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IP• Short for Internet Protocol.• IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme.• Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source.• The current version of IP is IPv4. A new version, called IPv6 or IPng, is under development.
IP address• IP address is short for Internet Protocol (IP) address.• An IP address is an identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network.• Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination.
OSI ModelApplicationPresentationSessionTransportNetworkData LinkPhysical
The Network LayerNavigating dataSourceDestination
IP Addresses 32 bits version header Type of Service/TOS Total Length (in bytes) (4 bits) length (8 bits) (16 bits) flags Identification (16 bits) Fragment Offset (13 bits) (3 bits) TTL Time-to-Live Protocol Header Checksum (16 bits) (8 bits) (8 bits) Source IP address (32 bits) Destination IP address (32 bits)Ethernet Header IP Header TCP Header Application data Ethernet Trailer Ethernet frame
IP Addresses 32 bits 0x4 0x5 0x00 4410 9d08 0102 00000000000002 12810 0x06 8bff 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11Ethernet Header IP Header TCP Header Application data Ethernet Trailer Ethernet frame
• An IP address is a unique global address for a network interface• The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods.• Each number can be zero to 255.• Example, 18.104.22.168 could be an IP address.
IP address Classes5 Classes of IP address A B C D and EClass A reserved for governmentsClass B reserved for medium companiesClass C reserved for small companiesClass D are reserved for multicastingClass E are reserved for future use
IP structure Class A begins 1 to 126 Class B begins 128 to 191 Class C begins 192 to 223
How does your computer get its IP address?• An IP address can be either dynamic or static.• A static address is one that you configure yourself by editing your computers network settings.• Dynamic addresses are the most common. Theyre assigned by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), a service running on the network.• DHCP typically runs on network hardware such as routers or dedicated DHCP servers.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)• It is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP) and the first version of the protocol to be widely deployed.• Together with IPv6, it is at the core of standards-based internetworking methods of the Internet.• As of 2012 IPv4 is still the most widely deployed Internet Layer protocol
• IPv4 is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched Link Layer networks (e.g., Ethernet).• It operates on a best effort delivery model, in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery.• These aspects, including data integrity, are addressed by an upper layer transport protocol, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).• IPv4 uses 32-bit (four-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4294967296 (232) addresses.• Addresses were assigned to users, and the number of unassigned addresses decreased.• IPv4 address exhaustion occurred on February 3, 2011.
IPV6• All addresses are 128 bits• Write as sequence of eight sets of four hex digits (16 bits each) separated by colons – Leading zeros in group may be omitted – Contiguous all-zero groups may be replaced by “::” – Only one such group can be replaced
• 3ffe:3700:0200:00ff:0000:0000:0 000:0001• can be written• 3ffe:3700:200:ff:0:0:0:1• Or• 3ffe:3700:200:ff::1
• IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, allowing for 2128, or approximately 3.4×1038 addresses —• more than 7.9×1028 times as many as IPv4• The deployment of IPv6 is accelerating, with a symbolic World IPv6 Launch having taken place on 6 June 2012
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