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Functions using stack and heap

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Functions using stack and heap

2. 2. Disclaimer: This presentation is prepared by trainees of baabtra as a part of mentoring program. This is not official document of baabtra –Mentoring Partner Baabtra-Mentoring Partner is the mentoring division of baabte System Technologies Pvt . Ltd
3. 3. Stack • Stack is a linear data structure in which a data item is inserted and deleted at one record. • A stack is called LIFO(Last In First Out) or FILO(First In Last Out) structure. • The first item added to a stack is the last item removed from a stack. • Compiler store the local variable inside the stack.
4. 4. Push and Pop • Writing a value to the stack is called push. • Deleting a value from stack is called pop.
5. 5. #include <stdio.h> int hcf(int n1, int n2); int main() { int n1, n2; n1=24; n2=16; printf("H.C.F of %d and %d = %d", n1, n2, hcf(n1,n2)); return 0; } int hcf(int n1, int n2) { i f(n2!=0) return hcf(n2, n1%n2); else return n1; }
6. 6. 1.main() n1=24 n2=16 2.hcf(24,16) 3.hcf(16,24%16)=hcf(16,8) 4.hcf(8,16%8)=hcf(8,0)n1=24 n2=16 hcf(24,16) hcf(16,8) hcf(8,0) STACK Representation of stack operation
7. 7. Heap • The heap is an area of memory reserved for dynamic memory allocation. • Dynamic allocation is a technique in which a program can acquire storage space in main memory. • In this method , the space for the program is allocated from the free space during execution of the program. • This free space is called Heap
8. 8. Memory allocation functions 1. malloc() This function is used to allocate memory space in bytes to the variable of different data types. Example: ptr = (int*)malloc(20); Ptr=(data type*)malloc(given size);
9. 9. #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { int k,*p,j=0,sum=0; printf("How many numbers:"); scanf("%d",&k); p=(int*)malloc(k*sizeof(int)); printf("n enter the numbers"); while(j!=k) { scanf("%d", p+j); j++; } j=0; printf("sum: "); while(j!=k) { sum=sum+*(p+j); j++; } printf("%d",sum); } How many numbers:3 enter the numbers: 1 2 3 Sum: 6
10. 10. 2. calloc() • This function is useful for allocating multiple blocks of memory . It is declared with two arguments. • It allocate 4 blocks of memory and each block contain 2 bytes • This function is usually used for allocating memory for array and structure Ptr =(int*)calloc(4,2);
11. 11. #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { int k,*p,j=0,sum=0; printf("How many numbers:"); scanf("%d",&k); p=(int*)calloc(k,2); printf("nenter the numbers"); while(j!=k) { scanf("%d",p+j); j++; } j=0; printf("sum: "); while(j!=k) { sum=sum+*(p+j); j++; } printf("%d",sum); } How many numbers:3 enter the numbers: 1 2 3 Sum: 6
12. 12. 3.free() • This function is used to release the memory allocated by memory allocating functions. • ptr is the pointer and free() releases the memory occupied by the pointer variable. free(ptr);
13. 13. 4.realloc() • This function reallocate the main memory. • This are made to shrink or enlarge the previously allocated memory. • It returns the address of the reallocated block. • If the block cannot be reallocated returns NULL
14. 14. #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.h> main() { char *str; str=(char*)malloc(6); str=("india"); printf("str=%s",str); str=(char*)realloc(str,10); str=("hindustan"); printf("nnew str=%s",str); free(str); } str=india new str=hindustan
15. 15. Stack vs Heap stack • local variables only. • limit on stack size. • variables cannot be resized. • space is managed efficiently by CPU, memory will not become fragmented . heap • variables can be accessed globally . • no limit on memory size. • variables can be resized using realloc() . • no guarantee on efficient use of space.
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