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Integrated Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)


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An Implementation of Integrated ITS Solution supporting Mobility as a Service within West Midlands Region, UK in Collaboration of Integrated Transport Authority.

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Integrated Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

  1. 1. 1 Faculty of Science and Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Babagana Sheriff ( M.Sc. Civil Engineering) Ramat Polytechnic Maiduguri, Nigeria An Implementation of Integrated ITS Solution supporting Mobility as a Service within West Midlands Region, UK in Collaboration of Integrated Transport Authority. 1.0 Integrated ITS Solution from State of Art Review 1.1 Introduction According to United State Department of Transport (USDT, 2011) Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can be referred to as the application of advanced information and communications technology to surface transportation in order to achieve enhanced safety and mobility while reducing the environmental impact of transportation. The addition of wireless communications offers an influential and transformative chances to create transportation connectivity that supplementary enables cooperative systems and dynamic data exchange using a broad range of advanced systems and technologies. In this report, intelligent transport system ITS architecture and model established by several researchers all over the world has been has considered, studied and critically reviewed in-depth in order to apply to the current project. Roles of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Map Matching Algorithms in ITS also been studied in order to develop a new mobility concept that enhances Policing/Enforcing Traffic Regulations System that support Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) within the West Midlands in Collaboration of Integrated Transport Authority (ITA). The system that will improves transportation through the safe and well-organized movement of people, goods, and information, with better mobility and fuel efficiency, less pollution, and improved operating efficiency that must be accommodating and fair in serving the interests of West Midlands Integrated Transport Authority (ITA) and enuances the present and future economic efficiency of individuals, organizations, and the economy as a whole. Balaji and Srinivasan, (2011) for traffic management operations used type-2 fuzzy decision module which offers more autonomy to the system and less manpower requirement. However, Mulay et al. (2013) also highlighted the use of traffic management system which provides facility of congestion detection and management, IPTS and signal synchronization. This facility that dictate congestion for proper management is noted and may be considered in deployment of new proposed integrated system development in West Midland. However, Advanced Traffic Management System developed by Balaji and Srinivasan (2011) provides only the traffic signal control for the management of traffic also Logi and Ritchie (2001) and Ossowski et al. (2005)
  2. 2. 2 introduced Decision Support System (DSS) for traffic management. The former was based on the knowledge based system while the later was based on multi-agent technology. Logi and Ritchie (2001) used Traffic Congestion Management (TCM) method that can properly estimate current traffic conditions using the result of a static assignment based on historical O-D data that represent daily traffic pattern under different conditions. This approach is quite fast but the problem is inaccurate for assessment of the current demand. Adoption of dynamic method assignment that detecate images of traffic violators and interprete the nature of the violation, create file and send to law enforcement agengiies for procecution will be better approach for the current demand. System established by Logi and Ritchie (2001), Hernandez et al. (2002), Ossowski et al. (2005) and Mulay et al. (2013) were capable of managing different traffic incidents via different approaches, nevertheless the system established by Balaji and Srinivasan (2011) was traffic signal control system to optimize the signal traffic to decrease congestion. Zhenlin et al. (2012) studied the efficiency of the Beijing Intelligent Traffic Management System (ITMS)., they found that efficiency of transportation facilities has significantly increased after the implementation of Advanced Traffic Management System. The study by Faghri and Hamad (2002) was more of a basic study, as they did not develop any system but only studied the use of GPS in traffic management and found out that GPS data to be 50% more efficient in terms of manpower. This shows the significance of GPS technology in traffic management operations. A variety of intelligent transport system (ITS) applications and services such as road control, fleet management, road user charging, accident and emergency response, bus arrival information at bus stop stations, and location based services (LBS) require location information. For example, buses equipped with a navigation system can determine their locations and direct information back to a control centre allowing bus operators to forecast the arrival of buses at bus stop stations and hereafter improve the service level of public transport systems. The accuracy for horizontal positioning of such ITS utilization is ranged between 1m to 40 m (positioning accuracy of 2D at 95% of the time), with comparatively high requirements on continuity, integrity and system availability. Though most ATT services (navigation and road guidance, distance- based road pricing etc.) needs a 1HZ of sample frequency, some ATT service (including bus arrival information at bus stop stations) only needs 30 HZ of sample frequency or higher. In the few years ago, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proven itself as a main positioning technology for providing locational data for ITS applications including mobile phones equipped with GPS for numerous applications. Zito et al. (2005) provided a decent overview for GPS use as an intelligent tool for vehicle-highway systems. Deduced calculating sensors - usually stated as Dead-Reckoning (DR) sensors - (comprise gyroscope and odometer) are usually used to link any gaps in GPS positioning (Kubrak, et al., 2006). 3-D road network data are used to determine the spatial reference of the vehicle position through a procedure recognized as map matching. For example, the accuracy and accessibility of positioning data using mobile phones will be significantly increased if the navigation task of mobile phones is supported by GPS, DR, and spatial road network data integrated by a map matching algorithm. The map matching algorithm overall function is to recognize the precise road section on which the vehicle is travelling and to regulate the vehicle position on that section (Quddus et al, (2003), Greenfeld, (2002)). Map matching system in any navigation segment is vital to meet the stated
  3. 3. 3 needs set for that specific service. Nevertheless, the map matching algorithm function rely on the features of the inputs data (Chen et al. 2005). 1.2 ITS System Architectures Around the World According to Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004), advanced countries around the world have taken the lead in establishing ITS system architectures. These comprise the U.S., the European Union, and Japan. Numerous other countries, both developed and developing, have produced their own national ITS architectures according to their level of development based on their suited architectures. Furthermore, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) includes a working group on ITS architecture (WG1) in its technical committee on ITS (TC204). The physical architecture comprise user need for some countries were reviewed in following headings in order to carefully study and incorporate the suitable user needs to the deploymen of new integrated ITS solution proposed for West Midlands Integrated Transport Authority (ITA). 1.2.1 U.S. National ITS Architecture As highlighted by Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004), U.S. was the first country to establinational ITS architecture, beginning in the early 1990s. The U.S. architecture has 33 user services in eight User Service, see appendix A for the llist of user services. The principal elements in the physical architecture are entities and architecture flows that connect these entities into an overall structure. The physical architecture assigns processes from the logical architecture to subsystems, and groups data flows from the logical architecture into architecture flows. These flows and the corresponding communication requirements define the interfaces which are a main focus of ITS standards development in the U.S. (see Figure 1 & 2). Figure 1: Very High Level Logical Architecture of the U.S. National ITS Architecture Source: Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004) Provide Electronic Payment Services Manage Commercial Vehicles Provide Vehicle Monitoring &Control Financial Institution Payment Request Payment Route Request Route Information Transit Schedules Transit Requests Emergency Telecom System Archived Data User System Storage Facility Archive Data Route Information Priority Requests Incident Notification Incident Information Traffic Traffic Information Vehicle Status Basic Commercial Vehicle Basic Vehicle Provide Driver & Traveler Services Manage Transit Manage Traffic Manage Emergency Services Manage Archived Data Manage Maintenance & Construction
  4. 4. 4 Figure 2: US ITS Architecture Source James et al.,(2010) 1.2.2 European ITS Framework Architecture The European ITS Framework Architecture (informally called FRAME) is a project of the EU Directorate on Information Society Technology and is one of the vital efforts of the Fifth Framework research program. FRAME, which is still in progress, will deliver a second generation architectural approach, based on the original European ITS Architecture called KAREN (for Keystone Architecture Required for European Networks). (Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J.,2004). The deployment of the propsed new ITS solution is designed based on the FRAME guidelines. Figure. shows the European ITS framework architecture model and see Appendix B for its list of user needs . Figure 3: European ITS Framework Architecture Source: James et al.,(2010)
  5. 5. 5 1.2.3: Japanese ITS System Architecture According to Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004). the Japanese ITS System Architecture was accomplished in 1999 via the collaborative efforts of five government ministries involved in ITS, also in collaboration with VERTIS (now ITS Japan). The Japanese ITS architecture comprises an enumeration of user services as shown in Appendix C and a physical architecture also shown in Figure. 4., p20 Figure 4: Subsystem Interconnect Diagram from Japanese Physical ITS Architecture Source: Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004). 1.2.4: Australia architecture According to James et al.,(2010), Australia, architecture was developed in the form of a multi- modal ITS future big picture, with the aim to improve the future development and deployment of
  6. 6. 6 ITS services within Australia by providing a framework for the development of standards, promoting integration of systems and providing a basis for education. The figure 5 below shows the ITS Architecture. Figure 5 Australian ITS architecture Source: James et al.,(2010) 1.2.5 Canada ITS architecture According to James et al.,(2010), the Canadian ITS architecture was developed from the US model, mainly due to the benefits of having closely related transport systems that supplement each other. Though there are a number of differences because of the Canadian environment. The logical architecture of the Canadian ITS architecture was developed in parallel with the physical architecture, unlike the US where the development of the physical architecture was based on the logical architecture. The Canada ITS architecture is Shown in figure 6. Figure 6: Canada ITS architecture Source: James et al.,(2010) 1.2.6 ISO ITS Reference Architecture As highlighted by Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004), the ITS technical committee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/TC204) has established an architecture that
  7. 7. 7 assist to define ITS standards. Since it is relatively uncomplicated architecture, it has also served as a base model for the development of other ITS architectures. The principal features of the ISO architecture are a reference model for other architectures and has collection of user services. The user services are presented in table 1 and the depiction of ISO Core ITS Architecture Reference Model is also shown in figure 7. Table 4 ISO ITS Architecture Service Domains and Service Groupings
  8. 8. 8 Source: Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004). Figure 7: High-Level Depiction of ISO Core ITS Architecture Reference Model Source: Yokota, T., and Weiland R.J., (2004). A recent study by the UK Government’s Office of Science and Innovation, which studied how upcoming intelligent infrastructure would evolve to support transportation over the next 50 years looked at a range of new technologies, systems and services that may appear over that period (UK DfT, 2006). One important class of technology that was recognized as having a important role in delivering future intelligence to the transport sector was wireless sensor networks and in precise the fusion of fixed and mobile networks to aid in delivering a safe, sustainable and robust
  9. 9. 9 future transportation system based on the improved collection of data, its processing and dissemination and the intelligent use of the data in a fully connected environment. The important innovations in wireless and digital electronics are beginning to support many applications in the areas of safety, environmental and emissions control, driving assistance, diagnostics and maintenance in the transport domain. In the last few years, the emergence of many new technologies that can potentially have major impacts on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) had been recorded (Tully, 2006). According to research only few prevailing map matching algorithms offer a meaningful validation technique. Kim et al. (2000) indicated the significant of using code-based DGPS to dictate accurate vehicle positions. However, the performance of DGPS is highly affected by signal multipath, amongst other factors, and its effectiveness varies depending on the surrounding environments. The typical precision of DGPS is on the order of 0.5m to 5m (95%) (US DoA, 2003). Subsequently, the vehicle positions obtained from DGPS may not be proper to derive the reference trajectory of the vehicle. Quddus et al (2004) used high accuracy GPS carrier phase observations in order to validate the performance of a map matching algorithm. However, it is not possible to attain GPS carrier phase observations in dense urban areas due to inherent problems related with GPS signal masking and multipath error. 1.3: Bus Priority Architecture: A London case study According to Grant-Muller, S. and Usher, M., (2014), the leading city in UK in growth and implementation of bus priority at traffic signals is London. Decentralised communications system with priority requests from the bus to the traffic signal controller via the roadside beacon is used. Again, this method was preferred because: i) the communication process was already developed from the Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) centre to buses and allowed bus priority requests to communicate similarly; ii) the London system uses ‘precise’ bus location for priority relatively close to the junction because of high bus journey time variability AVL beacons could then replace the transponder/bus detector system). . Figure 8 shows the AVL based bus priority architecture in London ` Figure 8. AVL based bus priority architecture in London
  10. 10. 10 …………………………………………………………………………………………… According to (Hounsell et al., 2000), the bus priority architecture works as when the system control centre communicates with the bus using Band III radio at every 30 seconds to get its current position, the system control centre then detect the priority level request (PLR) of the bus based on its lateness, the determination of lateness is carried out for every bus at the priority determination points (PCP) identified on the route. The priority level request (PLR) determined is then sent back to the bus at the subsequent polling. The bus then communicates its priority request to the traffic controller when detected at the approach of every signal controlled junction. The decision to implement the requested priority is taken at the local or central level depending on the type of priority (extension/recall) required. 2.0 Factors need to be considered for the deployment of proposed ITS solution in West Midlands According to European Commission’s White Paper on Transport (EC, 2011), new forms of mobility have to be proposed for overcoming reliability, environmental safety and affordability issues towards sustainable solutions for the transport of people and goods. These solutions will finally contribute to solving global climate challenges correlating to worldwide requirements and standards. At the same time, for the road traffic and safety solution, the Commission announced the ambitious goal to reduce the number of deaths on European roads by a half until 2020 (EC, 2011). Only in the year 2012, about 27.700 people died and 313.000 people were seriously injured on European roads. The European Commission white paper on transport had almost covered all the essential factors need to be considered for the deployment of the proposed new ITS solution. However, the current project focuses on enhancement of Policing/Enforcing Traffic Regulations System. The main factors that created the need for the development of the proposed ITS solution in West Midlands were enumerated below: 1. Saturation of the West Midlands road network 2. Improvement on driver and vehicle safety through effective regulation of traffic system. 3. Enhancement of the operation of businesses wihin the West Midlands. and 4. Protection of the environment. The four (4) driving forces that created the need for deployment of ITS is critically discussed below with its corresponding steps that the West Midlands (ITA) and potential partners need to take in order to enable the successful operation of the integrated system. 2.1 Saturation of the road network As bus priority is becoming gradually significant in cities which aid to maintain an effective public transport service against the threat of congestion. Where road space permits, priority can be delivered efficiently by not only providing isolated lanes/roadways for buses but in addition, priority can also be delivered efficiently at traffic signals. According to Priscilla, (2002b) various European cities indicated an increases of 5% – 16% in bus travels speeds and developments in punctuality of 5% - 20%. Though, published results of system performance and reliability are still relatively scarce. According to UK Department for Transport, (2009), buses are the most leading of public transport, signifying 64% of total passenger journeys on public transport in England, this Provisional figures can help the West Midlands (ITA) to consider buses as measure priority among the public means of transportation. However, bus passenger journeys in England decreased by 1.8% between 2008 - 2009 and 2009 - 2010 (UK Department for Transport 2010).
  11. 11. 11 Polk, (2000) study revealed that throughout the world, innovative system application is being integrated progressively into bus priority system. With the speedy growth of road traffic congestion in recent years, an extensive diversity of ITS has been established and adopted throughout the world (Polk 2000). ITS have been explored for several years in Europe, North America and Japan, with the view to improve the protection and effectiveness of road transport and environmental conservation, by applying new technologies to freeway, traffic and transit systems (Toral et al. 2009). If the general objective of ITS was summarized into a main objective then this would be enable West Midlands (ITA) to become ‘Smart’, to allow the authority to do the right thing in the right place at the right time (Lam 2001). ITS retain the capability to deliver an improved bus service by ensuring that bus operations are fast, consistent and safe; that buses run on time, their performance monitored and, in case they are required, adjust schedules more swiftly and accurately. The location of stations and stops should be convenient and passengers should be informed of the expected times of bus arrivals. All these objectives can be supported by ITS and bus operations, therefore, can be significantly enhanced. A wide range of applications for bus-based public transport has been developed in the UK. This direction can aid to improve the effectiveness of bus operations, creating an additional step towards providing an actual transport substitute to the private vehicles (Hounsell and Wall 2002). ITS comprises numerous vital systems, such as Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), Area Traffic Control (ATC), Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) and AVL (Lam 2001). A sequence of projects and field trials, conducted in both the United States and Europe which delivered good insight into the ITS applications over the last decade (McDonald M., 2006). According to Luke, (2006), in public transport, applications of the ‘O-Bahn’ system in Australia (Adelaide) and in Europe (Essen, Leeds, Ipswich and Edinburgh) and Busway Rapid Transit applications such as in Brisbane, Australia and in Luton, UK are a few examples of ITS implementations around the world. Recognising the significance of ITS, such as AVL systems, transport departments internationally are uninterruptedly implementing a diversity of applications to support public transport. According to D’Acierno et al., 2009 and D’Souza, C., 2010), amongst these applications, a recent addition is the implementation of a joint use of AVL technologies, the ‘iBus’ of London. The use of AVL systems deliver great potential in the field of public transport and may be helpful in addressing important urban transport issues such as the estimation of road traffic conditions using location AVL data. 2.2: Improvement on driver and vehicle safety The improvement on driver and vehicle safety through Policing/Enforcing Traffic Regulations System is one of the key factor to consider in achieving integrated transport system in West Midlands. Driving- and road safety are existing and growing problems with global dimensions. According to the global status report on road safety conducted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2013, 1.24 million traffic-connected mortalities occur yearly throughout the world, presently the foremost cause of death for people aged 15–29 years (WHO, 2013). As a consequence of the increased need for mobility in developing countries the unceasing growth of vehicle manufacturing is obvious. According to Mosoti, (2015), the development of the international vehicle fleet causes an infrastructure backlog, which in turn is accountable for increased traffic safety risks and accident occurrence. Driver support and safety awareness programmes have been an area of emphasis to minimise road safety events, and since the WHO launched “Decade of Action in Road Safety (2011–2020)” programme, a notable development in road safety has been recorded (Bezerra et al., 2015). In spite of the development of 15% in the
  12. 12. 12 annual number of registered vehicles from 2007 to 2013, the yearly mortalities remained stable in the region of 1.2 million over the same period (Trivedi et al., 2015). Though, a saturation in the number of mortalities is not good enough and a decrease should be witnessed instead. High priority is given to traffic safety enhancements by government agencies and major automobile manufacturers across the world to address this problem, and innovation in driver assistance is currently in demand. According to Vaiana et al., (2014), the statistical correlation between driver behaviour and crash connection is mainly connected to individual variability related with several parameters such as age, gender and geographic locations. For effective and successful operation of the new proposed integrated transport system, the West Midlands (ITA) must consider the parameters mentioned. Interestingly, Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) results revealed that violations of traffic regulation is dropped with age as opposed to errors and the prevalence of violation is higher in men than in woman (Dodou, 2010). According to (French et al., 1993), traffic accident involvement is more closely connected to human judgement and decision-making than the mere inability to control the vehicle, and therefore, the focus of driver behaviour and decision-making patterns is also a great parameter that the West Midlands (ITA) need to be seriously considered for effective and successful operation of the integrated transport system. Although results from the UK Department of Transport’s report for road casualties in Great Britain for 2011 shows that the decrease of 5% in road accident injuries and fatalities from the preceding year is attributed to driver awareness campaigns (Al-Sultan et al., 2013), strong indication opposing this claim is given in (Ker, et al., 2013) in which trial reviews indicated that no impact exists of driver education on the reduction in traffic crashes or injuries. Risky driving and to a great degree has been recognized as a main causal behavioural characteristic that effects road safety for the driver personally, as well as for other drivers travelling in close proximity to the aggressive driver. A study was carried out by the American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety in 2009 found that “as many as 56% of deadly crashes between 2003 and 2007 involve one or more unsafe driving behaviors typically associated with aggressive driving” (Johnson et al., 2011 & Zhao et al., 2013). 2.3: Enhancement of the operation of businesses Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is considered a tool that permits safe and effective operations in freight transportation and that improves visibility, responsiveness and performance in supply chains (Giannopoulos, 2004; Coronado Mondragon et al., 2012). According to Armingol et al., (2007); Manzie et al., (2007); and Lumsden & Stefansson, (2007), Numerous information and communication technologies are used to improve the performance of transportation networks. Terms such as “intelligent vehicle,” “intelligent highway,” “intelligent freight,” “intelligent transportation” and “smart transportation” have been introduced by the industry and academic research to identify the advanced information and communication technologies that are or will be used in the future for the management of logistics, transportation and materials handling operations. By using ITSs, logistics operations could be improved by improving the exchange of information and real-time status updates concerning different business operations in different modes of transportation (Schumacher et al., 2011). ITS has led to improvements in the efficiency and safety of railway transportation (Kumar and Kumari, 2012).
  13. 13. 13 Maritime transport has recently gained increased attention, especially in connection to the building and further development of ITSs (Pietrzykowski, 2011). According to Bekiaris and Nakanishi (2004), the complex aims and effects of ITS concerning effectiveness, safety and the environment make the evaluation of ITS a complex task. A review of the literature on this subject shows that it lacks a general overview of the way ITSs contribute to supporting transportation functions and improving performance dimensions in light of the types of information used or supported by such systems. ICT is considered a tool for improving supply chain performance (Sundarakani et al., 2012). Application of ICT can lead to developments in warehousing activities and customer service (Zeimpekis et al., 2010). Different types of economic benefits including reduced costs of logistics operations are achieved through application of ICT to ITS (Chan et al, 2012). One significant benefit of ICT is improved safety and effectiveness in freight transport operations resulting from developments in the exchange of information between the actors in supply chains (Giannopoulos, 2004; Vilko et al., 2012). Moreover, information and communication applications and services in the field of freight transportation can support the integration of intermodal transportation through supply chains. Application of ITS generates better opportunities for improving the performance of all modes of transport (Pietrzykowski, 2011). According to Crainic et al. (2009) ITS is referred to as “the latest technologies, infrastructure, and services as well as the operations, planning and control methods that are used for the transportation of passengers and freight.” Different fields of technology such as communications, computing hardware, positioning systems, telecommunications, vehicle technologies, electronics and sensors have become integrated and shaped the concept of ITS. This support leads to improvements in the performance of transportation operators. ITS is being used in different areas related to freight transportation, containing the following: fleet management and control; controlling the position, condition, placement and identification of freight and vehicles; and city logistics. Such systems can increase the fluidity of truck traffic, offer seamless border crossings and ensure adequate levels of control and reporting that lead, in turn, to higher levels of safety and greater efficiency in transportation systems (Kumar and Kumari, 2012; Coronado Mondragon et al., 2012). They also have the potential for creating value-adding services for businesses and consumers (Schumacher et al., 2011). 2.4: Protection of the environment According to Chapman, (2007) the reliance on motorised transport as an everyday function is a substantive contributor to global climate change. Without significant policy or technological advances, the likelihood of decoupling transport growth from emissions growth would look slim given that 95 per cent of transport energy is derived from fossil fuels International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). Table below shows the impact of various ITS schemes on carbon, fuel and emission release. Table 1: Indicative evidence on carbon, fuel and emissions impacts of a range of ITS schemes
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Source: Grant-Muller, S. and Usher, M., (2014) Source: Grant-Muller, S. and Usher, M., (2014) 3.0 Steps that West Midlands (ITA) and potential partners to take for successful operation of the integrated system In order to have an efficient and functional ITS system, it is absolutely necessary to have a well- executed ITS maintenance program. A failure to properly maintain an ITS system will result in poor operation, which affects the Department’s ability to safely and effectively manage their roadways. In order for the ITS maintenance program to be successful in West Midlands, it will be necessary to maintain flexibility and a good understanding of priorities for the maintenance concepts and requirements. The following strategies are strongly recommended. 3.1: Planning According to Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015), after an ITS system is installed and tested, the Department becomes responsible for the maintenance costs obligatory to
  16. 16. 16 keep the system operational so as the integrated transport system function successfully. It is important that the West Midlands (ITA) provide a suitable budget for preventive maintenance, response/emergency maintenance, and spare parts. Preventative maintenance costs can escalate over time as equipment wears out and eventually needs to be replaced. Emergency repair costs will increase if proper preventative maintenance is not provided. At times, a device may fail early in its service life. If this is the case, the device may still be covered under a warranty. This warranty may cover the repair costs. The Integrated Transport Authority (ITA) of ITS Manager must consider the present warranties when developing an ITS planning. Table 3 presents sample life expectancies for various ITS device components. This data can be used to assist West Midlands (ITA) in the development of an estimated ITS maintenance budget. These lifetimes are typical, and should represent the majority of installations; though, some installations may have significantly shorter (or longer) lifetimes due to a variety of factors, some of which may be outside of the West Midlands (ITA) control. Table 3: Sample Life Expectancies of ITS Device Components (FHWA) Source: Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015) Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015) also highlighted that as an ITS device reaches the end of its service life, it approaches a point of diminishing returns where maintenance costs begin to exceed the annualized replacement costs. Figure 5 shows a generic representation of preventative maintenance costs per year versus the cost of replacement, annualized over the expected device lifespan. This estimation will immensely assist the West Midlands (ITA) in planning the new integrated transport ITS solution to operate successfully.
  17. 17. 17 Source: Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015) 3.2 Scheduling As discussed earlier, the Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015) suggested that the preventative maintenance should be scheduled every 6 months (unless the manufacturer suggests more frequently), prior to and after the winter season of each year. However, response and emergency maintenance can occur at any time, so the West Midlands (ITA) should have adequate ITS maintenance personnel in place to respond to these situations at any time. 3.3: Training Even the West Midlands (ITA) has enough personal, Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015) indicated that, it is still helpful to have a capable and well trained ITS staff. This may be difficult, as there are no common training venues for ITS maintenance; however, vendor training is typically available and may be included in the installation contract. West Midlands (ITA) ITS staff should receive any available training in order to allow the West Midlands (ITA) to supplement the ITS maintenance contract per their capabilities; this may comprise assigning response/preventative maintenance activities to in-house staff when available. The West Midlands (ITA) ITS manager should ensure that the ITS staff be trained on new updates and equipment. 3.4: Documentation According to Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015), a record must be kept of all maintenance activities performed on ITS devices. This record must be logged. The record assists the West Midlands (ITA) to respond to any emergency appropriately. Figure5: Preventative Maintenance versus Annualized Maintenance Costs. Source:
  18. 18. 18 3.5: Coordination Coordination of maintenance and repair activities is important for any District with ITS devices within the West Midlands, and becomes more significant as the number of ITS devices increases. Maintenance activities must be coordinated among District ITS staff and the maintenance provider such that it is performed in a timely and cost-effective manner. According to Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015), ITS maintenance can be initiated in many ways, such as a call-in from agency staff or the public. Once reported, the ITS staff member who receives the notification will open a Maintenance Need Report and assign the response to either the contractor or Department staff. Once the responder has arrived on site and corrected the issue, the ITS Staff must verify correct operation (where possible). The responder must submit a completed Field Maintenance Report Form, which will be combined with the completed Maintenance Need Report (digitally) and submitted to the ITS Maintenance Repository. Figure 6 shows the maintenance process described above. Source: Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015) 3.6: Preventative Maintenance According to Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015), “preventative maintenance is the routine care and service for the purpose of maintaining equipment in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects”. It also includes the periodic repair and replacement of components as required to appropriately maintain the device. This comprises such activities as filter cleaning or changing, cleaning CCTV domes or DMS face plates, light bulb replacements, faulty surge arrestors, rodent removal, and sealing conduits. Preventive maintenance is to be accomplished a minimum of twice per year for each device (unless the manufacturer suggests more), prior to and especially after the winter season of each year; West Midlands (ITA) ITS manager may request extra preventive maintenance as required. In order to determine if an ITS device needs more frequent preventive maintenance visits, the West Midlands (ITA) ITS Manager should consider the age and history of the device, device type, location of device with respect to roadway, and other possible factors. Once a West Figure6:ITSMaintenanceFlow Chart
  19. 19. 19 Midlands (ITA) ITS Managers identifies those devices that need maintenance more than twice a year, they should include the essential maintenance times in a schedule attached to the contract. See figure 5 for maintenance and troubleshooting. Source: Bureau of Highway Safety and Traffic Engineering, (2015)
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