.16- Writing Memos and Short Reports
  88. 88. Ch.16- Writing Memos and Short Reports

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