Present Perfect

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Present Perfect

  1. 1. Present Perfect
  2. 2. Present Perfect Simple <ul><li>have / has + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>I have seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>She has seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>They have n’t seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>He has n’t seen the film before. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Recent events <ul><li>Present Perfect Simple is used to describe recent events without a definite time . The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasise recentness ( just, recently, lately ). </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve left my shopping bag behind. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve just broken my watch. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>We can also describe events that have not happened. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t found her phone number yet . </li></ul><ul><li>The event may be connected with the present, because the result of the event is present . No definite time is given for the event. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ ve broken my arm, as you can see. </li></ul><ul><li>I think I’ ve eaten something bad. I don’t feel well. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Indefinite events <ul><li>Present Perfect Simple – No definite time is given for the event. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve been to France three times. </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with Past Simple – Events described using the Past Simple have definite time (yesterday, last week ...) </li></ul><ul><li>I went to France last year . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The tense used can depend on the time expression. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first time I have eaten Japanese food. </li></ul><ul><li>If we think of a definite place for an event, this may suggest a definite time . </li></ul><ul><li>I left my shopping bag on the train . </li></ul>
  7. 7. The difference between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple <ul><li>The Present Perfect is used when the present result is important. </li></ul><ul><li>The Past Simple is used for something that happened in the past and that has no direct link to the present . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>We have finished the house. Now we need a vacation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We finished the house and left for a vacation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have met Ray a few times but I don’t like him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I met Ray a few times but I didn’t like him. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Present Perfect cannot be used for something that happened at a specific time in the past. It cannot be used with words and phrases of past time which say (or ask) when something happened , e.g. yesterday, last week / month / year, …ago, at five o’clock, on Sunday, When …? … </li></ul><ul><li>These words refer to events that happened and were completed in the past. Therefore we use them with the Past Simple . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week . </li></ul><ul><li>Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students . </li></ul><ul><li>My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year . </li></ul><ul><li>Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago . </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him? </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Some words or phrases of time, e.g. today, this morning / week / month / year , can be used with either the Present Perfect or the Past Simple . If the period is not finished at the time of speaking / writing, the Present Perfect is used. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t seen Rachel this morning . Have you? – No, she hasn’t come yet . (It’s still morning.) </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t see Rachel this morning . Did you? – No, she didn’t come in at all. (It’s afternoon or evening.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Present Perfect can be used only for events or actions that are connected with the present . With events, people or actions that are known to be connected with the past (e.g. historical events, people who are dead), the Past Simple is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen King has written many books. </li></ul><ul><li>Agatha Christie wrote detective stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Jackson has appeared all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>How many songs did the Beatles write ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Circle the correct tense <ul><li>I looked up at the sky and saw / have seen a very bright light. </li></ul><ul><li>I lost / have lost the keys to my car. I don’t know what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>I felt /have felt much better when I got to the mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>It rained / has rained for two days before we could leave the hotel for the first time. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Answers <ul><li>I looked up at the sky and saw a very bright light. </li></ul><ul><li>I have lost the keys to my car. I don’t know what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>I felt much better when I got to the mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>It rained for two days before we could leave the hotel for the first time. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>I told / have told you the same thing over and over again. Why don’t you listen? I’ll tell you again, but please pay attention this time. </li></ul><ul><li>It became /has become very hot in here suddenly. Is there something wrong with the air-conditioning? </li></ul><ul><li>Haven’t you finished your homework yet? I finished / have finished mine hours ago. </li></ul><ul><li>I waited /have waited for hours but nobody came. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Answers <ul><li>I have told you the same thing over and over again. Why don’t you listen? I’ll tell you again, but please pay attention this time. </li></ul><ul><li>It has become very hot in here suddenly. Is there something wrong with the air-conditioning? </li></ul><ul><li>Haven’t you finished your homework yet? I finished mine hours ago. </li></ul><ul><li>I waited for hours but nobody came. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>I met / have met many interesting people since I came here last May. </li></ul><ul><li>You smoked / have smoked ten cigarettes so far today. Don’t you think you should stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Last week I invited / have invited a few friends over for dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>After less than 10 minutes they realised / have realised that they were lost. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Answers <ul><li>I have met many interesting people since I came here last May. </li></ul><ul><li>You have smoked ten cigarettes so far today. Don’t you think you should stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Last week I invited a few friends over for dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>After less than 10 minutes they realised that they were lost. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Completed – Use of the Present Perfect Simple can show that an action is complete. Given the number of actions suggests completion. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ ve written ten pages of my homework assignment! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Note the difference <ul><li>He has been to Italy.  Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>He has been in Italy for two weeks.  He is still in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Where’s Peter? – He has gone to Italy.  He is in Italy or on his way to Italy. </li></ul>

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