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STRUTS FRAMEWORKSubhin P V111subru@gmail.comwww.facebook.com/subhinvelayudhantwitter.com/111subruin.linkedin.com/in/Subhin P V+91-8129076036
Apache Struts• Struts Frame work is the implementation ofModel-View-Controller (MVC) design patternfor the JSP.• Struts is maintained as a part of ApacheJakarta project• Struts is open source.
What is Model-View-Controller (MVC)Architecture?• Model-View-Controller architecture is allabout dividing application components intothree different categories Model, View andthe Controller.• Components of the MVC architecture hasunique responsibility and each component isindependent of the other component.• Changes in one component will have no orless impact on other component.
Struts Architecture• Struts is an open source framework used fordeveloping J2EE web applications using ModelView Controller (MVC) design pattern.• It uses and extends the Java Servlet API toencourage developers to adopt an MVCarchitecture.
ComponentsStruts 2 Core components are Action handler, ResultHandler and Custom Tags.Action handlerAction handler interacts with other layers.Result HandlerResult handler actually dispatches the response to view.Custom TagsCustom Tags are used render the dynamic content.
Components• InterceptorsThe Interceptors are used to specify the"request-processing lifecycle" for an action.Interceptors are configured to apply thecommon functionalities like workflow,validation etc.. to the request. Interceptorscode is executed before and after an Action isinvoked
How Struts Works• In struts JavaServerPages (JSP) are used todesign the dynamic web pages.• In struts, servlets helps to route request whichhas been made by the web browsers to theappropriate ServerPage.• The use of servlet as a router helps to makethe web applications easier to design, create,and maintain.
Process flowUser Sends request.FilterDispatcher determines the appropriateaction.Interceptors are applied.Execution of Action.Output rendering.Return of Request(reverse order).Display the result to user.
Things to download before you startstruts• Requirements (Downloads)– JDK ver. 1.5 and above.– Tomcat 5X and above(Tomcat ver.6 is better)– Eclipse ver. 3 and above.– Apache struts2 jar files needed• common-logging-1.0.4.jar• freemarker-2.3.8.jar• ognl-2.6.11.jar• struts2-core-2.0.12.jar• xwork-2.0.6.jar
Example program using strutsWe suppose to create a login application using struts.
Getting started• Open eclipse and go to fileNewDynamicproject in the new project wizard screen.• You will have a screen consisting of somewizards as shown in the next slide.• After giving the project name click Finish.
Class and methods• Create a class called LoginAction incom.test.struts2package.• Note that, above action class contains two fields, username andpassword which will hold the values from form and also contains anexecute() method that will authenticate the user. In this simpleexample, we are checking if username is admin and password isadmin123.• Also note that unlike Action class in Struts1, Struts2 action class is asimple POJO class with required attributes and method.• The execute() method returns a String value which will determinethe result page. Also, in Struts2 the name of the method is notfixed. In this example we have define method execute(). You maywant to define a method authenticate() instead.
Create resource file• Resource bundle is a java entity that helps inputting the static content away from thesource file.• Here we should define an application file andshould be named asApplicationResources.properties files• To create it the method is on the next slide
Resource folder• Click that source folder option and you will behaving a following screen.• And set the source folder as Resources folder.• In that folder create a file calledApplicationResources.properties .
Jsp(3)• Above programs are made in the folderStruts2_HelloworldWebContentWEB-INFLogin.jsp.• Struts2_HelloworldWebContentWEB-INFWelcome.jsp.
Create a struts file• Struts2_HelloWorldJavaResourcesresourcescreate file struts.xml• Copy the following content into struts.xml
Struts.xmlCopy the above text into struts.xml.
Important note• Our LoginAction.java class is having a methodcalled execute(). If the name of the method isdifferent, e.g. authenticate(). Then we shouldspecify the name of the method in the actiontag.
Action• You can see <s: submit method command inthe program Login.jsp
Running the application• Now select Login.jsp then select the run onserver command.• After selecting the command, you will behaving a server lists out of that, select apache-tomcat server version.6. then run theprogram.• You will be having the following screen onyour browser.
Screens(1)Enter user_name as admin and password as admin123
Screen(2)If you login successfully, you will get a screen as output.
Screen(3)If you login into the application as a wrong user, the appearing screen will belike this. You are instructed to renter the user and password again
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